Anthony Charles Lynton Blair is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007. He was Leader of the Opposition from 1994 to 1997; as of 2017, Blair is the last British Labour Party leader to have won a general election. From 1983 to 2007, Blair was the Member of Parliament for Sedgefield, he was elected Labour Party leader in July 1994, following the sudden death of his predecessor, John Smith. Under Blair's leadership, the party used the phrase "New Labour", to distance it from previous Labour policies and the traditional conception of socialism. Blair declared support for a new conception that he referred to as "social-ism", involving politics that recognised individuals as interdependent, advocated social justice, the equal worth of each citizen, equal opportunity referred to as the Third Way. Critics of Blair denounced him for bringing the Labour Party towards the perceived centre ground of British politics, abandoning'genuine' socialism and being too amenable to capitalism.
Supporters, including the party's public opinion pollster Philip Gould, stated that the Labour Party had to demonstrate that it had made a decisive break from its left-wing past, in order to win an election again. In May 1997, the Labour Party won a landslide the largest in its history. Blair, at 43 years of age, became the youngest Prime Minister since 1812. In September 1997, Blair attained early personal popularity, receiving a 93% public approval rating, after his public response to the death of Diana, Princess of Wales; the Labour Party went on to win two more general elections under his leadership: in 2001, in which it won another landslide victory, in 2005, with a reduced majority. During his first term as Prime Minister, his government oversaw a large increase in public spending and introduced the National Minimum Wage Act, Human Rights Act, Freedom of Information Act, his government held referendums in which the Scottish and Welsh electorates voted in favour of devolved administration.
In Northern Ireland, Blair was involved in negotiating the Good Friday Agreement. Blair supported the foreign policy of the George W. Bush administration, ensured that the British Armed Forces participated in the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan and, more controversially, the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Blair has faced criticism for his role in the invasion of Iraq, including calls for having him tried for war crimes and waging a war of aggression. Blair was succeeded as Leader of the Labour Party and as Prime Minister by Gordon Brown in June 2007. On the day that Blair resigned as Prime Minister, he was appointed the official Special Envoy of the Quartet on the Middle East, an office which he held until May 2015, he runs the Tony Blair Institute for Global Change. Anthony Charles Lynton Blair was born at Queen Mary Maternity Home in Edinburgh, Scotland, on 6 May 1953, he was the second son of Hazel Blair. Leo Blair was the illegitimate son of two entertainers and was adopted as a baby by Glasgow shipyard worker James Blair and his wife, Mary.
Hazel Corscadden was the daughter of George Corscadden, a butcher and Orangeman who moved to Glasgow in 1916. In 1923, he returned to County Donegal. In Ballyshannon, Corscadden's wife, Sarah Margaret, gave birth above the family's grocery shop to Blair's mother, Hazel. Blair has an older brother, Sir William Blair, a High Court judge, a younger sister, Sarah. Blair's first home was with his family at Paisley Terrace in the Willowbrae area of Edinburgh. During this period, his father worked as a junior tax inspector whilst studying for a law degree from the University of Edinburgh. Blair's first relocation was. At the end of 1954, Blair's parents and their two sons moved from Paisley Terrace to Adelaide, South Australia, his father lectured in law at the University of Adelaide. It was when in Australia; the Blairs lived in the suburb of Dulwich close to the university. The family returned to the United Kingdom in the summer of 1958, they lived for a time with Hazel's mother and stepfather at their home in Stepps on the outskirts of north-east Glasgow.
Blair's father accepted a job as a lecturer at Durham University, thus moved the family to Durham, England. Aged five, this marked the beginning of a long association. With his parents basing their family in Durham, Blair attended Chorister School from 1961 to 1966. Aged thirteen, he was sent to spend his school term time boarding at Fettes College in Edinburgh from 1966 to 1971. Blair is reported to have hated his time at Fettes, his teachers were unimpressed with him. Blair modelled himself on Mick Jagger, lead singer of The Rolling Stones. During his time there he met Charlie Falconer, whom he appointed Lord Chancellor. Leaving Fettes College at the age of eighteen, Blair next spent a year in London attempting to find fame as a rock music promoter. In 1972, at the age of nineteen, he enrolled for university at St John's College, reading Jurisprudence for three years; as a student, he played guitar and sang in a rock band called Ugly Rumours, performed some stand-up comedy, including parodying James T.
Kirk as a character na
Oxford is a university city in south central England and the county town of Oxfordshire. With a population of 155,000, it is the 52nd largest city in the United Kingdom, with one of the fastest growing populations in the UK, it remains the most ethnically diverse area in Oxfordshire county; the city is 51 miles from London, 61 miles from Bristol, 59 miles from Southampton, 57 miles from Birmingham and 24 miles from Reading. The city is known worldwide as the home of the University of Oxford, the oldest university in the English-speaking world. Buildings in Oxford demonstrate notable examples of every English architectural period since the late Saxon period. Oxford is known as a term coined by poet Matthew Arnold. Oxford has a broad economic base, its industries include motor manufacturing, publishing and a large number of information technology and science-based businesses, some being academic offshoots. Oxford was first settled in Anglo-Saxon times and was known as "Oxenaforda", meaning "ford of the oxen".
It began with the establishment of a river crossing for oxen around AD 900. In the 10th century, Oxford became an important military frontier town between the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex and was on several occasions raided by Danes. In 1002, many Danes were killed in Oxford during the England-wide St. Brice's Day massacre, a killing of Danes ordered by King Æthelred the Unready; the skeletons of more than 30 suspected victims were unearthed in 2008 during the course of building work at St John's College. The ‘massacre’ was a contributing factor to King Sweyn I of Denmark’s invasion of England in 1003 and the sacking of Oxford by the Danes in 1004. Oxford was damaged during the Norman Invasion of 1066. Following the conquest, the town was assigned to a governor, Robert D'Oyly, who ordered the construction of Oxford Castle to confirm Norman authority over the area; the castle has never been used for military purposes and its remains survive to this day. D'Oyly set up a monastic community in the castle consisting of a chapel and living quarters for monks.
The community never grew large but it earned its place in history as one of Britain's oldest places of formal education. It was there that in 1139 Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote his History of the Kings of Britain, a compilation of Arthurian legends. Additionally, there is evidence of Jews living in the city as early as 1141, during the 12th century the Jewish community is estimated to have numbered about 80–100; the city was besieged during The Anarchy in 1142. In 1191, a city charter stated in Latin, "Be it known to all those present and future that we, the citizens of Oxford of the Commune of the City and of the Merchant Guild have given, by this, our present charter, confirm the donation of the island of Midney with all those things pertaining to it, to the Church of St. Mary at Oseney and to the canons serving God in that place. Since, every year, at Michaelmas the said canons render half a mark of silver for their tenure at the time when we have ordered it as witnesses the legal deed of our ancestors which they made concerning the gift of this same island.
We have made this concession and confirmation in the Common council of the City and we have confirmed it with our common seal. These are those who have made this confirmation. Oxford's prestige was enhanced by its charter granted by King Henry II, granting its citizens the same privileges and exemptions as those enjoyed by the capital of the kingdom. Oxford's status as a liberty obtained from this period until the 19th century. A grandson of King John established Rewley Abbey for the Cistercian Order. Parliaments were held in the city during the 13th century; the Provisions of Oxford were instigated by a group of barons led by Simon de Montfort. Richard I of England and John, King of England the sons of Henry II of England, were both born at Beaumont Palace in Oxford, on 8 September 1157 and 24 December 1166 respectively. A plaque in Beaumont Street commemorates these events; the University of Oxford is first mentioned in 12th-century records. Of the hundreds of Aularian houses that sprang up across the city, only St Edmund Hall remains.
What put an end to the halls was the emergence of colleges. Oxford's earliest colleges were University College and Merton; these colleges were established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Greek philosophers. These writings challenged European ideology, inspiring scientific discoveries and advancements in the arts, as society began to see itself in a new way; these colleges at Oxf
The City of Durham was, from 1974 to 2009, a non-metropolitan district of County Durham in North East England, with the status of borough and city. The district was formed on 1 April 1974 by the merger of the existing City of Durham and Framwelgate with Brandon and Byshottles Urban District and Durham Rural District; the district was abolished as part of the 2009 structural changes to local government in England. The Council was made up of 50 councillors elected in all-out elections every four years; the last political composition was Liberal Democrat 27, Labour 15, Independent 8. The 2003 elections saw the Liberal Democrats gain overall political control of the council from Labour, benefiting from boundary changes and substantial gains in Durham's eastern suburbs. Labour had held overall control of the City Council continually since the early 1980s. Durham City Council was abolished when the district of Durham was abolished in 2009. In 2018 a new parish council was formed known as the City of Durham Parish Council, to represent the core urban area of Durham.
Mayors of the City of Durham are styled "The Right Worshipful, The Mayor of Durham". The Mayoralty is taken as a continuation of the mayoralty of Framwelgate; the Mayor of Durham is entitled to an armed ceremonial bodyguard and claims to be equal fifth in civic precedence behind the Lord Mayors of London, York and Belfast. Since the merger of the City Council into the Durham County Council unitary authority in 2009, mayoral appointments have been made by the Charter Trustees of the City of Durham. 1974/75 John J. Ramshaw, B. E. M. 1975/76 Clifford Ellison, B. E. M. 1976/77 James Mackintosh 1977/78 Allan Thompson, J. P. 1978/79 Joseph Edward Wright, B. E. M. J. P. 1979/80 James Barr Lattimer, J. P. 1980/81 Joseph Sylvester Anderson 1981/82 William Taylor 1982/83 Walter Stobbs 1983/84 Derek Hanson 1984/85 Ebenezer Shuker 1985/86 Alan Crooks, J. P. 1986/87 Robert Clewes 1987/88 Ivy Elaine Humphries 1988/89 Mildred Brown 1989/90 James Alfred Fearon 1990/91 William Henry Hartwell 1991/92 David Bell 1992/93 Michael Rochford 1993/94 Maurice Crathorne, M.
B. E. 1994/95 William Dermot Cavanagh, M. A. 1995/96 Stephen Terence McDonnell, D. N. 1996/97 Joseph Sylvester Anderson 1997/98 Neil Griffin, BEd, M. A. 1998/99 Derek Young 1999/00 Margaret Adair 2000/01 George Wharton 2001/02 John George Cowper 2002/03 Eileen Rochford 2003/04 Raymond Gibbon 2004/05 Mary Ruth Hawgood 2005/06 John George Taylor Lightley 2006/07 William Jeffrey Lodge 2007/08 Robert Wynn 2008/09 Grenville Holland Other civic appointments in the City of Durham at its merger with Durham County Council included: Deputy Mayor – Councillor Robert Wynn. Town Clerk – the Council's chief executive. Recorder – the Council's Director of Legal Services. Chaplain – the Dean of Durham Cathedral. Judicial Recorder – His Honour Judge Richard Lowden Billet Master – to be held by a senior Durham City police officer Pant Master – the Council's Director of Environmental Services Posts within the Mayoral Bodyguard Honorary Aldermen The central area of the City of Durham was not parished at the time the district existed, however a civil parish called City of Durham was formed in 2018.
Those parts of the district part of Durham Rural District or Brandon and Byshottles Urban District are all parished. The current Brandon and Byshottles Parish Council is co-terminous with the pre-1974 UDC and has inherited some of its responsibilities. Civil Parishes in the former City of Durham district were: Bearpark Belmont Brancepeth Brandon and Byshottles Cassop-cum-Quarrington Coxhoe Croxdale and Hett Framwellgate Moor Kelloe Pittington Shadforth Sherburn Shincliffe West Rainton Witton Gilbert The district was abolished as part of the 2009 structural changes to local government in England although Durham will retain its city charter through the appointment of charter trustees. All functions of principal authority local government are now administered by a unitary Durham County Council, including the appointment of the Mayor of Durham. Proposals to create a Durham Town Council, covering the city centre and Newton Hall, were put forward in 2008. While supported by the Liberal Democrat controlled City Council, the Labour controlled County Council opposed it.
Following a local consultation in 2017 a new council known as the City of Durham Parish Council came into being in 2018, with a Liberal Democrat majority. Local Government Committee for England Final Recommendations on electoral arrangements in Durham City Local History Publications from County Durham Books
Durham is a historic city and the county town of County Durham in North East England. The city lies on the River Wear, to the west of Sunderland, south of Newcastle upon Tyne and to the north of Darlington. Founded over the final resting place of St Cuthbert, its Norman cathedral became a centre of pilgrimage in medieval England; the cathedral and adjacent 11th-century castle were designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986. The castle has been the home of Durham University since 1832. HM Prison Durham is located close to the city centre. City of Durham is the name of the civil parish; the name "Durham" comes from the Celtic element "dun", signifying a hill fort, the Old Norse "holme", which translates to island. The Lord Bishop of Durham takes a Latin variation of the city's name in his official signature, signed "N. Dunelm"; some attribute the city's name to the legend of the Dun Cow and the milkmaid who in legend guided the monks of Lindisfarne carrying the body of Saint Cuthbert to the site of the present city in 995 AD.
Dun Cow Lane is said to be one of the first streets in Durham, being directly to the east of Durham Cathedral and taking its name from a depiction of the city's founding etched in masonry on the south side of the cathedral. The city has been known by a number of names throughout history; the original Nordic Dun Holm was known in Latin as Dunelm. The modern form Durham came into use in the city's history; the north eastern historian Robert Surtees chronicled the name changes in his History and Antiquities of the County Palatine of Durham but states that it is an "impossibility" to tell when the city's modern name came into being. Archeological evidence suggests a history of settlement in the area since 2000 BC; the present city can be traced back to AD 995, when a group of monks from Lindisfarne chose the strategic high peninsula as a place to settle with the body of Saint Cuthbert, that had lain in Chester-le-Street, founding a church there. Local legend states that the city was founded in A.
D. 995 by divine intervention. The 12th century chronicler Symeon of Durham recounts that after wandering in the north, Saint Cuthbert's bier miraculously came to a halt at the hill of Warden Law and, despite the effort of the congregation, would not move. Aldhun, Bishop of Chester-le-Street and leader of the order, decreed a holy fast of three days, accompanied by prayers to the saint. During the fast, Saint Cuthbert appeared to a certain monk named Eadmer, with instructions that the coffin should be taken to Dun Holm. After Eadmer's revelation, Aldhun found that he was able to move the bier, but did not know where Dun Holm was; the legend of the Dun Cow, first documented in The Rites of Durham, an anonymous account about the Durham Cathedral, published in 1593, builds on Symeon's account. According to this legend, by chance that day, the monks came across a milkmaid at Mount Joy, she stated. The monks, followed her, they settled at a wooded "hill-island" – a high wooded rock surrounded on three sides by the River Wear.
There they erected a shelter for the relics, on the spot where the Durham Cathedral would stand. Symeon states that a modest wooden building erected there shortly was the first building in the city. Bishop Aldhun subsequently had a stone church built, dedicated in September 998, it no longer remains. The legend is interpreted by a Victorian relief stone carving on the south face of the cathedral and, more by the bronze sculpture'Durham Cow', which reclines by the River Wear in view of the cathedral. During the medieval period the city gained spiritual prominence as the final resting place of Saint Cuthbert and Saint Bede the Venerable; the shrine of Saint Cuthbert, situated behind the High Altar of Durham Cathedral, was the most important religious site in England until the martyrdom of St Thomas Becket at Canterbury in 1170. Saint Cuthbert became famous for two reasons. Firstly, the miraculous healing powers he had displayed in life continued after his death, with many stories of those visiting the saint's shrine being cured of all manner of diseases.
This led to him being known as the "wonder worker of England". Secondly, after the first translation of his relics in 698 AD, his body was found to be incorruptible. Apart from a brief translation back to Holy Island during the Norman Invasion the saint's relics have remained enshrined to the present day. Saint Bede's bones are entombed in the cathedral, these drew medieval pilgrims to the city. Durham's geographical position has always given it an important place in the defence of England against the Scots; the city played an important part in the defence of the north, Durham Castle is the only Norman castle keep never to have suffered a breach. The Battle of Neville's Cross, which took place near the city on 17 October 1346 between the English and Scots, is the most famous battle of the age; the city suffered from plague outbreaks in 1544, 1589 and 1598. Owing to the divine providence evidenced in the city's legendary founding, the Bishop of Durham has always enjoyed the title "Bishop by Divine Providence" as opposed to other bishops, who are "Bishop by Divine Permission".
However, as the north-east of England lay so far from Westminster, the bishops of Durham enjoyed extraordinary powers such as the ability to hold their own parliament, raise their own armies, appoint their own sheriffs and Justices, administer their own laws, levy taxes and customs duties, create fairs and markets, issue charters, salvage shipwrecks
Cambridge (UK Parliament constituency)
Cambridge is a parliamentary constituency created in 1295 represented in the House of Commons of the U. K. Parliament, it has been represented since May 2015 by a member of the Labour Party. Cambridge returned two Members to Parliament from 1295 until 1885; these were townsmen who were involved in local government until many acquired government positions in the 18th century. Under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 representation was reduced to one member with effect from the 1885 general election. From 1910 to 1992, Cambridge was Conservative-won, save for 1945-1950 and 1966-1968 when it was Labour-won. Related extra representation 1603–1950Historically the city of Cambridge retained some electors and was the source of MPs to a second constituency, for Cambridge University, covering all successful alumni in its electorate; the university seat was created in 1603 as part of the scheme of University constituencies. Its MPs included Isaac Newton, William Pitt the Younger, Lord Palmerston, George Stokes, Richard Jebb, Archibald Hill before abolition in 1950.
In 1992 Cambridge was won by Labour's Anne Campbell. In 2005 it was taken by David Howarth of the Liberal Democrats, the first time the party including its two forerunner parties had taken the seat since the 1906 Liberal-progressive landslide. In 2015 Huppert was unseated by the Labour candidate Daniel Zeichner who took the seat with a thin majority of 599 votes; the 2015 result gave the seat the 7th-smallest majority of Labour's 232 seats by percentage of majority. Most recent results of other partiesIn 2015 three other parties candidates kept their deposits by winning more than 5% of the vote. In order of public preference these candidates stood for the Conservatives, Green Party and UKIP respectively. Turnout since 1918Turnout at general elections has ranged between 86.48% in 1950 to 60.6% in 2001. 1868-1918: The Municipal Borough of Cambridge, plus the village of Chesterton.1918-1983: The Municipal Borough of Cambridge. Under the Representation of the People Act 1918, the boundaries were expanded to align with those of the Municipal Borough, incorporating further parts of the former Urban District of Chesterton not included in the Parliamentary Borough to the north, the parish of Cambridge Without to the south.
The boundaries were further expanded for the 1950 General Election, under the Representation of the People Act 1948. 1983-2010: The City of Cambridge wards of Abbey, Castle, Cherry Hinton, East Chesterton, King's Hedges, Newnham, Petersfield and West Chesterton.2010-present: The City of Cambridge wards of Abbey, Castle, Cherry Hinton, East Chesterton, King’s Hedges, Newnham, Romsey and West Chesterton. The constituency covers the city of Cambridge, including areas such as Chesterton and Cherry Hinton, although one ward in the south of the city is in South Cambridgeshire constituency. From 1983 to 1997, both wards were in the now-abolished seat of South West Cambridgeshire, from 1997 to 2010 in South Cambridgeshire; the Boundary Commission for England submitted their final proposals in respect of the Sixth Periodic Review of Westminster Constituencies in September 2018. If these proposals are approved by Parliament they will reduce the total number of MPs from 650 to 600 and come into effect at the next UK general election, due to take place in May 2022 under the terms of the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011.
The Commission has recommended that the Queen Edith's ward be transferred back from South Cambridgeshire, resulting in the boundaries of the constituency being co-terminous with those of the City of Cambridge. Constituency created Election of William Forsyth declared void on petition, due to his holding an office of profit under the Crown. Resignation of Andrew Steuart. Previous election declared due to bribery and treating. By-election triggered by the appointment of Fitzroy Kelly as Solicitor-General of England and Wales By-election triggered by the resignation of Sir Alexander Cray Grant, Bt. by accepting the office of Steward of the Manor of Poynings Previous by-election declared void on petition due to bribery and treating by Manners-Sutton's agents. By-election triggered by the appointment of Thomas Spring Rice as Secretary of State for War and the Colonies. By-election triggered by the appointment of Thomas Spring Rice as Chancellor of the Exchequer. By-election triggered by the elevation to the peerage of Thomas Spring Rice as Lord Monteagle of Brandon.
By-election triggered by the death of Charles Madryl Cheere. By-election triggered by the appointment of the Marquess of Graham as Commander of the Board of Control. By-election triggered by the appointment of Frederick William Trench as Storekeeper of Ordnance. By-election triggered by the resignation of the Hon. Edward Finch. By-election triggered by the appointment of Robert Manners as First Equerry and Clerk Marshal of the Mews. By-election triggered by the simultaneous election of Francis Dickins for Northamptonshire, his decision to sit for that constituency instead of Cambridge. By-election triggered by the appointment of John Mortlock to office. By-election triggered by the appointment of James Whorwood Adeane to office. By-election triggered by the elevation to the peerage of Charles Sloane Cadogan. By-election triggered by the appointment of Charles Sloane Cadogan to office. By-election triggered by the appointment of Charles Sloane C
Waterhouses, County Durham
Waterhouses is a village in County Durham, in England. It is situated to the west near Esh Winning. Joseph Pease, a Darlington Quaker, obtained permission in the mid-1850s to mine coal near High Waterhouse, a farm on the Brancepeth estate; the land was owned by Gustavus Russell Hamilton-Russell and his wife Emma Maria, descendants of Sir Frederick Hamilton of Dromahere. There were initial difficulties in the mining, but Pease sinkers located coal, the Deerness Valley Railway was laid from a junction at the North Eastern Railway at Relly, up the Deerness valley to the new coal pit; the company built housing for the new workers and a village grew up at the Mary Pit with residential areas south of the railway line. Most of the new mine workers were surrounding northern countries. A few came from the Midlands, the southern shires and Ireland. In 1881 the village had a population of 1,053. Waterhouses Community Association is a group of volunteers who own and manage the village hall, self funded and organises a range of activities, including groups and clubs for all ages and a weekly cinema.
Waterhouses has a public church, St. Paul's; the Vicar is Fr. Michael Peers; when the village was first established, Anglican services were held in an old cottage near High Waterhouse Farm, used as a school. About 1866 Arthur Duncombe Shafto, rector of Brancepeth, proposed the building of a new church and school and the community began raising funds. In February 1868 Lord Boyne of Brancepeth Castle donated one rood and 20 perches of land to the rector as a site for the new church. Boyne contributed funds to the church, built at a cost of 580 pounds. In 1869 the Bishop, with Reverend Shafto and two curates, opened the building as a chapel of ease. In 1877 and 1878 agreements were drawn up that enabled Reverence Shafto to sell the mineral right for the property for 12,000 pounds. Investment of this money was confirmed by Queen Victoria in 1878 to provide for a common fund for St. John's, Brandon and a proposed new district at Waterhouses. Further work on the building made it suitable for a parish church, the Bishop consecrated the church as St. Paul's, Waterhouses.
A mission-church at Esh Winning was ceded to Waterhouses in 1911. The original chapel of ease was designed by C. Hodgson built by R. Sanderson, it included a nave and chancel of cavity wall construction and was built of machine-pressed, sulphur-coloured bricks bearing a'PEASE' stamp. The foundation course was sandstone and the walls were supported with buttresses; the nave was provided with benches for 200 worshipers and a lead-lined font occupied the west end. On the north side, a small connecting vestry led to a porch on the south side; the chancel had three windows in an enclosing arch and the long wall of the nave was lit by small lancet windows. In 1883 an extension of the church included sacristy. A gallery was designed to seat 54 children, reached by a staircase. In 1892 an entry from the south porch was blocked to place an organ in the corner, in 1897 a door was opened in the north vestry. A new aisle was constructed between 1895 and 1915 on the north side which provided an arcade of four arches and a door into the choir vestry.
The church obtained a Vincent organ, built about 1902. The ridge of the roof was built with one belfry with a fleche. In 1920 the plain glass of the east window was replaced with stained glass. In 1988 the church was restored and a new slate roof cover installed. A mission hall/Sunday school was built outside the church in 1981. Proposals for a cemetery led to heated disagreements and a local cemetery was built at Ridding Wood instead. A vicarage was built in 1887, but decline of coal mining led to vacating of the vicarage in the early 1970s. A new vicarage was built in Esh Winning in 1978. Waterhouses has the Black Horse Inn, on Hamilton Row; the inn was an old coaching inn built in 1820. The interior still has the original Victorian decor, the owners maintain an old-world charm with coal fires and smokey beams; the pub serves food, spirits and wine and includes a beer garden. The station, which stood by the Deerness Valley Railway, opened in 1858 for freight, a passenger service was introduced in 1877.
The Waterhouses passenger station was in Esh Winning, but the goods station was in Waterhouses, close to Waterhouses colliery. The goods yard included a dock and a three-ton crane. A signal box allowed access to Waterhouses colliery. Decline of coal mining in the area led to closure of the station; the last freight train called at Waterhouses in 1964, the station has now been demolished and replaced by a park. Famous people from Waterhouses include: Pauline Murray, singer for the band Penetration Durham Mining Museum information on Waterhouses Colliery Northern Echo Durham Memories article on Esh Winning and Waterhouses, 30 January 2004 Waterhouses Community Association Railway Station Media related to Waterhouses, County Durham at Wikimedia Commons
Ushaw Moor is an old pit village in County Durham, in England, on the north side of the River Deerness. It is situated to the west of a short distance to the south of Bearpark. Ushaw Moor falls within the Deerness electoral ward in the City of Durham constituency whose current MP has been Roberta Blackman-Woods since 2005, it seems most that the name'Ushaw' comes from Scandinavian origin which, when translated, means'wolves' wood'. With the addition of moor we get'the moor near the wood of wolves'. Parish registers suggests; the village existed in a agricultural state, with a windmill being its one feature up till the nineteenth century. In 1804 Bishop William Gibson ordered the building of St Cuthbert's College, now named Ushaw College, which opened in 1808. A chapel was added followed by a library and exhibition hall. In 1858 a drift mine was established at Ushaw Moor Colliery selling coal on the landsale system; this was purchased in 1879 by Henry Chaytor of Witton Castle. During his tenure there was a large strike, following the deliberate sacking of an elected union leader in 1881.
The strike was ended when a number of policemen were brought into the village to evict the strikers and their families. Mr Chaytor, sick of the years of industrial unrest, sold Ushaw Moor colliery to Pease & Partners in 1883. From this time, the workmen and community had an easier life, the new owners helping rather than opposing them. However, Ushaw Moor colliery closed as part of the collapse of the Durham coal fields. In the last thirty years it has grown and become the centre of the Deerness Valley, becoming unusually prosperous where most pit villages have struggled. Good links with Durham and Newcastle and good local schools and amenities has meant it is popular with first time buyers. Ushaw Moor is 2 miles west of Durham and 14 miles south of Newcastle upon Tyne; the Deerness Valley Railway Path, an 8-mile stretch of scenic woodland pathway converted from the former tracks of the Deerness Valley Railway, runs through Ushaw Moor. Ushaw Moor is the location of Silver Tree Primary School and St Josephs Roman Catholic Primary School.
Durham Community Business College is the main secondary school for the village, with Durham Studio Sixth Form opening in 2011 on the same site. Ushaw College, until its closure in 2011, was a Roman Catholic seminary and one of the constituent colleges of the University of Durham; the college is being used by Durham University Business School whilst its own site is redeveloped. Ushaw College hosts the annual Ushaw Jazz Festival. Ushaw Moor is served by 3 churches: Ushaw Moor Baptist ChurchSt Luke's ChurchSt Joseph's Catholic Church Ushaw Moor Cricket Club was established in 1881 and has 2 senior teams and 4 junior teams. Media related to Ushaw Moor at Wikimedia Commons Ushaw Moor Community and Historical Website Subterranea Britannica information on Ushaw Moor station Ushaw Moor Post Office Website