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City of Liverpool (New South Wales)

The Liverpool City Council is a local government area to the south-west of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The area encompasses 305.5 square kilometres and its administrative centre is located in the suburb of Liverpool. The Mayor of the City is Cr. Wendy Waller, a member of the Labor Party; the following suburbs and localities are located within the Liverpool City Council: At the 2016 census there were 204,326 people in the Liverpool local government area, of these 49.6 per cent were male and 50.4 per cent were female. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 1.5 per cent of the population. The median age of people in the Liverpool City Council was 33 years. Children aged 0 – 14 years made up 22.7 per cent of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up 10.4 per cent of the population. Of people in the area aged 15 years and over, 51.8 per cent were married and 11.0 per cent were either divorced or separated. Population growth in the Liverpool City Council between the 2001 census and the 2006 census was 7.14 per cent and in the subsequent five years to the 2011 census, population growth was 9.44 per cent.

At the 2016 census, the population in the City increased by 13.24 per cent. When compared with total population growth of Australia for the same period, being 8.8 per cent, population growth in the Liverpool local government area was higher than the national average. The median weekly income for residents within the City of Liverpool was lower than the national average. At the 2016 census, the area was linguistically diverse, with a higher than average proportion where two or more languages are spoken; the proportion of residents who stated a religious affiliation with Islam was in excess of four times the national average. Liverpool City Council is composed of eleven Councillors, including the Mayor, for a fixed four-year term of office; the Mayor is directly elected while the ten other Councillors are elected proportionally as two separate wards, each electing five Councillors. The most recent election was held on 10 September 2016, the makeup of the Council, including the Mayor, is as follows: The current Council, elected in 2016, in order of election by ward, is: It is one of the oldest urban settlements in Australia, founded in 1810 as an agricultural centre by Governor Lachlan Macquarie.

He named it after Robert Banks Jenkinson, Earl of Liverpool, the Secretary of State for the Colonies and the British city of Liverpool upon which some of the city's architecture is based. Liverpool is at the head of navigation of the Georges River and combined with the Great Southern Railway from Sydney to Melbourne reaching Liverpool in the late 1850s, Liverpool became a major agricultural and transportation centre as the land in the district was productive. A large army base was established in Liverpool during World War I, exists to this day as the Holsworthy Barracks. There are a number of other military establishments in neighbouring Moorebank; until the 1950s, Liverpool was still a satellite town with an agricultural economy based on poultry farming and market gardening. However the tidal surge of urban sprawl which engulfed the rich flatlands west of Sydney known as the Cumberland Plain soon reached Liverpool, it became an outer suburb of metropolitan Sydney with a strong working-class presence and manufacturing facilities.

Liverpool became renowned for its vast Housing Commission estates housing thousands of low-income families after the slum clearance and urban renewal programs in inner-city Sydney in the 1960s. The City of Liverpool is home to the largest municipal library in Australia, List of local government areas in New South Wales Local government areas of New South Wales Liverpool City Council website

Martini (cocktail)

The martini is a cocktail made with gin and vermouth, garnished with an olive or a lemon twist. Over the years, the martini has become one of the best-known mixed alcoholic beverages. H. L. Mencken called the martini "the only American invention as perfect as the sonnet", E. B. White called it "the elixir of quietude". By 1922 the martini reached its most recognizable form in which London dry gin and dry vermouth are combined at a ratio of 2:1, stirred in a mixing glass with ice cubes, with the optional addition of orange or aromatic bitters strained into a chilled cocktail glass. Over time the expected garnish became the drinker's choice of a green olive or a twist of lemon peel. A dry martini is made with white vermouth. By the Roaring Twenties, it became a common drink order. Over the course of the 20th century, the amount of vermouth dropped. During the 1930s the ratio was 3:1, during the 1940s the ratio was 4:1. During the latter part of the 20th century, 6:1, 8:1, 12:1, 15:1, or 50:1 or 100:1 Martinis became considered the norm.

A dirty martini contains a splash of olive brine or olive juice and is garnished with an olive. A perfect martini uses equal amounts of dry vermouth; some martinis were prepared by filling a cocktail glass with gin rubbing a finger of vermouth along the rim. There are those. According to Noël Coward, "A perfect martini should be made by filling a glass with gin waving it in the general direction of Italy", Italy being a major producer of vermouth. Luis Buñuel used the dry martini as part of his creative process using it to sustain "a reverie in a bar", he offers his own recipe, involving Angostura bitters, in his memoir. In 1966, the American Standards Association released K100.1-1966, "Safety Code and Requirements for Dry Martinis", a tongue-in-cheek account of how to make a "standard" dry martini. The latest revision of this document, K100.1-1974, was published by American National Standards Institute, the successor to ASA, though it is no longer an active standard. The traditional martini comes in a number of variations.

The fictional spy James Bond sometimes asked for his vodka martinis to be "shaken, not stirred", following Harry Craddock's The Savoy Cocktail Book, which prescribes shaking for all its martini recipes. The proper name for a shaken martini is a Bradford. A martini may be served on the rocks; the exact origin of the martini is unclear. A popular theory suggests it evolved from a cocktail called the Martinez served sometime in the early 1860s at the Occidental Hotel in San Francisco, which people frequented before taking an evening ferry to the nearby town of Martinez, California. Alternatively, the people of Martinez say a bartender in their town created the drink, or maybe the drink was named after the town. Indeed, a "Martinez Cocktail" was first described in Jerry Thomas' 1887 edition of his Bartender's Guide, How to Mix All Kinds of Plain and Fancy Drinks: Take 1 dash of Boker's bitters 2 dashes of Maraschino 1 pony of Old Tom gin 1 wine-glass of vermouth 2 small lumps of ice Shake up and strain into a large cocktail glass.

Put a quarter of a slice of lemon in the glass, serve. If the guest prefers it sweet, add two dashes of gum syrup. Other bartending guides of the late 19th century contained recipes for numerous cocktails similar to the modern-day martini. For example, Harry Johnson's Bartenders' Manual listed a recipe for a drink that consisted in part of half a wine glass of Old Tom gin and a half a wine glass of vermouth. Fill the glass up with ice 2 or 3 dashes of gum syrup 2 or 3 dashes of bitters; the first dry martini is sometimes linked to the name of a bartender who concocted the drink at the Knickerbocker Hotel in New York City in 1911 or 1912. The "Marguerite Cocktail", first described in 1904, could be considered an early form of the dry martini, because it was a 2:1 mix of Plymouth dry gin and dry vermouth, with a dash of orange bitters. During Prohibition in the United States, during the mid-20th century, the relative ease of illegal gin manufacture led to the martini's rise as the locally predominant cocktail.

With the repeal of Prohibition, the ready availability of quality gin, the drink became progressively drier. In the 1970s and'80s, the martini came to be seen as old-fashioned and was replaced by more intricate cocktails and wine spritzers, but the mid-1990s saw a resurgence in the drink and numerous new versions; some newer drinks include the suffix" - tini" in the name. These are so named. Containing vodka, they share little in common with the martini. Gadberry, Brad. "The Martini FAQ". Retrieved 10 August 2008


The Hexenkopf is a mountain, 3,035 m, in the Samnaun Group in the Alps in the Austrian state of Tyrol. The Hexenkopf lies on the northern chain of the Samnaun Group between the valleys of Paznauntal in the north and Oberinntal in the south, its neighbouring peak to the west is the 2,914 m high Gmaierkopf. To the southeast is the Masneralpe, developed for winter sports by the Serfaus-Fiss-Ladis ski region; the Hexensee Hut on the lake of Hexensee is one of the most important bases for an ascent of the Hexenkopfs. In the east the 2,685 m high Masnerjoch col separates the Hexenkopf from the 2,845 m high Arrezkopf. To the north another ridge to the Plattkopf separates the alpine meadows of Hinterflathalpe in the west from Berglialpe in the east; the Hexenkopf is composed of mica-rich slate gneiss, interspersed with veins of pegmatite and other granitic rocks. In addition, there are small deposits of hornblende-containing amphibolite. Unlike the nearby and oft-visited Furgler, the Hexenkopf is rarely climbed.

That is because, on the one hand it is further from the top station of the Lazidbahn from the tourist resort of Serfaus and, on the other, it is more difficult to climb. From the Masnerjoch col there is a waymarked route running westwards, along the norther arête of the Hexenkopf to the top; this exposed rocky ridge has climbing sections of UIAA grade I. The Masnerjoch may be reached from the Hexensee Hut, from the Kölner Haus near Serfaus or from the north, from See in the Paznauntal valley; the Ascher Hut here is a possible base. Another waymarked, but trackless, ascent runs from the Hexensattel along the south arête to the summit. Paul Werner.

Castell's sign

Castell's sign is a medical sign assessed to evaluate splenomegaly and part of an abdominal examination. It is an alternative physical examination maneuver to percussion over Traube's space. Splenomegaly, although associated with numerous diseases, remains one of the more elusive physical exam findings in the abdomen. Conditions such as infectious mononucleosis and cirrhotic liver disease may all involve splenomegaly and as a result, the search for a reliable sign associated with this condition has been sought for generations. Several such signs of splenomegaly exist, all of whose utility has been debated in medical literature; the presence or absence of splenomegaly, can be reliably appreciated on physical exam using Castell's sign in conjunction with other clinical information, increasing the positive predictive value of the test. When used in a decision-making rubric, Castell's sign becomes a valuable part of deciding whether to pursue further imaging. Castell's method involves first placing the patient in the supine position.

With the patient in full inspiration and full expiration, percuss the area of the lowest intercostal space in the left anterior axillary line. If the note changes from resonant on full expiration to dull on full inspiration, the sign is regarded as positive; the resonant note heard upon full expiration is to be due to the air-filled stomach or splenic flexure of the colon. When the patient inspires, the spleen moves inferiorly along the posterolateral abdominal wall. If the spleen is enlarged enough that the inferior pole reaches the eighth or ninth intercostal space, a dull percussion note will be appreciated, indicating splenomegaly; some limitations, were reported by Castell in his original paper. First the presence of gross splenomegaly or profuse fluid in the stomach or colon may lead to the absence of a resonant percussion note on full expiration. Articles have criticized the maneuver's reliability as befalling to more obese individuals and the amount of time the patient is post-prandial.

The 1993 systematic review by the Rational Clinical Examination found that Castell's sign was the most sensitive physical examination maneuver for detecting splenomegaly when comparing palpation, Nixon's sign, Traube's space percussion: sensitivity = 82% specificity = 83%In asymptomatic patients where there is a low clinical suspicion for splenomegaly, physical examination alone is unlikely to rule-in splenomegaly due to the inadequate sensitivity of the examination. Similar to many other findings in medicine, Castell's sign must be combined with clinical findings to rule in splenomegaly. To achieve a positive predictive value over 90%, the pretest probability must be 70%. Grover et al. recommends a greater than 10% preexamination clinical suspicion of splenic enlargement to rule in the diagnosis of splenomegaly with physical exam. However, a 10% pretest probability only yields a positive predictive value of 35%. To rule out an enlarged spleen, a pretest probability of 30% or less will yield a negative predictive value over 90% Given the paucity of physical exam findings to evaluate possible splenomegaly, Castell's sign is the most sensitive, is thus a good tool to teach in an advanced-type physical diagnosis course.

Castell's has been shown to be superior in sensitivity to other spleen percussion signs as well as palpation, not useful due to the extreme enlargement necessary to feel the spleen below the costal margin. Castell's sign is thus, in the appropriate clinical scenario, an important part of the abdominal physical exam. Donald O. Castell first described his sign in the 1967 paper, “The Spleen Percussion Sign” published in Annals of Internal Medicine. Castell, a George Washington Medical School graduate, is a Navy-trained gastroenterologist. While stationed at the Great Lakes naval base in northern Illinois, Castell studied 20 male patients, 10 of whom had a positive percussion sign and 10 patient controls with negative percussion signs; the spleen of each patient was quantitatively measured using chromium-labeled erythrocytes and radioisotope photoscan of the spleen. Castell showed those patients in the control group had a mean spleen size of 75 cm2 with a range of 57 cm2 to 75 cm2, while those who had a positive percussion sign had a mean spleen size of 93 cm2 with a range of 77 cm2 to 120 cm2.

Castell concluded that his technique of spleen percussion was thus useful in identifying “slight to moderate degrees of splenic enlargement” and, as a result, constituted a “valuable diagnostic technique.”

NGC 2281

NGC 2281 is an open cluster in the constellation Auriga. Media related to NGC 2281 at Wikimedia Commons Simbad Image NGC 2281 NGC 2281 NGC 2281 on WikiSky: DSS2, SDSS, GALEX, IRAS, Hydrogen α, X-Ray, Sky Map and images Dias, W. S.. "New catalogue of optically visible open clusters and candidates". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 389: 871–873. ArXiv:astro-ph/0203351. Bibcode:2002A&A...389..871D. Doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20020668. Vasilevskis, S.. A.. "Relative proper motions of stars in the region of the open cluster NGC 2281". The Astrophysical Journal. 64: 170–174. Bibcode:1959AJ.....64..170V. Doi:10.1086/107917

Erica Hill

Erica Ruth Hill-Yount is an American journalist who works for CNN. She serves as a correspondent, she co-anchored Weekend Today from 2012 to 2016, following work at CBS since 2008. Hill was born in Clinton, the daughter of Cheryl and Steven Holmes Hill, she graduated with a BA in Journalism from Boston University in 1998. She is a member of Alpha Epsilon Phi, she is fluent in French. Hill married David Yount on October 15, 2005, on November 25, 2006, gave birth to her first son, Weston Robert Yount, her second son, Sawyer Steven Yount, was born on March 23, 2010. In 2006, Hill was listed at #35 in People Magazine's 100 Most Beautiful People issue. Hill began her journalism career in 1998 as a production assistant for "PC Week Radio", the online news program for PC Week magazine. During this time, she worked as a conference coordinator for the Software Publishers Association Europe, she worked at TechTV from 2000 to 2003 as part of the TechTV News program named TechLive. From 2000 to 2001, she served as reporter, from 2001 to 2003, she was co-anchor and correspondent for the program.

She is noted for her live reporting of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks when she was working for TechTV. Hill joined CNN's Headline News channel in January 2003, working as a general news anchor for different programs. In 2004, she joined CNN Newsource as a national correspondent, she co-anchored Prime News Tonight from 2005 to 2006 before becoming anchor of Prime News with Erica Hill from 2006 to 2008. She began providing news updates for Anderson Cooper 360° in April 2005, was named a full-time member in February 2008. Hill co-anchored CNN Tonight during its November 2009 to January 2010 run. On September 22, 2008, Hill was named the new co-anchor of the Saturday edition of The Early Show on CBS after filling in on a temporary basis six weeks earlier, her first show as the permanent anchor was on September 27, 2008. She continued to appear on AC360° for CNN until January 8, 2010, when it was announced on AC360° that she would be leaving CNN to join CBS News. CBS announced on January 13, 2010, that Hill would be replacing Russ Mitchell on the weekday edition of The Early Show the following week, on January 18, the Early Show cast welcomed Hill to the program.

On June 29 and July 5, 2010, Hill anchored the CBS Evening News in Katie Couric's absence. With Maggie Rodriguez on maternity leave, Hill was the primary female anchor on The Early Show in June 2010. Hill anchored the CBS Evening News while Scott Pelley was in Afghanistan on October 4, 2011. On November 30, 2010, Erica Hill was named co-anchor of CBS' The Early Show, effective January 3, 2011. On November 15, 2011, CBS announced that Charlie Rose and Gayle King would join Hill as co-anchors of a new CBS News morning program, CBS This Morning, launching January 9, 2012. On July 26, 2012, CBS announced that Hill would be replaced by Norah O'Donnell on CBS This Morning in late 2012. Hill served as a Special Correspondent for CBS News, from September 2012 to November 1, 2012, contributing to all CBS broadcasts although she never appeared on-air in this role. NBC announced on November 1, 2012, that starting November 3, 2012, Hill would join Weekend Today as co-anchor and would serve as an NBC News national correspondent.

NBC News president Steve Capus said, "Erica's extraordinary track record as a journalist has proven that she can cover everything from hard news to pop culture with ease and professionalism. She's a fantastic addition to Weekend Today and I'm delighted to welcome her to NBC News." On April 3, 2016, Hill announced she was leaving the Weekend Today show in order to spend more time with family, but continue daily news reporting on MSNBC and NBC Nightly News. On June 6, 2016, Hill was announced as rejoining HLN as the anchor of a daytime news program, additionally contribute to CNN, her daily new program, "On the Story with Erica Hill", premiered in October 2016. On April 19, 2018, it was announced that Erica Hill would return to CNN as lead fill-in anchor and national correspondent, she will leave her HLN show On The Story. Her replacement has not been announced. 2000–2003: TechTV News anchor and reporter 2003–2010: CNN 2005–2006: Prime News Tonight co-anchor 2005–2010: Anderson Cooper 360° news updates anchor 2006–2008: Prime News with Erica Hill anchor 2009–2010: CNN Tonight co-anchor 2008–2012: CBS News 2008–2010: The Early Show Saturday co-anchor 2010–2012: The Early Show weekday anchor & news anchor January 2012 – September 2012: CBS This Morning co-anchor September 2012 – November 1, 2012: CBS News special correspondent 2012–2016: NBC News November 3, 2012 – April 3, 2016: Weekend Today co-anchor November 3, 2012 – 2016: NBC News National correspondent 2013–2016: Dateline NBC contributing anchor & correspondent 2013–2016: NBC Nightly News substitute anchor 2012–2016: Today substitute co-anchor 2015–2016: MSNBC anchor & correspondent 2016: NBC Nightly News Saturday anchor 2016–2018: HLN & CNN 2016–2018: HLN On the Story anchor 2016-2018: CNN contributor 2018–present: CNN 2018–present: CNN lead fill-in anchor & national correspondent Erica Hill bio at Erica Hill on IMDb