Western Pacific Railroad
The Western Pacific Railroad was a Class I railroad in the United States. It was formed in 1903 as an attempt to break the near-monopoly the Southern Pacific Railroad had on rail service into northern California. WP's Feather River Route directly competed with SP's portion of the Overland Route for rail traffic between Salt Lake City/Ogden and Oakland, for nearly 80 years. In 1983, the Western Pacific was acquired by the Union Pacific Corporation and it was soon merged into their Union Pacific Railroad; the Western Pacific was one of the original operators of the California Zephyr. The original Western Pacific Railroad was established in 1865 to build the westernmost portion of the Transcontinental Railroad between San Jose and Sacramento, California; this company was absorbed into the Central Pacific Railroad in 1870. The second company to use the name Western Pacific Railroad was founded in 1903. Under the direction of George Jay Gould I, the Western Pacific was founded to provide a standard gauge track connection to the Pacific Coast for his aspiring Gould transcontinental system.
The construction was financed by the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad, a company in the Gould system, which lost access to California due to the attempted acquisition of the Southern Pacific Railroad by the Rio Grande's main rival, the Union Pacific Railroad. The Western Pacific Railroad acquired the Alameda and San Joaquin Railroad and began construction on what would become the Feather River Route. In 1909 it became the last major railroad completed into California, it used 85-lb rail on untreated ties, with no tie plates except on curves over one degree. In 1931 Western Pacific opened a main line north from the Feather River Canyon to the Great Northern Railway in northern California; this route, the "Highline", joined the Oakland – Salt Lake City main line at the Keddie Wye, a unique combination of two steel trestles and a tunnel forming a triangle of intersecting track. In 1935, the railroad went bankrupt because of decreased freight and passenger traffic caused by the Depression and had to be reorganized.
WP attracted rail enthusiasts from around the world. It operated the California Zephyr passenger train with the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad and the Chicago and Quincy Railroad; the WP handled the "Silver Lady" from Oakland, California, to Salt Lake City, Utah from 1949–1970. The Western Pacific owned several connecting short-line railroads; the largest was the Sacramento Northern Railway, which once reached from San Francisco to Chico, California. Others included the Tidewater Southern Railway, the Central California Traction, the Indian Valley Railroad and the Deep Creek Railroad. At the end of 1970 WP operated 1,187 miles of road and 1,980 miles of track, not including its Sacramento Northern and Tidewater Southern subsidiaries. In 1983, the Union Pacific Corporation purchased the Western Pacific and the WP became part of a combined Union Pacific rail system: the Union Pacific Railroad, the Missouri Pacific Railroad, the WP; the Western Pacific and the Missouri Pacific was merged into the Union Pacific Railroad by the Union Pacific Corporation.
In 1996, Union Pacific purchased the WP's long-time rival, the Southern Pacific Transportation Company. In July 2005 Union Pacific unveiled a brand new EMD SD70ACe locomotive, Union Pacific 1983, painted as an homage to the Western Pacific; the California Zephyr was the famous Western Pacific passenger train but the railroad had a few others: Exposition Flyer Royal Gorge Scenic Limited Zephyrette Many special charter passenger trains have used parts of the WP route: Feather River Express, Special charter train for Portola Railroad Days Northern California Explorer There were twelve presidents of this railroad: Walter J. Bartnett Edward T. Jeffery Benjamin F. Bush Charles M. Levey Harry M. Adams Charles Elsey Harry A. Mitchell Frederic B. Whitman Myron M. Christy Alfred E. Perlman Robert G. "Mike" Flannery Robert C. Marquis Hercules – steam powered tugboat operated by the Western Pacific Western Pacific Railroad Museum Western Refrigerator Line – Subsidiary of the Western Pacific Western Pacific Railroad Museum in Portola California Western Pacific Railroad Historical Society Livermore History – Railroads 1 WP Subsidiary Tidewater Southern Website WP Subsidiary Central California Traction Website
The California Zephyr is a passenger train operated by Amtrak between Chicago and the San Francisco Bay Area, via Omaha, Salt Lake City, Reno. At 2,438 miles, it is Amtrak's second longest route after the Texas Eagle branch to Los Angeles, with travel time between the termini taking 511⁄2 hours. Amtrak claims the route as one of its most scenic, with views of the upper Colorado River valley in the Rocky Mountains, the Sierra Nevada; the modern train is the second iteration of a train named California Zephyr, the original train was operated and ran on a different route through Nevada and California. During fiscal year 2016, the California Zephyr carried 417,322 passengers, an increase of 11.2% over FY2015. The train had a total revenue of $51,950,998 in FY2016. Prior to the 1971 creation of Amtrak, three competing trains ran between Chicago and the East Bay, with bus connections to San Francisco: The California Zephyr was operated by the Chicago and Quincy Railroad and Rio Grande Western Railroad, Western Pacific Railroad between Chicago and Oakland along what is today called the Central Corridor and Feather River Route via Omaha and Salt Lake City.
It was discontinued in March 1970 – the only of the three trains not still operating when Amtrak took over service. The City of San Francisco was operated by the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad, Union Pacific Railroad, Southern Pacific Railroad between Chicago and Oakland on the Overland Route via Omaha and Ogden; the San Francisco Chief was operated by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway via the more southerly Southern Transcon between Chicago and Richmond via Kansas City and Bakersfield. Railpax intended to revive the California Zephyr as part its original route network, using the Burlington Northern east of Denver, the DRG&W between Denver and Ogden and the WP west of Ogden; the California Zephyr route served more populated areas than the Overland Route, ran through rural communities that lacked good highway access, could attract passengers to its scenic routes. However, the WP had shed the last of its money-losing passenger service with the end of the California Zephyr, it was not eligible to participate in Amtrak's formation.
On April 12, 1971, the WP refused to cooperate with Railpax, the SP route between Ogden and Oakland was chosen instead. On April 26, the D&RGW elected not to join Amtrak; the D&RGW chose to operate the Denver–Ogden Rio Grande Zephyr, Amtrak scrambled to piece together a Denver–Cheyenne–Ogden routing on the UP. Between the spring of 1971 and the summer of 1972, passengers traveling between Chicago and Oakland would have to travel on two different trains: the Denver Zephyr, which operated daily between Chicago and Denver, the City of San Francisco, which operated three times a week, between Denver and the San Francisco Bay Area. However, after several false starts, Amtrak consolidated the two trains into one, dubbed the San Francisco Zephyr, homage to both the California Zephyr and the San Francisco Chief, between Chicago and Oakland; the Rio Grande continued to operate the Rio Grande Zephyr between Ogden. In 1983 the D&RGW elected citing increasing losses in passenger operations. Amtrak re-routed the San Francisco Zephyr over the D&RGW's Moffat Subdivision between Denver and Salt Lake City, its original preference from 1971.
The change was scheduled for April 25, but a mudslide at Thistle, Utah closed the line and delayed the change until July 16. With the change of route, Amtrak renamed the train as the California Zephyr; the modern California Zephyr uses the same route as the original east of Winnemucca, Nevada. The train uses the route of the former City of San Francisco, along the Overland Route, between Elko and Sacramento. Across central Nevada, the two rail lines have been combined to use directional running; as such the exact spot the train switches. The western terminus of the train was cut back to Emeryville station when Oakland Central station was closed on August 5, 1994; the California Zephyr was re-extended to Oakland with the opening of the Jack London Square station on May 12, 1995. However, this required a complicated reverse move along street running tracks to reach the wye at West Oakland; the train was cut back again to Emeryville on October 26, 1997. The west-bound train is Amtrak number 5. Upon leaving Chicago Union Station, the train travels along the Metra BNSF Railway Line, with an intermediate stop in Naperville, Illinois.
After passing through Aurora, the train passes through the endless corn, soybean fields and small farming towns of Illinois and Iowa. The route crosses into Iowa at the Burlington Rail Bridge across the Mississippi River in Burlington, Iowa into Nebraska between Council Bluffs and Omaha. Overnight, into the early morning, the train traverses Nebraska and northeastern Colorado, before making a morning arrival in Denver. At Denver the train departs BNSF Railway-owned track. From Denver west, the train runs along the Union Pacific Railroad's Central Corridor; the scenery changes departing Denver as the train climbs the Rocky Mountains. After going through the Tunnel District, the line crosses the Continental Divide via the 6.2 mile-long Moffat Tunnel under James Peak. The tracks f
Chicago Union Station
Chicago Union Station is a major railroad station that opened in 1925 in Chicago, replacing an earlier station built in 1881. It is the only remaining intercity rail terminal in Chicago, is the city's primary terminal for commuter trains; the station stands on the west side of the Chicago River between West Adams Street and West Jackson Boulevard, just outside the Chicago Loop. Including approach and storage tracks, it covers about nine and a half city blocks — underground, buried beneath streets and skyscrapers; the station serves as Amtrak's flagship station in the Midwest, is the downtown terminus for six Metra commuter lines. Chicago Union Station is the fourth-busiest rail terminal in the United States, after Grand Central Terminal and Penn Station and Jamaica station in New York City, it is Amtrak's overall fourth-busiest station, the busiest outside of its Northeast Corridor. It handles about 140,000 passengers on an average weekday and is one of Chicago's most iconic structures, reflecting the city's strong architectural heritage and historic achievements.
It has Bedford limestone Beaux-Arts facades, massive Corinthian columns, marble floors, a Great Hall, all highlighted by brass lamps. In 2011, its lighting system was replaced with more energy-efficient light bulbs and motion sensors, reducing the station's annual carbon emissions by 4 million tons. Custom steel lighting covers were added to top these safety/light towers, helping them blend in with the overall neoclassical style of the station. Chicago Union Station was designated as one of America's "Great Places" in 2012 by the American Planning Association; the program recognized the station as a "Great Public Space" for promoting social activity and reflecting local culture and history. In celebration of the 2018 Illinois Bicentennial, Union Station was selected as one of the Illinois 200 Great Places by the American Institute of Architects Illinois component. Union Station is laid out with a double stub-end configuration, with 10 tracks coming into the station from the north and 14 from the south.
Unlike most of Amtrak's major stations, every train calling at Union Station either originates or terminates there. There are two through tracks to allow out-of-service equipment moves between the north and south side, including one with a platform to allow extra long trains to board. Between the north and south sides of the station is a passenger concourse. Passengers can walk through the concourse to get from any platform to any other without stairs or elevators. Odd-numbered platforms are on the north half of the station, even-numbered platforms on the south half; the north tracks are used by Amtrak for the Hiawatha Service and the Empire Builder, by Metra for the Milwaukee District West, Milwaukee District North, North Central Service routes. The south tracks are used for all other services. Two station management structures, one on each side of the terminal, monitor train-to-track assignments and the flow of traffic in and out of the station. Actual oversight and control of switching and signalling is accomplished by two "train director" positions, one for each side of the station, located in the Amtrak control center in the station's headhouse.
Inside the concourse are ticket counters for both Metra and Amtrak services, as well as three waiting rooms and a baggage claim for Amtrak passengers, a set of restrooms, offices for Metra and Amtrak. The concourse has a mezzanine level between platform and street level, containing a food court featuring local vendors as well as national chains. Located west of Canal Street, Union Station's headhouse occupies an entire city block. At its center is the Great Hall, a 110-foot -high atrium capped by a large barrel-vaulted skylight. Arrayed around the Great Hall are numerous smaller spaces containing restaurants and services, a wide passageway leading to the concourse. Above the headhouse are several floors of office space used by Amtrak. Original plans called for many more floors of offices; this was never completed. Numerous entrances provide access to Union Station's underground platform level; the main entrance is on Canal Street opposite the headhouse, but passengers can reach the platforms directly from the headhouse via an underground passageway.
Two secondary entrances are located in Riverside Plaza near the Jackson Boulevard and Adams Street bridges. On Madison Street, across the street, one block east from Ogilvie Transportation Center, are a set of entrances to the north platforms; the current Union Station is the second by that name built in Chicago, the third rail station to occupy the site. The need for a single, centralized station was an important political topic in 19th and 20th-century Chicago, as various competing railroads had built a series of terminal stations; the numerous stations and associated railyards and tracks surrounded the city's central business district, the Loop, threatened its expansion. The various stations made travel difficult for through-travelers, many of whom had to make inconvenient and unpleasant transfers from one station to another through the Loop. On December 25, 1858, the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railroad opened as far as Van Buren Street in Chicago, it built the first station at what would become today's Union Station on the west bank of the Chicago River.
On April 7, 1874 five railroads agreed to build and share a union station just north of the original Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne, Chicago Railroad
Southern Pacific Transportation Company
The Southern Pacific was an American Class I railroad network that existed from 1865 to 1998 that operated in the Western United States. The system was operated by various companies under the names Southern Pacific Railroad, Southern Pacific Company and Southern Pacific Transportation Company; the original Southern Pacific began in 1865 as a land holding company. The last incarnation of the Southern Pacific, the Southern Pacific Transportation Company, was founded in 1969 and assumed control of the Southern Pacific system; the Southern Pacific Transportation Company was acquired by the Union Pacific Corporation and merged with their Union Pacific Railroad. The Southern Pacific Transportation Company was the surviving railroad as it absorbed the Union Pacific Railroad and changed its name to "Union Pacific Railroad"; the Southern Pacific Transportation Company is now the current incarnation of the Union Pacific Railroad. The Southern Pacific legacy founded hospitals in San Francisco, Tucson and elsewhere.
In the 1970s, it founded a telecommunications network with a state-of-the-art microwave and fiber optic backbone. This telecommunications network became part of Sprint, a company whose name came from the acronym for Southern Pacific Railroad Internal Networking Telephony; the original Southern Pacific, Southern Pacific Railroad, was founded as a land holding company in 1865 acquiring the Central Pacific Railroad through leasing. By 1900, the Southern Pacific system was a major railroad system incorporating many smaller companies, such as the Texas and New Orleans Railroad and Morgan's Louisiana and Texas Railroad, it extended from New Orleans through Texas to El Paso, across New Mexico and through Tucson, to Los Angeles, through most of California, including San Francisco and Sacramento. Central Pacific lines extended east across Nevada to Ogden and reached north through Oregon to Portland. Other subsidiaries included the St. Louis Southwestern Railway, El Paso and Southwestern Railroad, the Northwestern Pacific Railroad at 328 miles, the 1,331-mile Southern Pacific Railroad of Mexico, a variety of 3 ft narrow gauge routes.
The SP was the defendant in the landmark 1886 United States Supreme Court case Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad, interpreted as having established certain corporate rights under the Constitution of the United States; the Southern Pacific Railroad was replaced by the Southern Pacific Company and assumed the railroad operations of the Southern Pacific Railroad. In 1929, Southern Pacific/Texas and New Orleans operated 13,848 route-miles not including Cotton Belt, whose purchase of the Golden State Route circa 1980 nearly doubled its size to 3,085 miles, bringing total SP/SSW mileage to around 13,508 miles. In 1969, the Southern Pacific Transportation Company was established and took over the Southern Pacific Company. By the 1980s, route mileage had dropped to 10,423 miles due to the pruning of branch lines. In 1988, the Southern Pacific Transportation Company was taken over by Rio Grande Industries, the parent company that controlled the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad. Rio Grande Industries did not merge the Southern Pacific Transportation Company and the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad together, but transferred direct ownership of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad to the Southern Pacific Transportation Company, allowing the combined Rio Grande Industries railroad system to use the Southern Pacific name due to its brand recognition in the railroad industry and with customers of both the Southern Pacific Transportation Company and the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad.
A long time Southern Pacific subsidiary, the St. Louis Southwestern Railway was marketed under the Southern Pacific name. Along with the addition of the SPCSL Corporation route from Chicago to St. Louis, the total length of the D&RGW/SP/SSW system was 15,959 miles. Rio Grande Industries was renamed Southern Pacific Rail Corporation. By 1996, years of financial problems had dropped Southern Pacific's mileage to 13,715 miles; the financial problems caused the Southern Pacific Transportation Company to be taken over by the Union Pacific Corporation. The Union Pacific Corporation merged the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad, the St. Louis Southwestern Railway and the SPCSL Corporation into their Union Pacific Railroad, but did not merge the Southern Pacific Transportation Company into the Union Pacific Railroad. Instead, the Union Pacific Corporation merged the Union Pacific Railroad into the Southern Pacific Transportation Company in 1998; the Southern Pacific Transportation Company became the current incarnation of the Union Pacific Railroad.
Like most railroads, the SP painted most of its steam locomotives black during the 20th century, but after 1945 SP painted the front of the locomotive's smokebox silver (almost
A streamliner is a vehicle incorporating streamlining in a shape providing reduced air resistance. The term is applied to high-speed railway trainsets of the 1930s to 1950s, to their successor "bullet trains". Less the term is applied to faired recumbent bicycles; as part of the Streamline Moderne trend, the term was applied to passenger cars and other types of light-, medium-, or heavy-duty vehicles, but now vehicle streamlining is so prevalent that it is not an outstanding characteristic. In land speed racing, it is a term applied to the long, custom built, high-speed vehicles with enclosed wheels; the first high-speed streamliner in Germany was the "Schienenzeppelin", an experimental propeller driven single car, built 1930. On 21 June 1931, it set a speed record of 230.2 km/h on a run between Hamburg. In 1932 the propeller was removed and a hydraulic system installed; the Schienenzeppelin made 180 km/h in 1933. The Schienenzeppelin led to the construction of the diesel-electric DRG Class SVT 877 "Flying Hamburger".
This two-car train set had a top speed of 160 km/h. During regular service starting on 15 May 1933, this train ran the 286 kilometres between Hamburg and Berlin in 138 minutes with an average speed of 124.4 km/h. The SVT 877 was the prototype for the DRG Class SVT 137, first built in 1935 for use in the FDt express train service. During test drives, the SVT 137 "Bauart Leipzig" set a world speed record of 205 km/h in 1936; the fastest regular service with SVT 137 was between Hannover and Hamm with an average speed of 132.2 km/h. This service lasted until 22 August 1939. In 1935 Henschel & Son, a major manufacturer of steam locomotives, introduced the 4-6-4 DRG Class 05 high speed streamliner locomotives for use on the Deutsche Reichsbahn Frankfurt am Main to Berlin route. Three examples were built during 1935-36. Built for top speeds of over 85 mph, they soon proved much faster in test runs. DRG 05-002 made seven runs during 1935-36 during which it attained top speeds of more than 177 km/h with trains up to 254 t weight.
On 11 May 1936 it set the world speed record for steam locomotives after reaching 200.4 km/h on the Berlin–Hamburg line hauling a 197 t train. The engine power was more than 2,535 kW ); that record was broken two years by the British LNER Class A4 4468 Mallard engine. On 30 May 1936 05-002 set an unbroken start stop speed record for steam locomotives: During the return run from a 190 km/h test on the Berlin-Hamburg route it did the ~113 kilometres from Wittenberg to a signal stop before Berlin-Spandau in 48 min 32 s, meaning 139.4 km/h average between start and stop. In the United Kingdom, development of streamlined passenger services began in 1934, with the Great Western Railway introducing low-speed streamlined railcars, the London and North Eastern Railway introducing the "Silver Jubilee" service using streamlined A4 class steam locomotives and full length trains rather than railcars. In 1938 on a test run, the locomotive Mallard built for this service set the official record for the highest top speed attained by a steam locomotive, reaching 126 mph.
That record stands to this day. The London Midland and Scottish Railway introduced streamline locomotives of the Princess Coronation Class shortly before the outbreak of war; the Ferrovie dello Stato developed a three-unit electric streamliner. The development started in 1934; these trains went into service in 1937. On 6 December 1937, an ETR 200 made a top speed of 201 km/h between Campoleone and Cisterna on the run Rome-Naples. In 1939 the ETR 212 made 203 km/h; the 219-kilometre journeys from Bologna to Milan were made in 77 minutes, meaning an average of 171 km/h. In the Netherlands, Nederlandse Spoorwegen introduced the Materieel 34, a three unit 140 km/h streamlined diesel-electric trainset in 1934. An electric version, Materieel 36, went into service in 1936. From 1940 the "Dieselvijf", a 160 km/h top speed five unit diesel-electric trainset based on DE3, completed the Dutch streamliner fleet. During test runs, a DE5 ran 175 km/h; that year the similar electric Materieel 40 were first built.
In the 1930s, NS developed a streamlined version of the class 3700/3800 steam locomotive, nicknamed "potvis". In Czechoslovakia in 1934, Czechoslovak State Railways ordered two motor railcars with maximum speed 130 km/h; the order was received by Tatra company, producing first streamlined mass-produced automobile Tatra 77 in that time. The railcar project received streamlined design. Both ČSD Class M 290.0 were delivered in 1936 with desired 130 km/h maximum speed, although during test runs one car reached 148 km/h mark. They were run on Czechoslovak prominent route Prague-Bratislava under Slovenská strela brand; the earliest known streamlined rail equipment in the United States were McKeen rail motorcars built for Union Pacific and Southern Pacific between 1905 and 1917. Most of them sported a pointed "wind splitter" front, a rounded rear, round porthole style windows in a style, as much nautically as aerodynamically inspired; the McKeen cars were unsuccessful because internal combustion drive technology for that application was unreliable at the time and the lightweight frames dictated by their limited power tended to break.
Streamlined rail motorcars would appear again in the early 1930s after the internal combustion-electric prop
Union Station (Ogden, Utah)
Union Station known as Ogden Union Station, is a train station in Ogden, Utah, at the west end of Historic 25th Street, just south of the Ogden Intermodal Transit Center. It was the junction of the Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads; the name Union Station was given to train stations where tracks and facilities were shared by two or more railway companies. The station is home to the Utah State Railroad Museum. Although Union Station no longer serves as a railway hub, it remains a cultural hub due to the museums located at the Station; the museums housed at the Station include the Utah State Railroad Museum, the Spencer S. Eccles Rail Center, the John M. Browning Firearms Museum, Utah Cowboy and Western Heritage Museum and the Browning-Kimball Classic Car Museum. Gifts at the Station sells gifts and a variety of museum related items, prints and souvenirs. Gallery at the Station is a for sale exhibit that features regional artists every month; the Myra Powell Gallery features the Station's permanent art collection.
Union Station Research Library has an extensive collection of historic Ogden photographs and documents available to the public. The last long-distance passenger trains to use Union Station were the final runs of Amtrak's Pioneer through Ogden in May 1997; the adjacent Ogden Intermodal Transit Center serves the Utah Transit Authority's FrontRunner commuter rail line. On March 8, 1869, Union Pacific came to Ogden on its way to Promontory Summit to meet the Central Pacific, thus completing the transcontinental rail line. Four cities near this location, Promontory and Ogden, competed with each other for the opportunity to house the train station that would be the junction for railroad travel in the Intermountain West. Promontory and Uintah lacked the necessary resources to house the Station. Corinne and Ogden competed for many years for the "Junction City" title, until Brigham Young donated several hundred acres of land to the two railroads on the condition that they build the yards and station in west Ogden.
The first station was built in 1869. It was a two-story wooden frame building built on a mud flat on the banks of the Weber River; the building soon became inadequate, being the facility for the narrow gauge Utah Central Railroad and the narrow gauge Rio Grande Western. Local newspapers complained about, among other things, the quarter mile of wood boardwalk required to traverse the swampy ground to reach the station. In response to these worries the Union Pacific and Central Pacific organized the jointly-owned Ogden Union Railway & Depot Co. to oversee the construction and management of a new Union Station. A new structure larger than the old and constructed of brick, was built in 1889 and served the community for several decades, it was designed with a large clock tower in the center. This building, in addition to serving the needs of the railroad contained 33 hotel rooms as well as a restaurant and other conveniences for the enjoyment of the traveler. In 1923, a hotel room in the depot caught fire, which spread throughout the building.
The blaze was unable to be controlled, the inside of the depot was destroyed, leaving the walls and clock tower standing in a fragile state. No deaths or injuries were reported, work continued inside the first floor to some extent, but construction on a new building did not start until a stone from the clock tower fell and struck a railroad clerk, killing him instantly; the OUR&D planned on rebuilding the station in its original design, but the accident reversed this decision and a new design was proposed by John and Donald Parkinson, architects of the Caliente Depot in Nevada and the Kelso Depot in California. The construction of the current building was completed in 1924 in the Spanish Colonial Revival style and is built on the foundation of the earlier building, it was dedicated with a series of publicity shots being taken. One of these shots, showing thirteen young women pulling the first train to arrive at the station by ribbons, made its way into the La Domenica del Corriere, an Italian newspaper, with the headline "Curious American Custom".
The ceiling of the Grand Lobby, taking up the center portion of the building, has a height of 56 feet and extends to the roof. The trusses were painted in bright colors with geometric designs, but have since been painted over with a faux wood grain. Murals of the construction of the Transcontinental Railroad were painted on the north and south end of the lobby; the second floors of the north and south wing were occupied by Southern Pacific, Ogden Union Railway & Depot Co. and Union Pacific Telegraph Department offices. Of special note are the two drinking fountains on either end of the Grand Lobby; these fountains, surrounded by colored mosaics, were the favorite resting spot of Ogden Union Railway & Depot Co. Superintendent Hubert Lloyd Bell. At Bell's passing in 1927 the OUR&D placed a bronze plaque, bearing his likeness, over the fountain on the north end; the plaque reads "In Memory of Hubert Lloyd Bell SUPT. O. U. RY. AND D. Co. 1918–1927, A Just Man, A Friend Who Will Be Remembered". Plans to turn the station into a museum were first brought forward during the centennial celebration of the driving of the golden spike in 1969.
It was not until 1971 when Amtrak formally took over passenger operations through Ogden that these plans were taken seriously. The station building was turned over to Ogden City on a 50-year lease in 1977 and renovations were begun to house the planned museums. At the dedication ceremony in 1978, Union
Reno is a city in the U. S. state of Nevada, located in the northwestern part of the state 22 miles from Lake Tahoe. Known as "The Biggest Little City in the World", Reno is known for its casino industry, it is the county seat of Washoe County. The city sits in a high desert at the foot of the Sierra Nevada and its downtown area occupies a valley informally known as the Truckee Meadows; the city is named after Union Major General Jesse L. Reno, killed in action at the Battle of South Mountain on Fox's Gap. Reno, with an estimated population of 248,853 as of 2017, is the fourth-most populous city in Nevada after Las Vegas and North Las Vegas, all three of those cities being part of the Las Vegas metropolitan area. Reno is the most populous city in the state outside of the Las Vegas metropolitan area. Reno is part of the Reno–Sparks metropolitan area which consists of all of Washoe and Storey counties. Archaeological finds place the eastern border for the prehistoric Martis people in the Reno area.
As early as the mid 1850s a few pioneers settled in the Truckee Meadows, a fertile valley through which the Truckee River made its way from Lake Tahoe to Pyramid Lake. In addition to subsistence farming, these early residents could pick up business from travelers along the California Trail, which followed the Truckee westward, before branching off towards Donner Lake, where the formidable obstacle of the Sierra Nevada began. Gold was discovered in the vicinity of Virginia City in 1850, a modest mining community developed, but the discovery of silver in 1859 at the Comstock Lode led to a mining rush, thousands of emigrants left their homes, bound for the West, hoping to find a fortune. To provide the necessary connection between Virginia City and the California Trail, Charles W. Fuller built a log toll bridge across the Truckee River in 1859. A small community that would service travelers soon grew up near the bridge. After two years, Fuller sold the bridge to Myron C. Lake, who continued to develop the community with the addition of a grist mill and livery stable to the hotel and eating house.
He renamed it "Lake's Crossing". In 1864, Washoe County was consolidated with Roop County, Lake's Crossing became the largest town in the county. Lake had earned himself the title "founder of Reno". By January 1863, the Central Pacific Railroad had begun laying tracks east from Sacramento, California connecting with the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory, Utah, to form the First Transcontinental Railroad. Lake deeded land to the CPRR in exchange for its promise to build a depot at Lake's Crossing. Once the railroad station was established, the town of Reno came into being on May 9, 1868. CPRR construction superintendent Charles Crocker named the community after Major General Jesse Lee Reno, a Union officer killed in the American Civil War at the Battle of South Mountain. In 1871, Reno became the county seat of the newly expanded Washoe County, replacing the previous county seat, located in Washoe City. However, political power in Nevada remained with the mining communities, first Virginia City and Tonopah and Goldfield.
The extension of the Virginia and Truckee Railroad to Reno in 1872 provided a boost to the new city's economy. In the following decades, Reno continued to grow and prosper as a business and agricultural center and became the principal settlement on the transcontinental railroad between Sacramento and Salt Lake City; as the mining boom waned early in the 20th century, Nevada's centers of political and business activity shifted to the non-mining communities Reno and Las Vegas, today the former mining metropolises stand as little more than ghost towns. Despite this, Nevada is still the third-largest gold producer in the world, after South Africa and Australia; the "Reno Arch" was erected on Virginia Street in 1926 to promote the upcoming Transcontinental Highways Exposition of 1927. The arch included the words "Nevada's Transcontinental Highways Exposition" and the dates of the exposition. After the exposition, the Reno City Council decided to keep the arch as a permanent downtown gateway, Mayor E.
E. Roberts asked the citizens of Reno to suggest a slogan for the arch. No acceptable slogan was received until a $100 prize was offered, G. A. Burns of Sacramento was declared the winner on March 14, 1929, with "Reno, The Biggest Little City in the World". Reno took a leap when the state of Nevada legalized open-gambling on March 19, 1931, along with the passage of more liberal divorce laws than places like Hot Springs, offered. No other state offered what Nevada had in the 1930s, casinos like the Bank Club and Palace were popular. Within a few years, the Bank Club, owned by George Wingfield, Bill Graham, Jim McKay, was the state's largest employer and the largest casino in the world. Wingfield owned most of the buildings in town that housed gaming and took a percentage of the profits, along with his rent. Ernie Pyle once wrote in one of his columns, "All the people you saw on the streets in Reno were there to get divorces." In Ayn Rand's novel The Fountainhead, published in 1943, the New York-based female protagonist tells a friend, "I am going to Reno,", taken as a different way of saying "I am going to divorce my husband."
Among others, the Belgian-French writer Georges Simenon, at the time living in the U. S. came to Reno in 1950. The divorce business died as the other states fell in line by passing their own laws easing the requirements for divorce, but gambling continued as a major Reno industry. While gaming pioneers like "Pappy" and Harold Smith of Harold's Club and