San Fernando Valley
The San Fernando Valley is an urbanized valley in Los Angeles County, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, defined by the mountains of the Transverse Ranges circling it. Home to 1.77 million people, it is north of the more populous Los Angeles Basin. Nearly two thirds of the valley's land area is part of the city of Los Angeles; the other incorporated cities in the valley are Glendale, San Fernando, Hidden Hills, Calabasas. The San Fernando Valley is about 260 square miles bound by the Santa Susana Mountains to the northwest, the Simi Hills to the west, the Santa Monica Mountains and Chalk Hills to the south, the Verdugo Mountains to the east, the San Gabriel Mountains to the northeast; the northern Sierra Pelona Mountains, northwestern Topatopa Mountains, southern Santa Ana Mountains, Downtown Los Angeles skyscrapers can be seen from higher neighborhoods and parks in the San Fernando Valley. The Los Angeles River begins at the confluence of Calabasas Creek and Bell Creek, between Canoga Park High School and Owensmouth Ave. in Canoga Park.
These creeks' headwaters are in the Santa Monica Calabasas foothills, the Simi Hills' Hidden Hills, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Santa Susana Pass Park lands. The river flows eastward along the southern regions of the Valley. One of the river's two unpaved sections can be found at the Sepulveda Basin. A seasonal river, the Tujunga Wash, drains much of the western facing San Gabriel Mountains and passes into and through the Hansen Dam Recreation Center in Lake View Terrace, it flows south along the Verdugo Mountains through the eastern communities of the valley to join the Los Angeles River in Studio City. Other notable tributaries of the river include Dayton Creek, Caballero Creek, Bull Creek, Pacoima Wash, Verdugo Wash; the elevation of the floor of the valley varies from about 600 ft to 1,200 ft above sea level. Most of the San Fernando Valley is within the jurisdiction of the city of Los Angeles, although a few other incorporated cities are located within the valley as well: Burbank and Glendale are in the southeastern corner of the valley, Hidden Hills and Calabasas are in the southwestern corner, San Fernando, surrounded by Los Angeles, is in the northeastern valley.
Universal City, an enclave in the southern part of the valley, is unincorporated land housing the Universal Studios filming lot and theme park. Mulholland Drive, which runs along the ridgeline of the Santa Monica Mountains, marks the boundary between the valley and the communities of Hollywood and the Los Angeles Westside; the valley's natural habitat is a "temperate grasslands and shrublands biome" of grassland, oak savanna, chaparral shrub forest types of plant community habitats, along with lush riparian plants along the river and springs. In this Mediterranean climate, post-1790s European agriculture for the mission's support consisted of grapes, figs and general garden crops; the San Fernando Valley contains five incorporated cities—Glendale, San Fernando, Hidden Hills, Calabasas—and part of a sixth, Los Angeles, which governs a majority of the valley. The unincorporated communities are governed by the County of Los Angeles; the Los Angeles city section of the valley is divided into seven city council districts: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12.
Of the 95 neighborhood councils in the city, 34 are in the valley. The valley is represented in the California State Legislature by seven members of the State Assembly and five members of the State Senate; the valley falls into four congressional districts: the 28th, 29th, 30th, 33rd, represented by Adam Schiff, Tony Cárdenas, Brad Sherman, Ted Lieu. In the Los Angeles County board of supervisors, it is represented by two supervisorial districts, with the western portion represented by Sheila Kuehl and the eastern portion by Kathryn Barger; the San Fernando Valley, for the most part, tends to support Democrats in state and national elections. This is true in the southern areas, which include Sherman Oaks and the city of Burbank; the Los Angeles satellite administrative center for the valley, The Civic Center Van Nuys, is in Van Nuys. The area in and around the Van Nuys branch of Los Angeles City Hall is home to a police station and superior courts and Los Angeles city and county administrative offices.
Northridge is home to Northridge. Many branches of the Los Angeles Public Library are located in the valley. For independent libraries see "Incorporated Cities" in the "Municipalities and districts" list below. Los Angeles Police Department, Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, independent valley city departments. Los Angeles Fire Department, Los Angeles County Fire Department, Burbank Police Department, independent valley city departments. City of Los Angeles neighborhood councils The Tongva known as the Gabrieleño Mission Indians after colonization, the Tataviam to the north and Chumash to the west, had lived and thrived in the valley and its arroyos for over 8,000 years, they had numerous settlements, trading and hunting camps, before the Spanish arrived in 1769 to settle in the Valley. The first Spanish land grant in the San Fernando Valley was called "Rancho Encino", in the northern part of the San Fernando Valley. Juan Francisco Reyes built an adobe dwelling beside a Tongva village or rancheria at natural springs, but the land was soon taken from him so that a mission could be built there
Interstate 405 (California)
Interstate 405 known as the San Diego Freeway is a major north–south Interstate Highway in Southern California. It is a bypass auxiliary route of Interstate 5, running along the southern and western parts of the Greater Los Angeles urban area from Irvine in the south to near San Fernando in the north; the entire route is known as the northern segment of the San Diego Freeway, passes the Los Angeles International Airport. The 405 is a traveled thoroughfare by both commuters and by freight haulers along its entire length and is the busiest and most congested freeway in the United States; the freeway's annual average daily traffic between exits 21 and 22 in Seal Beach reached 374,000 in 2008, making it the highest count in the nation. It has played a crucial role in the development of dozens of cities and suburbs along its route through Los Angeles and Orange counties. Interstate 405 begins at the El Toro Y interchange with Interstate 5 in southeastern Irvine, it runs northwest through Orange County to Long Beach in Los Angeles County.
The freeway roughly follows the outline of the Pacific coast, varying between five and ten miles inland before crossing over the Sepulveda Pass in the Santa Monica Mountains. I-405 travels through the San Fernando Valley, before its termination with I-5 in the Mission Hills district of Los Angeles. Large portions of the route parallel Sepulveda Boulevard; the freeway's congestion problems are legendary, leading to jokes that the road was numbered 405 because traffic moves at "four or five" miles per hour, or because drivers had spent "four or five" hours to travel anywhere. Indeed, average speeds as low as 5 mph are recorded during morning and afternoon commutes, its interchanges with the Ventura Freeway and with the Santa Monica Freeway each rank among the five most congested freeway interchanges in the United States; as a result of these congestion problems, delays passing through the entire Los Angeles metropolitan area using this bypass route instead of using the primary route I-5 through Downtown may be present.
Of the major reasons for the excessively heavy traffic on the freeway, I-405 is the only major north–south freeway in the densely populated areas between West Los Angeles and Downtown, crossing the Santa Monica Mountains and connecting San Fernando Valley and the Los Angeles basin. Another parallel freeway is proposed to connect the Valley and the LA basin, but has faced upper class home-owner opposition. Despite 4 years of construction disruptions, billions of dollars of public money, LA Times commentary claims traffic with the lane expansions is just as bad or worse. I-405 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration; the freeway from present-day I-10 to I-5 near San Fernando is known as the San Diego Freeway, less as the Sepulveda Freeway. There are a number of points of interest that I-405 connects to. For transportation, these include John Wayne Airport in Orange County, Long Beach Municipal Airport and Los Angeles International Airport.
With connections, it is very close to the Port of Long Beach, the Port of Los Angeles and Burbank Airport. Some of the educational institutions it passes include the California state universities at Dominguez Hills, Long Beach, Northridge. I-405 passes cultural facilities such as the Getty Center, the Skirball Cultural Center and the Segerstrom Center for the Arts. In addition, several shopping malls such as Sherman Oaks Galleria, Westfield Culver City, The Promenade at Howard Hughes Center, Westminster Mall, South Coast Plaza and the Irvine Spectrum Center are located along I-405; the route passes by or through many recreation and commercial destinations. These include more than ten California state beaches, several other beaches owned by counties and municipalities, many of the beach cities favored by tourists, as well as Century City and Marina del Rey. I-405 was approved as a chargeable interstate in 1955. Construction began in 1957 with the first section north of LAX Airport being completed in 1961 followed by sections west of Interstate 605 within the following few years.
The highway was renumbered to Interstate 405 during the 1964 renumbering. The final section covering most of Orange County opened in 1969. Construction required the existing Mulholland Highway to be re-routed 1.1 miles to the south along a new 579-foot-long bridge, the Mulholland Drive Bridge, to span Interstate 405. A section of I-405 was closed over the weekend of Friday, July 15, 2011 as part of the Sepulveda Pass Improvements Project. Before the closing, local radio DJs and television newscasts referred to it as "Carmageddon" and "Carpocalypse", parodying the notion of Armageddon and the Apocalypse, since it was anticipated that the closure would impact traffic. In reality, traffic was lighter than normal across a wide area. California Department of Transportation reported that fewer vehicles used the roads than usual, those who did travel by road arrived more than on a normal weekend; the Metrolink commuter train system recorded its highest-ever weekend ridership since it began operating in 1991.
NFI Group Inc.
NFI Group Inc. is North America's largest bus manufacturer specializing in the manufacturing of heavy-duty transit buses and motorcoaches and the distribution of aftermarket parts. Its headquarters are in Winnipeg, with manufacturing and service centers in both Canada and the United States. New Flyer manufactures integral buses, building both the supporting chassis; the company sells vehicles under three brands: New Flyer Xcelsior transit buses, offered with various drive systems and in several lengths. It sold Daimler’s Setra S407 and S417 coaches until 2018. NFI supports MCI, ARBOC, New Flyer buses with NFI Parts, its parts and training division. NFI is the largest bus and coach manufacturer and distributor in North America and employs over 6,000 people across 31 facilities; the company had a 45% market share of all heavy-duty transit buses and a 39% market share of all motorcoaches produced for North America in 2016. It is listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange under the symbol NFI, is a constituent of the S&P/TSX Composite Index.
New Flyer was founded by John Coval in 1930 as Truck Body Works Ltd.. Reflecting an increased focus on bus manufacturing, it changed its name in 1948 to Western Flyer Coach. In the 1960s, the company further focused on the urban transit bus market. In 1971, the then-financially struggling Western Flyer was sold to the Manitoba Development Corporation, an agency of the Manitoba government, renamed Flyer Industries Limited. On July 15, 1986, Jan den Oudsten, a descendant of the family who formed Dutch bus manufacturer Den Oudsten Bussen BV, purchased Flyer Industries from the Manitoba government, changing its name to New Flyer Industries Limited. In March 2002, New Flyer was acquired by KPS Capital Partners, an investment company that specializes in turning around struggling businesses; that year Jan den Oudsten retired as CEO. He was inducted into the American Public Transportation Association's Hall of Fame for his work at the company. On December 15, 2003, New Flyer was purchased by private equity firms Harvest Partners and Lightyear Capital.
The company's CEO, John Marinucci, called the purchase an indicator that the company's operational and financial turnaround had been accomplished. On August 19, 2005, New Flyer became a publicly traded company on the Toronto Stock Exchange. In October 2008, New Flyer was named one of Canada's Top 100 Employers, announced in The Globe and Mail newspaper, the company was featured in Maclean's newsmagazine; that month, New Flyer was named one of Manitoba's Top Employers, announced by the Winnipeg Free Press newspaper. The company converted to a corporate structure from a trust-like structure in October 2011. Brazilian bus manufacturer Marcopolo S. A. acquired a 19.99% stake of New Flyer on January 23, 2013 for $116 million, the maximum it could acquire without offering to buy out other shareholders. As competing manufacturer Daimler exited the North American market in 2013, New Flyer purchased the aftermarket parts business for its Orion brand of heavy-duty transit buses for $29 million. Under the agreement, New Flyer acquired the Orion parts inventory, the company's accounts, license to use proprietary part designs and agreed to provide parts for customer warranty support.
On June 21, 2013, New Flyer agreed to acquire competing heavy-duty transit bus manufacturer, North American Bus Industries. Upon completion of NABI's outstanding orders, New Flyer converted the former NABI factory in Anniston, AL into a fourth facility to produce the Xcelsior heavy-duty transit bus. In November 10, 2015, New Flyer agreed to acquire motorcoach manufacturer Motor Coach Industries from KPS Capital Partners for US$459 million, with the deal closing on December 18, 2015. On September 22, 2016, Marcopolo S. A. reduced its stake in New Flyer to 10.8 %. On December 1, 2017, New Flyer acquired small and mid-sized bus manufacturer ARBOC Specialty Vehicles for US$95 million. New Flyer designed and tested North America's first low-floor bus in 1988 and delivered the first production model, called the D40LF, to the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey in 1991. In 1994, New Flyer delivered the first compressed natural gas bus in North America and the world's first hydrogen fuel cell powered bus.
In 1995, the company delivered the first low-floor articulated bus in North America to Strathcona County Transit. In 2003, King County Metro in Seattle placed an order for 213 hybrid buses, the world's first large order for hybrid buses.2005 saw a restyling of New Flyer's popular low-floor coaches with new front and rear endcaps, to modernize and streamline the exterior appearance of the bus. In May 2012, New Flyer and Alexander Dennis announced a joint venture to design and manufacture medium-duty low-floor bus for the North American market; the bus, called the New Flyer MiDi was based on the design of the Alexander Dennis Enviro200. Alexander Dennis engineered and tested the bus, it was built and marketed by New Flyer under contract. During the partnership around 200 buses were delivered to 22 operators in Canada and US. In May 2017, New Flyer and Alexander Dennis announced their joint venture would end and production of the bus would transition to Alexander Dennis' new North American factory in Indiana where it is produced alongside the double-deck Enviro500 series bus.
In June 2012 New Flyer, in a joint venture with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, the Manitoba Government, Manitoba Hydro and Red River College, unveiled a electric batte
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers; the most common type of bus is the single-deck rigid bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker and articulated buses, smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare. In many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special licence above and beyond a regular driver's licence. Buses may be used for scheduled bus transport, scheduled coach transport, school transport, private hire, or tourism. Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in the 1830s, electric trolleybuses in 1882; the first internal combustion engine buses, or motor buses, were used in 1895. Interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, fuel cell buses, electric buses, as well as ones powered by compressed natural gas or biodiesel.
As of the 2010s, bus manufacturing is globalised, with the same designs appearing around the world. Bus is a clipped form of the dative plural of omnis-e; the theoretical full name is in French voiture omnibus. The name originates from a mass-transport service started in 1823 by a French corn-mill owner named Stanislas Baudry in Richebourg, a suburb of Nantes. A by-product of his mill was hot water, thus next to it he established a spa business. In order to encourage customers he started a horse-drawn transport service from the city centre of Nantes to his establishment; the first vehicles stopped in front of the shop of a hatter named Omnés, which displayed a large sign inscribed "Omnes Omnibus", a pun on his Latin-sounding surname, omnes being the male and female nominative and accusative form of the Latin adjective omnis-e, combined with omnibus, the dative plural form meaning "for all", thus giving his shop the name "Omnés for all". His transport scheme was a huge success, although not as he had intended as most of his passengers did not visit his spa.
He turned the transport service into his principal lucrative business venture and closed the mill and spa. Nantes citizens soon gave the nickname "omnibus" to the vehicle. Having invented the successful concept Baudry moved to Paris and launched the first omnibus service there in April 1828. A similar service was introduced in London in 1829. Regular intercity bus services by steam-powered buses were pioneered in England in the 1830s by Walter Hancock and by associates of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney, among others, running reliable services over road conditions which were too hazardous for horse-drawn transportation; the first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833. Steam carriages were much less to overturn, they travelled faster than horse-drawn carriages, they were much cheaper to run, caused much less damage to the road surface due to their wide tyres. However, the heavy road tolls imposed by the turnpike trusts discouraged steam road vehicles and left the way clear for the horse bus companies, from 1861 onwards, harsh legislation eliminated mechanically propelled vehicles from the roads of Great Britain for 30 years, the Locomotive Act of that year imposing restrictive speed limits on "road locomotives" of 5 mph in towns and cities, 10 mph in the country.
In parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, collaborated on the development of the trolleybus concept. Sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an "...arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus...would have a suspender thrown at intervals from one side of the street to the other, two wires hanging from these suspenders. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the technical criteria of a typical trolleybus, it was dismantled in the same year after the demonstration. Max Schiemann opened a passenger-carrying trolleybus in 1901 in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911.
In Siegerland, two passenger bus lines ran but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a short time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno, Wales. Daimler produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, selling a double-decker bus to the Motor Traction Company, first used on the streets of London on 23 April 1898; the vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 km/h and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air pl
A transit bus is a type of bus used on shorter-distance public transport bus services. Several configurations are used, including low-floor buses, high-floor buses, double-decker buses, articulated buses and midibuses; these are distinct from all-seated coaches used for longer distance journeys and smaller minibuses, for more flexible services. A transit bus will have: large and sometimes multiple doors for ease of boarding and exiting minimal or no luggage space bench or bucket seats, with no coachlike head-rests destination blinds / displays such as headsigns or rollsigns or electronic dot matrix/LED signs legal standing-passenger capacity fare taking/verification equipment pull cord or bus stop request buttonModern transit buses are increasingly being equipped with passenger information systems, multimedia, WiFi, USB charging points, entertainment/advertising, passenger comforts such as heating and air-conditioning; some industry members and commentators promote the idea of making the interior of a transit bus as inviting as a private car, recognising the chief competitor to the transit bus in most markets.
As they are used in a public transport role, transit buses can be operated by publicly run transit authorities or municipal bus companies, as well as private transport companies on a public contract or independent basis. Due to the local authority use, transit buses are built to a third-party specification put to the manufacturer by the authority. Early examples of such specification include the Greater Manchester Leyland Atlantean, DMS-class London Daimler Fleetline. New transit buses may be purchased each time a route/area is contracted, such as in the London Buses tendering system; the operating area of a transit bus may be defined as a geographic metropolitan area, with the buses used outside of this area being more varied with buses purchased with other factors in mind. Some regional-size operators for capital cost reasons may use transit buses interchangeably on short urban routes as well as longer rural routes, sometimes up to 2 or 3 hours. Transit bus operators have a selection of'dual-purpose' fitted buses, standard transit buses fitted with coach-type seating, for longer-distance routes.
Sometimes transit buses may be used as express buses on a limited-stopping or non-stop service at peak times, but over the same distance as the regular route. Fare payment is done via Smart card single or multi-ride coupon/ticket cash and is done upon Pre-payment, done at ticket machines located at the bus stops or at other locations, before getting on the bus. Boarding departing both, e.g. after crossing fare zone boundaries in transit, via an attendant or bus conductor Depending on payment systems in different municipalities, there are different rules with regard to which door, front or rear, one must use when boarding/exiting. For rear doors, most buses have doors opened by patron. Most doors on buses use air-assist technology, the driver controlled doors, use air pressure to force them open, patron-operated doors, can push them open, the doors are heavy, so the touch-to-open or push bar mechanism, sends pressurized air to open the doors. Most doors will signify that they are unlocked and open with lights, this gives guide to those who are going up or down the door steps to not trip and fall.
Unlocked or open doors, will trigger a brake locking mechanism on the bus to prevent it from moving while someone could be entering or exiting the bus, when the door is closed, the lock will release, this is implemented on rear doors, not on front doors, since the driver will be paying attention to the front door. Transit buses can be double-decker, rigid or articulated. Selection of type has traditionally been made on a regional as well as operational basis. Depending on local policies, transit buses will usually have two, three or four doors to facilitate rapid boarding and alighting. In cases of low-demand routes, or to navigate small local streets, some models of minibus and small midibuses have been used as transit type buses; the development of the midibus has given many operators a low-cost way of operating a transit bus service, with some midibuses such as the Plaxton SPD Super Pointer Dart resembling full size transit type vehicles. Due to their public transport role, transit buses were the first type of bus to benefit from low-floor technology, in response to a demand for equal access public service provision.
Transit buses are now subject to various disability discrimination acts in several jurisdictions which dictate various design features applied to other vehicles in some cases. Due to the high number of high-profile urban operations, transit buses are at the forefront of bus electrification, with hybrid electric bus, all-electric bus and fuel cell bus development and testing aimed at reducing fuel usage, shift to green electricity and decreasing environmental impact. Developments of the transit bus towards higher capacity bus transport include tram-like vehicles such as guided buses, longer bi-articulated buses and tram-like buses such as the Wright StreetCar as part of Bus Rapid Transit schemes. Fare collection is seeing a shift to off-bus payment, with either the driver or an inspector verifying fare payments. A commuter or express bus service is a fixed-route bus characterized by service predominantly in on
Valencia High School (Santa Clarita, California)
Valencia High School is a public secondary school located in the Santa Clarita, California community of Valencia and part of the William S. Hart Union High School District. Valencia High School is ranked in Newsweek's 2012 list of America's Best High Schools; the list is based on six components provided by school administrators: graduation rate, college matriculation rate, AP/IB/AICE tests taken per student, average SAT/ACT scores, average AP/IB/AICE scores, AP courses offered per student. Valencia High School opened on September 9, 1994. Highlights include: 1994-95 - First school year. 1997 - First graduation ceremony, held at nearby College of the Canyons. 96-97 was the first school year with all 4 grades in attendance. 1998 - Valencia High School received its first full accreditation from WASC. 2001 - Dr. Paul A. Priesz was named California Principal of the Year. Valencia High School's student population reached over 3,500 students. 2002 - Dr. Priesz was a finalist for National Principal of the Year.
Valencia High School's API test scores were the highest in the district. The boys’ volleyball program secured the first CIF Championship in the school's history. Viking Television was presented an international film-making award. Co-Ed Cheer placed first in the state competition. 2004 - Valencia High School dedicated Dr. Paul A. Priesz Stadium. Valencia High School received a full accreditation from WASC. 2006 - Valencia High School had the largest graduating class in William S. Hart District history; the Valencia boys’ volleyball Team won its 3rd CIF championship. Valencia High School is recognized for its state model School-to-Career program; the Viking softball team won the school's first official National Championship. The Valencia High School choir was chosen to perform in New York City. 2008 - Valencia High School's boys’ volleyball team won the National Championship, its 2nd official National Championship in just three years. The school's softball team went on to clinch another CIF Championship.
Valencia High School's Speech and Debate team won local and national awards. The Valencia High School dance team won a National Championship; this past year marked a number of memorable moments for Valencia High School. For the first time in school history, Valencia scored above 800 on the Academic Performance Index; this achievement placed Valencia High School among the top achieving high schools in both the state and the nation. The school's Mock Trial team won awards at the state level, which advanced them to national competitions. 2009 - The Valencia High School choir performed in Italy at St. Peter's Basilica during a 10-day choral tour; the Valencia High School dance team brought home another National Championship. Circle of Friends, a program of inclusion for special needs and general education peers, was created; the former principal of Valencia High School is Dr. Paul Priesz, he was named Principal of the Year by the Association of California School Administrators for 2002 and came in 8th place for California's 2004 National High School Principal of the Year.
Dr. Paul Priesz is now retired and the new principal of Valencia High School is John Costanzo, the principal of Rio Norte Junior High School. Valencia High School has an award-winning video program; the video program has entered their productions into competitions such as the Student Television Network, All American High School Film Festival, National Film Festival For Talented Youth and the Santa Clarita Film Festival. Eric Hernandez won the Best High School Film Award in 2006 for his film "Living Reflection." The video program features the daily live-television program, VTV. VTV is an early morning news broadcast to the entire school, updating the school on club information, current events and sports. In 2007, VTV became a member of the National Student Television Network, participated in the 2007 tournament at the Disneyland hotel; the VTV team took 3rd place at the tournament. In April 2009 VTV won first place in the 12 Hour Film Festival, for their short film "Hugh takes a Chance", their other film, Reading to Jack and directed by John Savant, won best high school film at the Santa Clarita film festival.
Reading to Jack won best screenplay at STN 2010, has been entered into other film festivals. In 2012, VTV won Best Picture at the STN Film Festival for their film "Shakespeare and Tacos", VTV's Macky Brazina won First Place for Anchoring. In 2016, Kyle Tisdale became the first Production Manager in the history of the program; that year, 8 films produced under him screened at AAHSFF. In addition, the program began work on an extensive documentary named "The In Word", an exploration of the etymology of the titular "In Word", which features interviews from prominent music industry professionals such as Snoop Dogg, Ice Cube, Jermaine Jackson, Kendrick Lamar; the Valencia High School Choir program consists of 200 students in six separate touring choirs. The VHS Choirs have traveled to Florida, Carnegie Hall and Lincoln Center New York, Italy and London; the Concert Choir and Women's Chamber Ensembles have achieved the ratings of "Gold Choir" and "Choir of the Festival" and have been invited to the prestigious Festival of Gold numerous times.
Their student accompanists have won the honored Maestro Awards. Each year for the last four years, Valencia has had multiple students accepted into the California All-State Honor Choir. In May 2008, the Women's Choir Dona Bella was awarded Best Overall Choir, the "Esprit Du Cour - Ensemble of
North Hollywood, Los Angeles
North Hollywood is a neighborhood located in the east San Fernando Valley region of the city of Los Angeles. It is home to the NoHo Arts District and the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, it has seven public and eight private schools. There is a recreation center; the neighborhood is an important transportation center. North Hollywood was established by the Lankershim Ranch Land and Water Company in 1887, it was first named Toluca before being renamed Lankershim in 1896 and North Hollywood in 1927. The 2000 U. S. census counted 77,848 residents in the 5.87-square-mile North Hollywood neighborhood—or 13,264 people per square mile, about an average population density for the city but among the highest for the county. In 2008, the city estimated that the population had increased to 87,241. In 2000 the median age for residents was 30, considered an average age for city and county neighborhoods; the neighborhood was considered "moderately diverse" ethnically within Los Angeles. The breakdown was Latinos, 57.7%.
Mexico and El Salvador were the most common places of birth for the 46.4% of the residents who were born abroad—a high percentage for Los Angeles. The percentages of never-married men and never-married women were among the county's highest; the median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was $42,791, considered average for the city but low for the county. The percentages of households that earned $40,000 or less were high for the county. Renters occupied 75.4% of the housing stock, house- or apartment-owners held 24.6%. North Hollywood is bordered on the north on the northeast and east by Burbank. Toluca Lake borders North Hollywood on the southeast and south, Studio City abuts it on the southwest, it is flanked by Valley Glen on the west. It is not contiguous with Hollywood, being separated by other parts of the San Fernando Valley and the Hollywood Hills. North Hollywood displays a hot summer Mediterranean Climate North Hollywood was once part of the vast landholdings of the Mission San Fernando Rey de España, confiscated by the government during the Mexican period of rule.
A group of investors assembled as the San Fernando Farm Homestead Association purchased the southern half of the Rancho Ex-Mission San Fernando. The leading investor was Isaac Lankershim, a Northern California stockman and grain farmer, impressed by the Valley's wild oats and proposed to raise sheep on the property. In 1873, Isaac Lankershim's son and future son-in-law, James Boon Lankershim and Isaac Newton Van Nuys, moved to the San Ferndando Valley and took over management of the property. Van Nuys thought the property could profitably grow wheat using the dryland farming technique developed on the Great Plains and leased land from the Association to test his theories. In time, the Lankershim property, under its third name, the Los Angeles Farming and Milling Company, would become the world's largest wheat-growing empire. In October 1887, J. B. Lankershim and eight other developers organized the Lankershim Ranch Land and Water Company, purchasing 12,000 acres north of the Cahuenga Pass from the Lankershim Farming and Milling Company.
Lankershim established a townsite which the residents named Toluca along the old road from Cahuenga Pass to San Fernando. On April 1, 1888, they offered ready-made small farms for sale planted with deep-rooted deciduous fruit and nut trees—mostly peaches, pears and walnuts—that could survive the rainless summers of the Valley by relying on the high water table along the Tujunga Wash rather than surface irrigation; the land boom of the 1880s went bust by the 1890s, but despite another brutal drought cycle in the late 1890s, the fruit and nut farmers remained solvent. The Toluca Fruit Growers Association was formed in 1894; the next year the Southern Pacific opened a branch line slanting northwest across the Valley to Chatsworth. The Chatsworth Limited made one freight stop a day at Toluca, though the depot bore the new name of Lankershim. With the post office across the street being called Toluca, controversy over the town's name continued, the local ranchers used to quip, "Ship the merchandise to Lankershim, but bill it to Toluca."
In 1896, under pressure from Lankershim, the post office at Toluca was renamed "Lankershim" after his father, although the new name of the town would not be recognized until 1905. By 1903, the area was known as "The Home of the Peach". In 1912, the area's major employer, the Bonner Fruit Company, was canning over a million tons of peaches and other fruits; when the Los Angeles Aqueduct opened in 1913, Valley farmers offered to buy the surplus water, but the federal legislation that enabled the construction of the aqueduct prohibited Los Angeles from selling the water outside of the city limits. At first, resistance to the real-estate development and downtown business interests of Los Angeles remained strong enough to keep the small farmers unified in opposition to annexation. However, the fruit packing company interests were taken over by the Los Angeles interests; the two conspired to decrease prices and mitigate the farmers' profit margins, making their continued existence tenuous. When droughts hit the valley again, rather than face foreclosure, the most vulnerable farmers agreed to mortgage their holdings to the fruit packing company and banks in Los Angeles for the immediate future and vote on annexation.
West Lankershim agreed to be annexed to the City of Los Angeles in 1919, Lankershim proper in 1923. Much of the promised water delivery was withheld, many of the ranchers one