In American and Philippine broadcasting, a city of license or community of license is the community that a radio station or television station is licensed to serve by that country's broadcast regulator. In North American broadcast law, the concept of community of license dates to the early days of AM radio broadcasting; the requirement that a broadcasting station operate a main studio within a prescribed distance of the community which the station is licensed to serve appears in U. S. law as early as 1939. Various specific obligations have been applied to broadcasters by governments to fulfill public policy objectives of broadcast localism, both in radio and also in television, based on the legislative presumption that a broadcaster fills a similar role to that held by community newspaper publishers. In the United States, the Communications Act of 1934 requires that "the Commission shall make such distribution of licenses, hours of operation, of ower among the several States and communities as to provide a fair and equitable distribution of radio service to each of the same."
The Federal Communications Commission interprets this as requiring that every broadcast station "be licensed to the principal community or other political subdivision which it serves." For each broadcast service, the FCC defines a standard for. This electric field contour is called the "principal community contour"; the Federal Communications Commission makes other requirements on stations relative to their communities of license. One example is the requirement for stations to identify themselves, by call sign and community, at sign-on, sign-off, at the top of every hour of operation. Other current requirements include providing a local telephone number in the community's calling area and maintaining an official main studio within 25 miles of the community's geographic center; the requirement that a station maintain a main studio within a station's primary coverage area or within a maximum distance of the community of license originated in an era in which stations were required to generate local content and the majority of a station's local, non-network programming was expected to originate in one central studio location.
In this context, the view of broadcast regulators held that an expedient way to ensure that content broadcast reflected the needs of a local community was to allocate local broadcast stations and studios to each individual city. The nominal main studio requirement has become less relevant with the introduction of videotape recorders in 1956, the growing portability of broadcast-quality production equipment due to transistorization and the elimination of requirements that broadcasters originate any minimum amount of local content. While the main studio concept nominally remains in US broadcast regulations, certain administrative requirements are still applied, removal of the requirement that stations originate local content weakens the significance of maintaining a local main studio. A facility capable of originating programming and feeding it to a transmitter must still exist, but under normal conditions there most is no requirement that these local studio be in active use to originate any specific local programming.
In many cases, the use of centralcasting and broadcast automation has weakened the role and importance of manual control by staff at the nominal local station studio facilities. Exceptions to these rules have been made by regulators on a case-by-case basis, to deal with "satellite stations": transmitters which are licensed to comply with the technical requirements of full service broadcast facilities and have their own independent call signs and communities of license but are used as full-power broadcast translators to rebroadcast another station; these are most non-commercial educational stations or stations serving thinly populated areas which otherwise would be too small to support an independent local full-service broadcaster. The requirement that a full-service station maintain local presence in its community of license has been used by proponents of localism and community broadcasting as a means to oppose the construction and use of local stations as mere rebroadcasters or satellite-fed translators of distant stations.
Without specific requirements for service to the local community of license, stations could be constructed in large number by out-of-region broadcasters who feed transmitters via satellite and offer no local content. There has been a de facto preference by regulators to encourage the assignment of broadcast licenses to smaller cities which otherwise would have no local voice, instead of allowing all broadcast activity to be concentrated in large metropolitan areas served by many existing broadcasters; when dealing with multiple competing US radio station applications, current FM allotment priorities are: first full-time aural service. Similar criteria were extended to compe
Archos Generation 4 were a series of Archos portable media players released from 2006 through 2007. The Generation 4 series is an upgrade to the previous AV and Gmini series the AV500s. There are 8 models in all. All players are Microsoft PlaysForSure compatible. Archos employed a philosophy of producing a modular player, making the standard 04 unit base price cheaper with the option of adding on additional features for additional costs. Using the DVR Station or the DVR Travel Adapter, each unit can record from TV and other standard video sources; the DVR Station and DVR Travel Adapter are not included with the units and must be purchased separately. The DVR station is available as an optional accessory for the 4th Gen players and allows the user to Record TV or other video sources such as satellite/cable box, VCR, DVD player or camcorder in MPEG-4 format. You can make scheduled recordings using a program built into the players; the DVR station allows you to turn the players into camcorders by connecting most digital cameras into the DVR station or you can the optional Archos helmet camera.
It records the video directly on the 30 GB hard drive in MPEG-4 format. The Generation 4 products are criticized for charging for accessories and audio and video codec support that came packaged with the last generation AV series players; these include the DVR capabilities, support for files such as MPEG-1. Not all video codecs work right out of the box; each unit is capable of playing MPEG-2/VOB videos with Dolby 5.1 Sound sound and H.264 videos with AAC sound, however separate plugins must be purchased to unlock these capabilities. The 604 WiFi has been criticized for its somewhat slow web-browser and lower screen quality in comparison to the 604; the latter is the effect of adding the touchscreen which required the screen to be matte rather than glossy. The 504 has received some issues with static electricity problems; the 404 Camcorder has received positive reviews for its wide range of features and low price, however the unit has been criticised for a low quality image for still shots, comparable to a cell phone.
The 604 is the flagship model, the main successor to the AV500. Features include a 30 GB HDD, a 4.3 inch, 16:9 aspect ratio widescreen WQVGA screen, a removable battery, a kickstand, the ability to record video and audio from line-in sources, or the included microphone. It is thinner than the 504, about the same thickness as the 404 and 404 camcorder; the screen is glossy unlike the 404, which have semi-matte finishes. The 604 family uses the Texas Instruments DaVinci DM644x processor; the Archos 604 WiFi is a touch-screen multimedia player which provides access to the Internet. It has the full capabilities of the standard 604 with the added built in Wi-Fi, a web browser; the touchscreen required the screen to have a matte finish and the Wi-Fi module adds an extra stub to the unit's side. It is otherwise identical to the 604; the 604 WiFi features the Opera 8.5 web browser. This allows for full internet browsing; the surfing experience on the ARCHOS 604 WiFi is further enhanced by Opera's Medium Screen Rendering technology to change the page to suit the 4.3 inch screen.
It retains all of the 604's features. Unlike the 604, removing the battery exposes the 504's 2.5-inch harddrive. Users have reported upgrading the harddrive themselves. However, this ability has been cut off in firmware version 1.5 and but the users have been able to install the older firmware. The 504 uses the Texas Instruments DaVinci DM644x processor. Designed to be the budget level PVP, the 404 was created as a smaller version of the 604; the 404 retains many of the same features and all accessories and plug-ins for the 604 are compatible. The major difference is the screen, it is not wide. The screen has 24-bit color; the unit has 30 GB of a voice recorder microphone. The main market point from Archos was that it was similar in size to comparably priced PMPs but has about twice the screen size; the 404 family uses the Texas Instruments DaVinci DM644x processor. A variation of the standard 404, adding a 1.3 MP camera on the back to take stills images and video recordings. It includes all the features of the standard 404.
While it is the only one of the series to have
Marefa is a not-for-profit online encyclopedia project that uses the wiki system to provide a free Arabic encyclopedia similar to Wikipedia. It was set up by Nayel Shafei on February 16, 2007. Sister projects include Manuscript documentation, Collaborative books, Blogsphere, E-mail accounts, Video/Audio library. In September, 2007, Marefa received 25,000 manuscripts and old books, in Arabic script, from the Government of India; these are scanned images of books stored in and around Osmania University, India. The books are in Arabic and Ottoman Turkish. Marefa started the electronic publishing of them and made them available for free. University of North Carolina puts Marefa as one of top eight sources for Arabic Manuscripts, with notable global cultural centers of Arabic heritage, like, Süleymaniye Library and Azhar University, Cairo. Middle East Librarian Association recommends the Marefa to its members, its cited Marefa's receipt of 25,000 Arabic and Persian books and manuscripts from the Government of India.
In addition to articles and original manuscripts, Marefa offers a vast variety of multimedia projects for its visitors. On the home page, viewers can find developing news stories from around updated daily. Marefa added a video library where visitors can watch clips uploaded by administrators and other visitors. In Spring 2009, Marefa began. Marefa members and visitors from around the world discuss pressing global issues, on the Webinar, by hooking up webcams and microphones to their computers and communicating with each other in real time; the weekly Webinar features a guest lecturer speaking about her area of expertise. Past Webinars have included talks on the Yemeni secession movement, 2009 Iranian national elections, historic roots of current crisis in Somalia. Marefa offers e-mail accounts to members; the founder of Marefa, Nayel Shafei, was in 2005-06, one of the contributors to Arabic Wikipedia in number of different articles. After what he describes as a takeover of the Arabic Wikipedia that culminated in banning him, he stopped contributing to it, formed Marefa.
Marefa started with content from several permitting sources including Wikipedia. Marefa uses Wiki-format for its site but provides articles on individuals and items not found on the Arabic Wikipedia site. Marefa uses content from the English and Arabic sites for baseline material, but Marefa provides additional details, images and commentary for articles that may not be found on the Arabic Wikipedia site. Marefa's articles are in Arabic but have a multilingual linking system in which alternative language editions of a given article in Marefa are linked to Wikipedia editions in those languages. Marefa website