New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Giovanni Antonio Canal, better known as Canaletto, was an Italian painter of city views or vedute, of Venice and London. He painted imaginary views, although the demarcation in his works between the real and the imaginary is never quite clearcut, he was further an important printmaker using the etching technique. In the period from 1746 to 1756 he worked in England where he painted many views of London, other sites as far north as Warwick Castle and Alnwick Castle, he was successful in England, thanks to the British merchant and connoisseur Joseph "Consul" Smith, whose large collection of Canaletto's works was sold to King George III in 1762. He was born in Venice as the son of the painter Bernardo Canal, hence his mononym Canaletto, Artemisia Barbieri. Canaletto served his apprenticeship with his brother, he began in that of a theatrical scene painter. Canaletto was inspired by the Roman vedutista Giovanni Paolo Pannini, started painting the daily life of the city and its people. After returning from Rome in 1719, he began painting in his topographical style.
His first known signed and dated work is Architectural Capriccio. Studying with the older Luca Carlevarijs, a well-regarded painter of urban cityscapes, he became his master's equal. In 1725, the painter Alessandro Marchesini, the buyer for the Lucchese art collector Stefano Conti, had inquired about buying two more'views of Venice', when the agent urged him to consider instead the work of "Antonio Canale... it is like Carlevaris, but you can see the sun shining in it." Much of Canaletto's early artwork was painted "from nature", differing from the customary practice of completing paintings in the studio. Some of his works do revert to this custom, as suggested by the tendency for distant figures to be painted as blobs of colour – an effect produced by using a camera obscura, which blurs farther-away objects – although research by art historians working for the Royal Collection in the United Kingdom has shown Canaletto never used a camera obscura. However, his paintings are always notable for their accuracy: he recorded the seasonal submerging of Venice in water and ice.
Canaletto's early works remain his most coveted and, according to his best. One of his early pieces is The Stonemason's Yard, it is regarded one of his finest works and was presented by Sir George Beaumont in 1823 and 1828. Canaletto painted grand scenes of the canals of Venice and the Doge's Palace, his large-scale landscapes portrayed the city's pageantry and waning traditions, making innovative use of atmospheric effects and strong local colours. For these qualities, his works may be said to have anticipated Impressionism, his graphic print S. A. Giustina in Prà della Vale was found in the 2012 Munich Art Hoard. Many of his pictures were sold to Englishmen on their Grand Tour, first through the agency of Owen Swiny and the banker Joseph Smith, appointed British Consul in Venice in 1744, it was Swiny in the late 1720s who encouraged the artist to paint small topographical views of Venice with a commercial appeal for tourists and foreign visitors to the city. Sometime before 1728, Canaletto began his association with Joseph Smith, an English businessman and collector living in Venice, who became the artist's principal agent and patron.
Smith acquired nearly fifty paintings, one hundred fifty drawings, fifteen rare etchings from Canaletto, the largest and finest single group of the artist's works, that he sold to King George III in 1763. In the 1740s Canaletto's market was disrupted when the War of the Austrian Succession led to a reduction in the number of British visitors to Venice. Smith arranged for the publication of a series of etchings of "capricci" in his vedute ideale, but the returns were not high enough, in 1746 Canaletto moved to London, to be closer to his market, he remained in England until 1755, producing views of his patrons' castles and houses. His 1754 painting of Old Walton Bridge includes an image of Canaletto himself, he was expected to paint England in the fashion with which he had painted his native city. Canaletto's painting began to suffer from repetitiveness, losing its fluidity, becoming mechanical to the point that the English art critic George Vertue suggested that the man painting under the name'Canaletto' was an impostor.
Historian Michael Levey described his work from this period as "inhibited". The artist was compelled to give public painting demonstrations in order to refute this claim. After his return to Venice, Canaletto was elected to the Venetian Academy in 1763 and appointed prior of the Collegio dei Pittori, he continued to paint until his death in 1768. In his years he worked from old sketches, but he sometimes produced surprising new compositions, he was willing to make subtle alternations to topography for artistic effect. His pupils included his nephew Bernardo Bellotto, Francesco Guardi, Michele Marieschi, Gabriele Bella, Giuseppe Moretti; the painter, Giuseppe Bernardino Bison was a follower of his style. Joseph Smith sold much of his collection to George III, creating the bulk of the large collection of works by Canaletto owned by the Royal Collection. in 1762, George III paid £20,000 for Consul Smith's collection of 50 paintings and 142 drawings. There are many examples of h
Antonio López García
Antonio López García is a Spanish painter and sculptor, known for his realistic style. He is criticized by some art critics for what they consider neo-academism, but praised by others, such as Robert Hughes, who consider him a master realist, his style sometimes is deemed hyperrealistic. His painting was the subject of the film El Sol del Membrillo, by Victor Erice, in 1992. López García was born on 6 January 1936 in Tomelloso, Ciudad Real, a few months before the beginning of the Spanish Civil War, it first appeared that Antonio would continue in the family tradition as a farmer, but an early facility for drawing caught the attention of his uncle Antonio Lopez Torres, a local painter of landscapes, who gave him his first lessons. In 1949 he moved to Madrid in order to study for entrance to the competitive Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. Between 1950 and 1955 he studied art at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, winning a number of prizes. While at the school he developed a friendship with Maria Moreno—also a painter—whom he would marry in 1961.
He formed friendships with Francisco Lopez Hernandez, Amalia Avia, Isabel Quintanilla. Out of this nucleus a realist group, the New Spanish Realists, was formed in Madrid. López Garcia became friends with a Canadian studying in Madrid. Although Chambers did not belong to the New Spanish Realists, parallels to their style can be found in his work created in Canada in the late 1960s. Madrid of the postwar period was isolated from the international panorama of culture. All the information that López García accessed on contemporary art was derived from library books at the school. In 1955, a scholarship allowed him to travel to Italy with Francisco Lopez and study Italian painting from the Renaissance. During this period he began to reevaluate Spanish painting in the Prado Velázquez, a constant reference. By 1957 his work had registered a certain surreal quality. Figures and objects appear to float in space and his pictures are populated by images removed from their contexts; the fantastic vein remains at least until 1964.
During this period Antonio López shows an increasing interest in the representation of objects, independent of their contained narrative load. Magic Realism continued to inform his work through the mid-1960s, but as he said, "the physical world gained more prestige in my eyes." In fact he had never abandoned it. The 1959 oil Francisco Carretero and A. López García Talking, like many portraits and townscapes of this period, is devoid of surrealistic devices. So are Autumn and The Sea; some of his relief sculptures conjure fantastic episodes, such as The Apparition, in which a child hovers mid-air against a wall, gliding toward an open door. There are many affinities with the Tuscan Renaissance in his work in three dimensions; the ethereal Head of Carmencita, for example, might at first glance be taken for a quattrocento Florentine bronze by Desiderio da Settignano. García's painting reverberates with the art of the past; the Grapevine evokes Tiepolo's sunlight, The Quince Tree Chardin's dusky murk, other paintings echo Old Masters from Dürer to Degas.
The beauty of López García's work begins with an appreciation of his craft. Paintings such as The Sideboard, or the atmospheric views of Madrid from the 1970s, show an acute perception and understanding of the beauty of the objects he portrays. Though López García is devoted to the mundane—he depicts humble people, buildings and cluttered interiors—his portrayal of these subjects is compelling and beautiful. Starkly lit studies of his studio and the red brick wall in his backyard underscore an interest in prosaic subject matter, his deftness brings attention to these simple forms, encouraging the viewer to re-examine the presence of ordinary objects. He began to paint panoramic views of Madrid about 1960, his work from this period attracted recognition, first within Spain—in 1961 he had his first solo show in Madrid—and in 1965 and 1968, at the Staempfli Gallery in New York. López García faithfully adhered to familiar subjects: images of women and humble objects of domestic surroundings, desolate spaces, images of his garden and landscape.
The pictures are sometimes worked on for some of them remaining unfinished. As the artist explains, "the pictorial nucleus begins to grow and you work until the whole surface has an expressive intensity equivalent to what you have before you, converted into a pictorial reality." He is a versatile realist, proficient in the traditional media of pencil drawing, oil painting on board, carved wood sculpture, bas relief in plaster. Because he is not prolific, García has had only a handful of one-artist shows, his first individual show was held at the Ateneo de Madrid in 1957. Three have been in New York: two in the 1960s and one, in 1986, at his current representative, the Marlborough Gallery. In 2008 he was featured in a solo exhibition at the Museum of Boston; the exhibition included the two enormous bronze heads he sculpted of his grandchildren, which were placed on the front lawn of the Museum of Fine Arts. His work is in several major U. S. museum collections. He has a temporary exhibit at the Thyssen Museum in Madrid.
During most of his career, Antonio López García worked amidst an artistic culture dominated first by abstraction and by conceptual currents. In the 1960s and the 1970s, his prestige grew, it is possible to establish links between his work and the new European figurative tendencies or the American hyperrealism. López Garcia has won numerous awards. After winning the III National Art Con
Gerrit Adriaenszoon Berckheyde was a Dutch Golden Age painter, active in Haarlem and The Hague, best known today for his cityscapes. Berckheyde was died in Haarlem. Christened as an infant 6 June 1638, he was the younger brother and student of the painter Job Adriaenszoon Berckheyde. Golden-age historian Arnold Houbraken claimed that Job had been trained as a bookbinder by his father, could not discover who taught him to paint. Gerrit in turn learned from his older brother. Job's teacher must have been a Haarlem master, some claim it was Frans Hals, but Houbraken claimed he travelled as a journeyman between Leiden and Utrecht offering his services as a portrait painter and learned by doing. During the 1650s the two brothers made an extended trip along the Rhine to Germany, stopping off at Cologne, Bonn and Heidelberg; the brothers worked in Heidelberg for Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine, where they were both awarded a golden medal for their efforts, but were unable to adapt to court life and so returned to Haarlem, where they shared a house and studio.
Gerrit became a member of the Haarlem Guild of Saint Luke on 27 July 1660. He was followed by the painter Adriaen Oudendijck. According to the RKD he was a painter known for his Italianate landscapes as well as portraits and cavalry pieces, his influences include Pieter Saenredam's style, refined draughtsmanship and dispassionate attitude—in short, the qualities of "Dutch Classicism", akin to Vermeer. Berckheyde favoured views of monuments on large open squares, rather than giving up clarity for the sake of pictorial effect by painting views along canals as the other great Dutch cityscape painter, Jan van der Heyden, did. Gerrit Adriaensz Berkheyde on Artnet Web Gallery of Art Art 4 Today Works and literature Dutch and Flemish paintings from the Hermitage, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Berckheyde
Everyday life, daily life or routine life comprises the ways in which people act and feel on a daily basis. Everyday life may be described as mundane, natural, habitual, or normal. Human diurnality means most people are active in daytime. Most eat three meals in a day. Working time involves a daily schedule, beginning in the morning; this produces the daily rush hours experienced by many millions, the drive time focused on by radio broadcasters. Evening is leisure time. Bathing every day is a custom for many. Beyond these broad similarities, lifestyles vary and different people spend their days differently. Nomadic life differs from sedentism, among the sedentary, urban people live differently from rural folk. Differences in the lives of the rich and the poor, or between factory workers and intellectuals, may go beyond their working hours. Many women spend their day in activities different from those of men, everywhere children do different things than adults. Everyday life is a key concept in cultural studies and is a specialized subject in the field of sociology.
Some argue that, motivated by capitalism and industrialism's degrading effects on human existence and perception and artists of the 19th century turned more towards self-reflection and the portrayal of everyday life represented in their writings and art to a noticeably greater degree than in past works, for example Renaissance literature's interest in hagiography and politics. Other theorists dispute this argument based on a long history of writings about daily life which can be seen in works from Ancient Greece, medieval Christianity and the Age of Enlightenment. In the study of everyday life gender has been an important factor in its conceptions; some theorists regard women as the quintessential victims of everyday life. The connotation of everyday life is negative and is distinctively separated from exceptional moments by its lack of distinction and differentiation defined as the essential, taken-for-granted continuum of mundane activity that outlines forays into more esoteric experiences.
It is the non-negotiable reality that exists amongst all social groupings without discrimination and is an unavoidable basis for which all human endeavor exists. Much of everyday life is automatic in that it is driven by current environmental features as mediated by automatic cognitive processing of those features, without any mediation by conscious choice, according to social psychologist John A. Bargh. Daily life is studied by sociologists to investigate how it is organised and given meaning. A sociological journal called the Journal of Mundane Behavior, published 2000 - 2004, studied these everyday actions. Daily entertainment once consisted of telling stories in the evening; this custom developed into the theatre of ancient Greece and other professional entertainments. Reading became less a mysterious specialty of scholars, more a common pleasure for people who could afford books. During the 20th century mass media became prevalent in rich countries, creating among other things a daily prime time to consume fiction and other professionally produced works.
Different media forms serve different purposes in different individuals' everyday lives—which give people the opportunities to make choices about what media form--watching television, using the Internet, listening to the radio, or reading newspapers or magazines—most help them to accomplish their tasks. Many people have increased their daily use of the Internet, over all other media forms. Fearing changes promoted by mass entertainment, social conservatives have long censored books and films, called television a vast wasteland, predicted that social media and other Internet sites would distract people from good personal relationships or valuable interactions; these concerns did not prevent the progressively wider popularity of these innovations. People's everyday lives are shaped through communication, they choose what to do with their time based on opinions and ideals formed through the discourse they are exposed to. Much of the dialogue people are subject to comes from the mass media, an important factor in what shapes human experience.
The media uses language to make an impact on one’s everyday life, whether that be as small as helping to decide where to eat or as big as choosing a representative in government. To improve people's everyday life, Phaedra Pezzullo, professor in the Department of Communication and Culture at Indiana University Bloomington, says people should seek to understand the rhetoric that so and unnoticeably changes their lives, she writes that “...rhetoric enables us to make connections... It's about understanding how we engage with the world.” Activities of daily living is a term used in healthcare to refer to daily self care activities within an individual's place of residence, in outdoor environments, or both. Health professionals refer to the ability or inability to perform ADLs as a measurement of the functional status of a person in regard to people with disabilities and the elderly. ADLs are defined as "the things we do...such as feeding ourselves, dressing, work and leisure." The ability and the extent to which the elderly can perform these activities is at the focus of gerontology and understandings of life.
In an'active society' which sees mobility as an important norm, constant physical activity has replaced the striving towards personal growth in life. Wyer, Robert S.. The Automaticity of Everyday life. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 0805816992 Sigmund Freud, The Psychopat
The Bible is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures. Varying parts of the Bible are considered to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans by Christians, Jews and Rastafarians. What is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups; the Hebrew Bible overlaps with the Christian Old Testament. The Christian New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be Jewish disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek. Among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about what should be included in the canon about the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect. Attitudes towards the Bible differ among Christian groups. Roman Catholics, high church Anglicans and Eastern Orthodox Christians stress the harmony and importance of the Bible and sacred tradition, while Protestant churches, including Evangelical Anglicans, focus on the idea of sola scriptura, or scripture alone.
This concept arose during the Protestant Reformation, many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only infallible source of Christian teaching. The Bible has been a massive influence on literature and history in the Western World, where the Gutenberg Bible was the first book printed using movable type. According to the March 2007 edition of Time, the Bible "has done more to shape literature, history and culture than any book written, its influence on world history is unparalleled, shows no signs of abating." With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, it is considered to be the most influential and best-selling book of all time. As of the 2000s, it sells 100 million copies annually; the English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the same word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin and from Koinē Greek: τὰ βιβλία, translit. Ta biblia "the books". Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra "holy book", while biblia in Greek and Late Latin is neuter plural, it came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun in medieval Latin, so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe.
Latin biblia sacra "holy books" translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια tà biblía tà ágia, "the holy books". The word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of "paper" or "scroll" and came to be used as the ordinary word for "book", it is the diminutive of βύβλος byblos, "Egyptian papyrus" so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece. The Greek ta biblia was "an expression. Christian use of the term can be traced to c. 223 CE. The biblical scholar F. F. Bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer to use the Greek phrase ta biblia to describe both the Old and New Testaments together. By the 2nd century BCE, Jewish groups began calling the books of the Bible the "scriptures" and they referred to them as "holy", or in Hebrew כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ, Christians now call the Old and New Testaments of the Christian Bible "The Holy Bible" or "the Holy Scriptures"; the Bible was divided into chapters in the 13th century by Stephen Langton and it was divided into verses in the 16th century by French printer Robert Estienne and is now cited by book and verse.
The division of the Hebrew Bible into verses is based on the sof passuk cantillation mark used by the 10th-century Masoretes to record the verse divisions used in earlier oral traditions. The oldest extant copy of a complete Bible is an early 4th-century parchment book preserved in the Vatican Library, it is known as the Codex Vaticanus; the oldest copy of the Tanakh in Hebrew and Aramaic dates from the 10th century CE. The oldest copy of a complete Latin Bible is the Codex Amiatinus. Professor John K. Riches, Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism at the University of Glasgow, says that "the biblical texts themselves are the result of a creative dialogue between ancient traditions and different communities through the ages", "the biblical texts were produced over a period in which the living conditions of the writers – political, cultural and ecological – varied enormously". Timothy H. Lim, a professor of Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Judaism at the University of Edinburgh, says that the Old Testament is "a collection of authoritative texts of divine origin that went through a human process of writing and editing."
He states that it is not a magical book, nor was it written by God and passed to mankind. Parallel to the solidification of the Hebrew canon, only the Torah first and the Tanakh began to be translated into Greek and expanded, now referred to as the Septuagint or the Greek Old Testament. In Christian Bibles, the New Testament Gospels were derived from oral traditions in the second half of the first century CE. Riches says that: Scholars have attempted to reconstruct something of the history of the oral traditions behind the Gospels, but the results have not been too encouraging; the period of transmission is short: less than 40 years passed between the death of Jesus and the writing of Mark's Gospel. This means that there was little time for oral trad
The Hague is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland. It is the seat of government of the Netherlands. With a metropolitan population of more than 1 million, it is the third-largest city in the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam; the Rotterdam–The Hague metropolitan area, with a population of 2.7 million, is the 13th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country. Located in the west of the Netherlands, The Hague is in the centre of the Haaglanden conurbation and lies at the southwest corner of the larger Randstad conurbation; the Hague is the seat of the Cabinet, the States General, the Supreme Court, the Council of State of the Netherlands, but the city is not the constitutional capital of the Netherlands, Amsterdam. King Willem-Alexander lives in Huis ten Bosch and works at the Noordeinde Palace in The Hague, together with Queen Máxima; the Hague is home to the world headquarters of Royal Dutch Shell and other Dutch companies.
Most foreign embassies in the Netherlands and 200 international governmental organisations are located in the city, including the International Court of Justice and the International Criminal Court, which makes The Hague one of the major cities hosting a United Nations institution along with New York City, Vienna and Nairobi. Because of this, The Hague is known as the home of international law and arbitration; the Hague was first mentioned as Die Haghe in 1242. In the 15th century, the name des Graven hage came into use "The Count's Wood", with connotations like "The Count's Hedge, Private Enclosure or Hunting Grounds". "'s Gravenhage" was used for the city from the 17th century onward. Today, this name is only used in some official documents like marriage certificates; the city itself uses "Den Haag" in all its communications. Little is known about the origin of The Hague. There are no contemporary documents describing it, sources are of dubious reliability. What is certain is that The Hague was founded by the last counts of the House of Holland.
Floris IV owned two residences in the area, but purchased a third court situated by the present-day Hofvijver in 1229 owned by a woman called Meilendis. Floris IV intended to rebuild the court into a large castle, but he died in a tournament in 1234, before anything was built, his son and successor William II lived in the court, after he was elected King of the Romans in 1248, he promptly returned to The Hague, had builders turn the court into a "royal palace", which would be called the Binnenhof. He died in 1256 before this palace was completed but parts of it were finished during the reign of his son Floris V, of which the Ridderzaal, still intact, is the most prominent, it is still used for political events, such as the annual speech from the throne by the Dutch monarch. From the 13th century onward, the counts of Holland used The Hague as their administrative center and residence when in Holland; the village that originated around the Binnenhof was first mentioned as Die Haghe in a charter dating from 1242.
It became the primary residence of the Counts of Holland in 1358, thus became the seat of many government institutions. This status allowed the village to grow. In its early years, the village was located in the ambacht, or rural district, of Monster, governed by the Lord of Monster. Seeking to exercise more direct control over the village, the Count split the village off and created a separate ambacht called Haagambacht, governed directly by the Counts of Holland; the territory of Haagambacht was expanded during the reign of Floris V. When the House of Burgundy inherited the counties of Holland and Zeeland in 1432, they appointed a stadtholder to rule in their stead with the States of Holland and West Friesland as an advisory council. Although their seat was located in The Hague, the city became subordinate to more important centres of government such as Brussels and Mechelen, from where the sovereigns ruled over the centralised Burgundian Netherlands. At the beginning of the Eighty Years' War, the absence of city walls proved disastrous, as it allowed Spanish troops to occupy the town.
In 1575, the States of Holland, temporarily based in Delft considered demolishing the city but this proposal was abandoned, after mediation by William the Silent. In 1588, The Hague became the permanent seat of the States of Holland as well as the States General of the Dutch Republic. In order for the administration to maintain control over city matters, The Hague never received official city status, although it did have many of the privileges granted only to cities. In modern administrative law, "city rights" have no place anymore. Only in 1806, when the Kingdom of Holland was a puppet state of the First French Empire, was the settlement granted city rights by Louis Bonaparte. After the Napoleonic Wars, modern-day Belgium and the Netherlands were combined in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands to form a buffer against France; as a compromise and Amsterdam alternated as capital every two years, with the government remaining in The Hague. After the separation of Belgium in 1830, Amsterdam remained the capital of the Netherlands, while the government was situated in The Hague.
When the government started to play a more prominent role in Dutch society after 1850, The Hague expanded. Many streets were built for the large number of civil se