Counties of Romania
A total of 41 counties, along with the municipality of Bucharest, constitute the official administrative divisions of Romania. They represent the countrys NUTS-3 statistical subdivisions within the European Union, most counties are named after a major river, while some are named after notable cities within them, such as the county seat. The earliest organization into județe of the Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia dates back to at least the late 14th century, for most of the time since modern Romania was formed in 1859, the administrative division system has been similar to the French departments one. The system has changed several times since then, and the number of counties has varied over time. The current format has largely been in place since 1968 as only small changes have made since then. The average countys land area is 5,809 square kilometres, with Timiș County the largest and Ilfov County the smallest. The municipality of Bucharest, which has the administrative level as that of a county, is both more populous and much smaller than any county, with 1,883,425 people and 228 square kilometres.
The earliest organization into județe, and ținuturi, dates back at least to the late 14th century, inspired from the organization of the late Byzantine Empire, each județ was ruled by a jude, a person officially appointed with administrative and judicial functions. Transylvania was divided into counties headed by comes with administrative. Aside from the 1950–1968 period, this system has remained in place until today, until 1948, each județ was further divided into several plăși, each administered by a pretor. County borders were largely intact, with few adjustments, and the total number of counties was raised to 71. In 1938, King Carol II modified the law on the administration of the Romanian territory according to the fascist model, ten ținuturi were created, ruled by Rezidenți Regali, appointed directly by the Monarch. The ținuturi represented another layer of administration between counties and the country, as the county borders were not erased, due to the territorial changes during World War II, this style of administration did not last, and the administration at the județ level was reintroduced after the war.
Between 1941–1944, Romania administered the territory between the Dniester and Southern Bug rivers known as Transnistria, which consisted of 13 separate counties. After taking over the administration of the country in 1945, the Communist Party changed the model to that of the Soviet Union in 1950. Nevertheless, the county borders set were different from those present during the interbellum. The county borders set in 1968 are still largely in place today, at present, Romania is divided into 41 counties and one municipality, these are assigned as the NUTS-3 geocode statistical subdivision scheme of Romania within the European Union. Each of the counties is further divided into cities and communes, the territorial districts of the Romanian judicial system overlap with county borders, thus avoiding further complication in the separation of powers on the government
Romani people in Romania
Romani people in Romania, constitute one of the countrys largest minorities. According to the 2011 census, they number 621,573 people or 3. 08% of the total population, the Romani people originate from the northern India, presumably from the northwestern Indian states Rajasthan and Punjab. More exactly, Romani shares the basic lexicon with Hindi and Punjabi and it shares many phonetic features with Marwari, while its grammar is closest to Bengali. Genetic findings in 2012 suggest the Romani originated in northwestern India, in February 2016, during the International Roma Conference, the Indian Minister of External Affairs stated that the people of the Roma community were children of India. The conference ended with a recommendation to the Government of India to recognize the Roma community spread across 30 countries as a part of the Indian diaspora, in Romani, the native language of the Romani, the word for people is pronounced or depending on dialect. Starting from the 1990s, the word has officially used in the Romanian language.
There are two spellings of the word in Romanian and rrom, the first spelling is preferred by the majority of Romani NGOs and it is the only spelling accepted in Romanian Academys Dicționarul explicativ al limbii române. The two forms reflect the fact that for some speakers of Romani there are two rhotic phonemes, /r/ and /ʀ/, in the government-sponsored writing system /ʀ/ is spelt rr. The final i in rromi is the Romanian plural, the traditional and colloquial Romanian name for Romani, is țigani. The Romanian government supported the move on the grounds that many countries in the European Union use a variation of the word Țigan to refer to their Gypsy populations, the Romanian upper house, rejected the proposal. In combination with the Mongol invasion of Europe the first Romani had reached the territory of present-day Romania around the year 1241, at the beginning of the 14th century, when the Mongols withdrew from Eastern Europe, the Romani who were left were taken as prisoners and slaves.
According to documents signed by Prince Dan I the first captured Romani in Wallachia dates back to year 1385, in fact, the Romani people, and the Romani language, have their origin in northern India. The presence of the Roms within the territory of present-day Romania dates back to the 14th century, the population of Roms fluctuated depending on diverse historical and political events. Until their liberation on February 20,1856, most Roms lived in slavery and they could not leave the property of their owners. Around the year 1850, about 102,000 Romani lived in the Danubian Principalities, after their liberation in 1856, a significant number of Roms left Wallachia and Moldavia. In 1886 the number of Roms was estimated at around 200,000, the 1899 census counted around 210,806 others, of whom roughly half were Romani. In Bessarabia, annexed by the Russian Empire in 1812, the Roms were liberated in 1861, many of them migrated to other regions of the Empire, while important communities remained in Soroca and the surroundings of Cetatea Albă, Chișinău, and Bălți.
The 1918 union with Transylvania, Banat and Bessarabia increased the number of ethnic Romani in Romania, the first census in interwar Romania took place in 1930,242,656 persons were registered as Gypsies
Communes of Romania
A commune is the lowest level of administrative subdivision in Romania. There are 2,686 communes in Romania, the commune is the rural subdivision of a county. Urban areas, such as towns and cities within a county, are given the status of city or municipality. In principle, a commune can contain any size population, but in practice, although cities are on the same administrative level as communes, their local governments are structured in a way that gives them more power. Some urban or semi-urban areas of fewer than 10,000 inhabitants have given city status. Each commune is administered by a mayor, a commune is made up of one or more villages which do not themselves have an administrative function. Communes, like cities, correspond to the European Unions level 2 local administrative unit, florești, in Cluj County, in the largest commune, with over 22,000 inhabitants. Cities of Romania Municipalities of Romania Counties of Romania
Cucuteni is a commune in Iași County, with a population of 1,446 as of 2002. It is located 45 km from the city of Iași and 10 km from the town of Târgu Frumos, neighbouring villages and communes are Todirești, Târgu Frumos and Cotnari and Ruginoasa. The name of the village is derived from Romanian word cucută, the commune is composed of four villages, Băiceni, Bărbătești, Cucuteni and Săcărești. A trove of ancient artifacts was discovered in Cucuteni in 1884 and it was determined that these artifacts had been produced by an ancient people whose existence and culture had previously been unknown to modern scholars. Those scholars named the newly discovered ancient culture the Cucuteni culture, in Cucuteni village there is an archeological museum displaying artifacts of the Cucuteni culture, as well as a church built in the 15th century during the rule of Stephen III of Moldavia