Wilshire/Western is a heavy-rail subway station in the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system. It is located at Wilshire Boulevard and Western Avenue, in Los Angeles' Mid-Wilshire/Koreatown District; this station is served by the Purple Line. Wilshire/Western was the western terminus of the Purple Line when it opened, is one of only two subway stations in the system not served by the Red Line. Prior plans called for this subway to extend to Fairfax Ave. and north into the Valley but due to political disagreements, the line terminates here and the Red Line travels to the Valley via Vermont Avenue. Metro is now constructing the Purple Line Extension to extend the Purple Line west from this station to an eventual terminus station in Westwood, near UCLA; the two artwork installations at Wilshire/Western are called "People Coming", the other "People Going". They are large murals at each end of the station; the artist responsible is a Compton native. A condominium tower named Solair opened above the station in 2009.
Pellissier Building and Wiltern Theatre Purple Line service hours are from 5:00 AM until 12:45 AM daily. Metro services Metro Local: 18, 20, 66, 207, 209 Metro Rapid: 710, 720, 757Other local and commuter services Big Blue Bus: 7, Rapid 7 LADOT DASH: Wilshire Center/Koreatown, Hollywood/Wilshire Station connections overview
The Ahmanson Theatre is one of the four main venues that comprise the Los Angeles Music Center. The theatre was built as a result of a donation from Howard F. Ahmanson, Sr, the founder of H. F. Ahmanson & Co. an insurance and savings and loans company. It was named for his second wife and philanthropist Caroline Leonetti Ahmanson. Construction began on March 9, 1962; the theatre's inaugural event was held on April 12, 1967, with the Los Angeles Civic Light Opera Association sponsoring the national cast production of Man of La Mancha, starring Richard Kiley and Joan Diener. The theatre was the U. S. premiere of More Stately Mansions starring Ingrid Bergman, Arthur Hill, Colleen Dewhurst, which opened September 12 of that same year. Since it has presented a wide variety of dramas, musicals and revivals of the classics, including six world premieres of Neil Simon plays and works by Wendy Wasserstein, August Wilson, A. R. Gurney, Terrence McNally, John Guare and Edward Albee; the Ahmanson has served in the capacity of co-producer for a number of Broadway productions, including Amadeus, Smokey Joe's Cafe, The Most Happy Fella, The Drowsy Chaperone.
It was home to the Los Angeles production of The Phantom of the Opera which ran at the theater from 1989 to 1993. It opened with Broadway Phantom Michael Crawford as the Phantom, he was replaced with actor Robert Guillaume, Then Davis Gaines. The Ahmanson has the largest theatrical season-ticket subscription base on the West Coast, its year-round season lasts through late summer. Throughout 1994, a major $17 million renovation moved the mezzanine and balcony closer to the stage, reduced the width of the auditorium, lowered the ceiling and improved the acoustics, which had long been criticized since the theater's opening, it allowed the theatre's seating capacity to be reconfigured from 1,600 seats for an intimate play to 2,084 for a major Broadway-sized musical. Designed by Ellerbe Beckett Architects and constructed by Robert F. Mahoney & Associates, the renovation took eighteen months to complete. During this time, the Ahmanson's season-ticket subscriptions were presented at the UCLA James A. Doolittle Theatre in Hollywood.
The Ahmanson reopened on January 25, 1995, with an 8 1⁄2-month-long run of Miss Saigon. The Ahmanson served as the world premiere venue for the following plays and musicals: The Happy Time – Book by N. Richard Nash, Music by John Kander Lyrics by Fred Ebb, Directed by Gower Champion Catch My Soul – Book by N. Richard Nash, Music by Ray Pohlman Lyrics by William Shakespeare Love Match – Book by Christian Hamilton, Music by David Shire Lyrics by Richard Maltby, Jr. Remote Asylum – written by Mart Crowley, starring William Shatner California Suite – written by Neil Simon Chapter Two – written by Neil Simon They're Playing Our Song – Book by Neil Simon, Music by Marvin Hamlisch, Lyrics by Carole Bayer Sager The West Side Waltz – written by Ernest Thompson, starring Katharine Hepburn and Dorothy Loudon Brighton Beach Memoirs – written by Neil Simon, starring Matthew Broderick A Sense of Humor – written by Ernest Thompson, starring Jack Lemmon, Estelle Parsons and Polly Holliday Biloxi Blues – written by Neil Simon, starring Matthew Broderick Legends!
– written by James Kirkwood, starring Mary Martin and Carol Channing Proposals – directed by Joe Mantello Curtains – Book by Rupert Holmes, Music by John Kander Lyrics by Fred Ebb, Directed by Scott Ellis Minsky's – Book by Bob Martin, Music by Charles Strouse and Lyrics by Susan Birkenhead
Mark Taper Forum
The Mark Taper Forum is a 739-seat thrust stage at the Los Angeles Music Center designed by Welton Becket and Associates on the Bunker Hill section of Downtown Los Angeles. Named for real estate developer Mark Taper, the Forum, the neighboring Ahmanson Theatre and the Kirk Douglas Theatre are all operated by the Center Theatre Group; the Mark Taper Forum opened in 1967 as part of the Los Angeles Music Center, the West Coast equivalent of Lincoln Center, designed by Los Angeles architect Welton Becket. The smallest of the three venues, the Taper is flanked by the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion and the Ahmanson Theatre on the Music Center Plaza. Becket designed the center in the style of New Formalism; the circular Taper is considered one of his best works, featuring a distinctive decorated drum of a design with its exterior wrapped in a lacy precast relief by Jacques Overhoff. The lobby has a curving, abalone wall by Tony Duquette. Charles Moore described Becket's design for the Music Center as "Late Imperial Depression-Style cake".
Becket designed the building not knowing. Various proposals included chamber music concerts, or grand jury meetings. Dorothy Chandler, the Los Angeles cultural leader, convinced Center Theater Group artistic director Gordon Davidson to use the Taper. For 38 years, Davidson was the artistic director of Center Theater Group, which ran the Ahmanson and the Kirk Douglas Theater in Culver City; the Taper became known for its thrust stage, jutting into a classical, semicircular amphitheater, which creates an intimate relationship between audience and performer. The building bears an architectural resemblance to Carousel Theatre at Disneyland designed by Welton Becket and Associates in 1967, it is similar in design concept and size to the Dallas Theatre Center, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright and the original Tyrone Guthrie Theatre, in Minneapolis. On October 8, 1993, a memorial was held in the actor Richard Jordan's honor, it was the same day. A $30-million renovation of the Taper led by the Los Angeles firm Rios Clementi Hale Studios began in July 2007 after the 2006/2007 season.
The theater reopened on August 30, 2008 for the first preview of John Guare's The House of Blue Leaves. The Taper, as designed, was a case study in what happens when a theater is built without a tenant in mind. Fitting the auditorium into the circular building left a tiny backstage and only a narrow, curved hallway for a lobby; the renovation updated nearly everything, not concrete and did not disrupt the building's circular shape. To create a larger main lobby, the designers reduced the ticket booth and removed about 30 parking spaces from the lower-level garage to move the restrooms below ground as part of a stylized lounge with gold, curved couches and mosaics of mirrored tiles that fit the era in which the building was designed; the theater seats are wider and total capacity was reduced from 745 to 739. The entrance was moved to the plaza level and an elevator added to increase the accessibility of the theater; the original theater had few women's restrooms opening with four women's stalls for a 750-seat hall.
The renovation increased the number of stalls to 16. Backstage, changes included removing an outdated stage "treadmill" and old air-conditioning equipment, installing a modern lighting grid, enlarging the load-in door to 6 feet by 9 feet. A wardrobe room was constructed in the space occupied by the air-conditioning equipment; the auditorium was renamed the Amelia Taper Auditorium after a $2 million gift from the S. Mark Taper Foundation; the Taper has presented innovative plays since its 1967-opening of The Devils from playwright John Whiting about the sexual fantasies of a 17th-century priest and a sexually repressed nun. The play received a great deal of protest from local religious leaders and the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, although the production continued; the production of such plays as Murderous Angels, The Dream on Monkey Mountain, Children of a Lesser God, The Shadow Box, The Kentucky Cycle and Angels in America has established definition of a "Taper play". The Taper has been host to world premiere productions of many notable plays including The Shadow Box, Zoot Suit, Children of a Lesser God, Neil Simon's I Ought To Be In Pictures, Lanford Wilson's Burn This, Jelly's Last Jam, Angels in America, Twilight: Los Angeles, 1992, David Henry Hwang's revised version of Flower Drum Song, August Wilson's Radio Golf and the musical 13.
In all, the theater has 5 Tony Awards to its credit. Hunt, Total Design: Architecture of Welton Becket, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1972
Harbor Gateway Transit Center
Harbor Gateway Transit Center is a Metro Silver Line station and a large bus station at southern end of the Harbor Transitway located in the southwest corner of Interstate 110 and State Route 91 in Harbor Gateway close to Carson. The station has 12 bus bays and 900 park and ride spaces, is the southern terminus of the Metro Silver Line. Many passengers connect to this station from other buses to transfer to the Silver Line. Public restrooms for passengers as began installation in October 2012 and opened in February 2013; the nextrip bus screens were installed in November 2012 and became functional in April 2013. The large hub is undergoing station improvements. Metro renamed the Artesia Transit Center to the Harbor Gateway Transit Center during December 2011 but completed the process by June 2013; the Metro pylon sign installed in May 2012 displays the station's name as Artesia Transit Center, but it was renamed to display "Harbor Gateway Transit Center." The station name signs were changed to reflect the new station's name.
On August 17, 2012, Metro Silver Line launched Expanded Late-Night Service for the line on Fridays and Saturdays. Metro added 1 new additional late night trip for the Silver line, both directions on Fridays and Saturdays; the late night service enhancement does not apply on Sundays nor on Mondays-Fridays. On Fridays and Saturdays, the last Metro Silver Line bus to Downtown Los Angeles and El Monte Bus Station departs at 1:56 a.m. On November 18, 2012 Torrance Transit added a new bus route that operates between Downtown Los Angeles, Harbor Gateway Transit Center and Torrance. Torrance transit line 4 line only runs during Mondays-Fridays during the peak hour; the line follows the Metro Silver Line route until terminating in Downtown Los Angeles: Union Station. On January 28, 2013 Metro added station art to the transit hub; this is one of the several improvements made as part of the Metro Express Lanes project. Thus, this is Metro Silver Line's 4th station to have station art; the other 3 include: Los Angeles County & USC Medical Center Station, Cal State LA Station & El Monte Station.
The art sculpture was developed by Alison Saar. The sculpture displays a willow tree, while on the east face a willow spirit, shown here, emerges mysteriously from the tree. Metro is changing the signage of the station to reflect the new name of the station. On March 8, 2013 Metro's South Bay Council staff discussed the completed station improvements and other upcoming improvements to the station's design; the Harbor Gateway Transit Center is receiving wayfinding improvements in two phases. Phase 1 will replace the station name signs on the benches to the new station name. Wayfinding signage will be installed in several parts of the station to help direct passengers from the parking lot to the bus station; the current non-working clock will be replaced by the Metro logo sign. Bus arrival pillars similar to the ones installed in the El Monte Station will be installed in the bus bays. Phase 2 signage is being designed, but Metro plans to add an 80-foot pillar near the area between the I-110 freeway and the Harbor Gateway Transit Center.
The tall pillar will have the Metro logo at the near top. Moreover, the pillar will look similar to the one installed at the El Monte Station; as of April 2016 two TAP card vending machines have been added. There are no ATM's at this location. There are two automated restrooms located near Bay 12. Pedestrian and parking access is via Cassidy Street & Vermont Avenue and from near 182nd Street & Hoover Street. Transitway services which continue southbound to Carson station use Figueroa Street. There are plenty of bus benches throughout the station. Metro Silver Line heading north to Downtown Los Angeles and El Monte Bus Station departs from bus bay #6. All southbound Metro Silver Line trips end at this transit center and disembark passengers at bays 7-9. Bay 1- Carson Circuit: North / South Shuttle Bay 2- Torrance Transit: 6, Metro Local: 130, 205 Bay 3- Gardena Transit: 4, Metro Local: 52 Bay 4- Metro Local: 130, 344 Bay 5- Metro Express: 550, Torrance Transit: 1, 4 Bay 6- Metro Silver Line Bays 7-9 - Discharge for southbound line 910 trips only on the Metro Silver Line, Discharge only for Metro Local buses ending at Harbor Gateway Transit Center.
Bay 10- Metro Local: 246, Metro Express: 550 Bay 11- Gardena Transit: 2, Metro Local: 205, Torrance Transit: 6 Bay 12- Gardena Transit: 2, Torrance Transit: 1, 4 The following is a list of bus services operated by Los Angeles Metro: Metro Local Lines 52, 130, 205, 246, Limited Line 344 operate daily. Metro Express Line 550 operates further north to Expo Park/USC Expo Line Station only during weekday rush hours only. During other times, passengers with destinations to Downtown Los Angeles will need to transfer to the Metro Silver Line which operates on the I-110 Harbor Transitway throughout the entire day. Metro Silver Line runs a 24-hour service for line 910 only, departing to El Monte. Metro Local: 52, 130, 205, 246, 344 Metro Express: 550 Metro Silver Line Dodger Stadium Express The Harbor Gateway Transit Center is served by several municipal operators, they include: Carson Circuit, Gardena Transit, Torrance Transit. Carson Circuit: North / South Shuttle Galaxy Express Gardena Transit: 2, 4 Torrance Transit: 1, 4, 6 The Home Depot South Garden Park Sam's Club Gardena Gateway Center Taco Bell Krispy Kreme Doughnuts Media related to Harbor Gateway Transit Center at Wikimedia Commons Status report
Red Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Red Line is a heavy rail subway line running between Downtown Los Angeles and North Hollywood via the districts of Hollywood and Mid-Wilshire. In North Hollywood it connects with the Orange Line service for stations to the Warner Center in Woodland Hills and Chatsworth, it is operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. The Red Line, one of six lines forming the Metro Rail rapid transit system, opened in stages between 1993 and 2000. Together with the Purple Line, these two heavy rail lines combine to form L. A. Metro Rail's busiest line; as of October 2013, the combined Red and Purple lines averaged 169,478 boardings per weekday. Beginning in 2019, the line will be renamed to the B Line while retaining its red coloring; the Red Line is a 16.4-mile line that begins at Union Station and travels southwest through Downtown Los Angeles, passing the Civic Center, Pershing Square and the Financial District. At 7th St/Metro Center, travelers can connect to Metro Expo Line.
From here, the train travels between 7th Street and Wilshire Boulevard west through Pico-Union and Westlake, arriving at Wilshire/Vermont in the city's Mid-Wilshire/Koreatown district. Up to this point, the track is shared with the Metro Purple Line: at Wilshire/Vermont, the two lines diverge. From here, the Red Line travels north along Vermont, west along Hollywood Boulevard, traveling through Koreatown and Hollywood; the line turns northwest and crosses into the San Fernando Valley, where it terminates in North Hollywood. This route matches a branch of the old Red Car system, dismantled during The Great American Streetcar Scandal. Trains run between 4:30 a.m. and 1:00 a.m. the following morning. On Friday and Saturday evenings, trains are extended until 2:00 a.m. of the following morning. First and last train times are as follows: To/From North Hollywood Eastbound First Train to Union Station: 4:32 a.m. Last Train to Union Station: 1:02 a.m. Westbound First Train to North Hollywood: 4:10 a.m.
Last Train to North Hollywood: 12:21 a.m. Trains on the Red Line operate every ten minutes during peak hours Monday through Friday, they operate every twelve minutes during the daytime weekdays and all day on the weekends after 10 a.m.. Night service is every 20 minutes; the current Red Line is the product of a long-term plan to connect Downtown Los Angeles to central and western portions of the city with a heavy rail subway system. Planned in the 1980s to travel west down Wilshire Boulevard to Fairfax Avenue and north to the San Fernando Valley, a methane explosion at a Ross Dress for Less clothing store near Fairfax in 1985, just as construction got underway, led to a legal prohibition on tunneling in a large part of Mid-Wilshire. Instead, after some wrangling, a new route was chosen up Vermont Avenue to Hollywood Boulevard; the line opened in three minimum operating segments: MOS-1, which consisted of the original five stations from Union Station to Westlake/MacArthur Park, opened on January 30, 1993.
MOS-2B, which consisted of five new stations from Wilshire/Vermont to Hollywood/Vine which opened in 1999. MOS-3, which added new stations and extended the Red Line from Hollywood/Vine to its final terminus at North Hollywood, opened in 2000; the route known as the Red Line was intended to continue beyond its eastern terminus at Union Station to East Los Angeles. At the north end of the route, the Red Line was to turn west from North Hollywood station toward Warner Center. Trouble during the Red Line's construction, including a 1995 sinkhole that led to the project switching to a new contractor, led to a 1998 ballot proposition that banned revenue from existing sales taxes being used to dig subway tunnels in Los Angeles County, which put an end to expansion of the Red Line for the foreseeable future; the route to Warner Center was turned into a bus rapid transitway service. In the early 21st century, new sales tax Measures R and M were approved voters to provide funds for subway development.
While the Red Line does not figure into active expansion plans, several concepts have been proposed that would build off of it. Former Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa has mentioned extending the Red Line from its current North Hollywood Station terminus along Lankershim Boulevard to the northeastern San Fernando Valley, with a terminus in Sylmar. One long-term possibility might be an underground extension of another mile or two to a future high-rise housing district, or to a multi-modal transportation hub station at Bob Hope Airport in Burbank, a distance of four miles, it would go under Oxnard Street, the NoHo West development, Laurel Canyon Blvd, Vanowen Street to the Burbank Airport. In 2006 a large number of housing units, including a high-rise tower was completed near the North Hollywood station. Planned high-rise housing developments further to the north, including the NoHo West development which broke ground in March 2017 and the possibility of establishing a direct connection to the planned California High-Speed Rail station at Burbank Airport have been suggested as additional justification for an extension of the line from its current terminus in North Hollywood.
In 2010, at the request of L. A. City Councilman Tom LaBonge, Metro staff studied the possibility of adding a station along the west bank of the Los Angeles River to 6th Street and Santa Fe Avenue; the study concluded that such an extension, completed at
A metro station or subway station is a railway station for a rapid transit system, which as a whole is called a "metro" or "subway". A station provides a means for passengers to purchase tickets, board trains, evacuate the system in the case of an emergency; the location of a metro station is planned to provide easy access to important urban facilities such as roads, commercial centres, major buildings and other transport nodes. Most stations are located underground, with entrances/exits leading up to street level; the bulk of the station is positioned under land reserved for public thoroughfares or parks. Placing the station underground reduces the outside area occupied by the station, allowing vehicles and pedestrians to continue using the ground-level area in a similar way as before the station's construction; this is important where the station is serving high-density urban precincts, where ground-level spaces are heavily utilised. In other cases, a station may be elevated above a road, or at ground level depending on the level of the train tracks.
The physical and economic impact of the station and its operations will be greater. Planners will take metro lines or parts of lines at or above ground where urban density decreases, extending the system further for less cost. Metros are most used in urban cities, with great populations. Alternatively, a preexisting railway land corridor is re-purposed for rapid transit. At street level the logo of the metro company marks the entrances/exits of the station. Signage shows the name of the station and describes the facilities of the station and the system it serves. There are several entrances for one station, saving pedestrians from needing to cross a street and reducing crowding. A metro station provides ticket vending and ticket validating systems; the station is divided into an unpaid zone connected to the street, a paid zone connected to the train platforms. The ticket barrier allows passengers with valid tickets to pass between these zones; the barrier may operated by staff or more with automated turnstiles or gates that open when a transit pass is scanned or detected.
Some small metro systems dispense with paid zones and validate tickets with staff in the train carriages. Access from the street to ticketing and the train platform is provided by stairs, escalators and tunnels; the station will be designed to minimise overcrowding and improve flow, sometimes by designating tunnels as one way. Permanent or temporary barriers may be used to manage crowds; some metro stations have direct connections to important nearby buildings. Most jurisdictions mandate; this is resolved with elevators, taking a number of people from street level to the unpaid ticketing area, from the paid area to the platform. In addition, there will be stringent requirements for emergencies, with backup lighting, emergency exits and alarm systems installed and maintained. Stations are a critical part of the evacuation route for passengers escaping from a disabled or troubled train. A subway station may provide additional facilities, such as toilets and amenities for staff and security services, such as Transit police.
Some metro stations are interchanges, serving to transfer passengers between lines or transport systems. The platforms may be multi-level. Transfer stations handle more passengers than regular stations, with additional connecting tunnels and larger concourses to reduce walking times and manage crowd flows. In some stations where trains are automated, the entire platform is screened from the track by a wall of glass, with automatic platform-edge doors; these open, like elevator doors, only when a train is stopped, thus eliminate the hazard that a passenger will accidentally fall onto the tracks and be run over or electrocuted. Control over ventilation of the platform is improved, allowing it to be heated or cooled without having to do the same for the tunnels; the doors add cost and complexity to the system, trains may have to approach the station more so they can stop in accurate alignment with them. Metro stations, more so than railway and bus stations have a characteristic artistic design that can identify each stop.
Some have frescoes. For example, London's Baker Street station is adorned with tiles depicting Sherlock Holmes; the tunnel for Paris' Concorde station is decorated with tiles spelling the Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen. Every metro station in Valencia, Spain has a different sculpture on the ticket-hall level. Alameda station is decorated with fragments of white tile, like the dominant style of the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències; each of the original four stations on Line 8 of the Beijing Subway is decorated traditionally with elements of Chinese culture. On the Tyne and Wear Metro, the station at Newcastle United's home ground St James' Park is decorated in the clubs famous black and white stripes; each station of the Red Line and Purple Line subway in Los Angeles was built with different artwork and decorating schemes, such as murals, tile artwork and sculptural benches. Every station of the Mexico City Metro is prominently identified by a unique icon in addition to its name, because the city had high illiteracy rates at the time the system was designed.
Some metro systems, such as those of Naples, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kiev, Lisbon and Prague are famous for their beautiful architecture and public art; the Paris Métro is famous for its art nouveau station entrances.
Downtown Los Angeles
Downtown Los Angeles is the central business district of Los Angeles, California, as well as a diverse residential neighborhood of some 58,000 people. A 2013 study found, it is part of Central Los Angeles. A heritage of the city's founding in 1781, Downtown Los Angeles today is composed of different areas ranging from a fashion district to Skid Row, it is the hub for the city's urban rail transit system and the Metrolink commuter rail system for Southern California. Banks, department stores, movie palaces at one time drew residents and visitors into the area, but the district declined economically and suffered a downturn for decades until its recent renaissance starting in the early 2000s. Old buildings are being modified for new uses, skyscrapers have been built. Downtown Los Angeles is known for its government buildings, parks and other public places; the earliest known settlements in the area of what is now Downtown Los Angeles was by the Tongva, a Native American people. European settlement arrived after Father Juan Crespí, a Spanish missionary charged with exploring sites for Catholic missions in California, noted in 1769 that the region had "all the requisites for a large settlement".
On September 4, 1781, the city was founded by a group of settlers who trekked north from present-day Mexico. Land speculation increased in the 1880s, which saw the population of the city explode from 11,000 in 1880 to nearly 100,000 by 1896. Infrastructure enhancements and the laying of a street grid brought development south of the original settlement into what is today the Civic Center and Historic Core neighborhoods. By 1920, the city's private and municipal rail lines were the most far-flung and most comprehensive in the world in mileage besting that of New York City. By this time, a steady influx of residents and aggressive land developers had transformed the city into a large metropolitan area, with DTLA at its center. Rail lines connected four counties with over 1,100 miles of track. During the early part of the 20th century, banking institutions clustered around South Spring Street, forming the Spring Street Financial District. Sometimes referred to as the "Wall Street of the West," the district held corporate headquarters for financial institutions including Bank of America and Merchants Bank, the Crocker National Bank, California Bank & Trust, International Savings & Exchange Bank.
The Los Angeles Stock Exchange was located on the corridor from 1929 until 1986 before moving into a new building across the Harbor Freeway. Commercial growth brought with it hotel construction—during this time period several grand hotels, the Alexandria, the Rosslyn, the Biltmore, were erected — and the need for venues to entertain the growing population of Los Angeles. Broadway became the nightlife and entertainment district of the city, with over a dozen theater and movie palaces built before 1932. Department stores opened flagship stores downtown, including The Broadway, Hamburger & Sons, May Company, JW Robinson's, Bullock's, serving a wealthy residential population in the Bunker Hill neighborhood. Numerous specialty stores flourished including those in the jewelry business which gave rise to the Downtown Jewelry District. Among these early jewelers included the Laykin Diamond Company and Harry Winston & Co. both of which found their beginnings in the Hotel Alexandria at Fifth and Spring streets.
The Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal opened in May 1939, unifying passenger service among various local and long-distance passenger trains. It was built on a grand scale and would be one of the "last of the great railway stations" built in the United States. Following World War II, the development of the Los Angeles freeway network, increased automobile ownership led to decreased investment downtown. Many corporate headquarters dispersed to new suburbs or fell to mergers and acquisitions; the once-wealthy Bunker Hill neighborhood became a haven for low-income renters, its stately Victorian mansions turned into flophouses. From about 1930 onward, numerous old and historic buildings in the plaza area were demolished to make way for street-level parking lots, the high demand for parking making this more profitable than any other option that might have allowed preservation; the drastic reduction in the number of residents in the area further reduced the viability of streetfront businesses that would be able to attract pedestrians.
For most Angelenos, downtown became a drive-out destination. In an effort to combat blight and lure businesses back downtown, the city's Community Redevelopment Agency undertook the Bunker Hill Redevelopment Project in 1955, a massive clearance project that leveled homes and cleared land for future commercial skyscraper development; this period saw the clearing and upzoning of the entire neighborhood, as well as the shuttering of the Angels Flight funicular railway in 1969. Angels Flight resumed operation in 1996 for a period of five years, shutting down once again after a fatal accident in 2001. On March 15, 2010, the railway once again opened for passenger service following extensive upgrades to brake and safety systems. With Class A office space becoming available on Bunker Hill, many of DTLA's remaining financial corporations moved to the newer buildings, leaving the former Spring Street Financial District devoid of tenants above ground floor. Following the corporate headquarters' moving six blocks west, the large department stores on Broadway shuttered, culminating in the 1980s.
However, the Broadway theaters saw much use as Spanish-language movie houses during this time, beginning with the conve