California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
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Foothill Transit is a public transit agency, government funded by 22 member cities in the San Gabriel and Pomona valleys. It operates a fixed-route bus public transit service in the San Gabriel Valley of Greater Los Angeles, United States. Foothill Transit operates out of two yards: one in Pomona, the other in Arcadia; the Foothill Transit joint powers authority membership consists of elected representatives from 22 member cities in the San Gabriel Valley and Pomona Valley and three members appointed from the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors. These representatives are divided into five geographical clusters, which each elect a representative annually to serve on a five-member Executive Board. Los Angeles County Supervisor Pete Schabarum is credited with the formation of the transit agency. Schabarum, annoyed by what he saw as disproportionate cutbacks of bus service by the Southern California Rapid Transit District in the San Gabriel Valley, wanted to secede from the larger agency and form a separate transit agency as early as 1986.
Compared to routes serving more densely-populated areas, routes in the San Gabriel and Pomona Valleys required greater subsidies to serve fewer riders on longer freeway alignments in eastern Los Angeles County. Foothill was founded by 20 member cities. In 1987, the Los Angeles County Transportation Commission approved Foothill to take over fourteen routes which serviced the San Gabriel Valley that were operated by SCRTD. Although service was planned to start on July 1, 1988, the Foothill Transit Zone had been prevented from starting service in July by an injunction arising from a lawsuit filed by the drivers and mechanics unions of SCRTD against LACTC. Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Eli Chernow ruled that LACTC could not unilaterally transfer the lines without the consent of the SCRTD board of directors; the injunction was upheld on appeal. LACTC had begun withholding $9 million per month from SCRTD in April 1988 on the basis that SCRTD had not followed salary guidelines set by LACTC. SCRTD consented to Foothill Transit taking over the bus lines in December 1988 in return for the restoration of funding.
Those first two lines operated by Foothill Transit were 495 and 498. The trial for the lawsuit against Foothill Transit started in May 1989, was resolved in Foothill's favor by July, the other twelve lines operated by SCRTD were transitioned to Foothill Transit between 1989 and 1992. For a short period in 1992, the last two routes to transition were operated by both Foothill Transit and SCRTD during continued legal disputes; the drivers and mechanics unions disputed the transfer of 486 and 488 since SCRTD had made the decision without negotiating with the union. However, Foothill Transit again prevailed in a February 1993 court ruling. Schabarum, who hated the influence of trade unions, chose to use contractors to operate the service. All of the operations and maintenance work for Foothill Transit are contracted out; as of 2017, bus service is operated by Keolis at Transdev at Arcadia/Irwindale. Embree Bus Lines was the initial contractor that operated the first two lines for Foothill starting in December 1988.
The hourly operating cost under Foothill Transit was reduced by up to half compared to service under SCRTD, ridership grew, but the contract operator drivers earned less in both wages and fringe benefits, had less influence over working conditions. In addition, Foothill Transit was not required to provide typical rider services such as schedules, bus stops, transit police, or telephone information. During the 1992 Los Angeles riot, Foothill Transit terminated service at El Monte rather than continue on to downtown Los Angeles. Over the first five years, Foothill Transit saved money compared to SCRTD's historical costs. In 1994, Foothill reported their hourly cost of operations was $55, compared to $93 for the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, with a farebox recovery ratio of 48% at a lower fare of $0.85. In addition, Foothill reported an accident rate of 0.3 per 100,000 mi traveled, compared to Metro's rate of 3.3 per 100,000 mi, although Metro's accident rate was skewed by older buses and more dense traffic in its operating area.
Foothill executives made the service strike-proof by insisting that two different companies operate the two bus yards if it would cost more in the short term. By 1998, Foothill's contractors were Laidlaw and Ryder/ATE. However, due to bus industry consolidation, First Transit operated both yards from 2001 to mid-2007. Both Foothill Transit yards are represented by unions, but past strikes at the agency have been less than successful due to the ability of one yard to operate the other yard's service. In addition, wages are less at Foothill than at other transit operators in the region; the contract operator drivers at Foothill were represented by the Teamsters
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
George Washington (Houdon)
George Washington is a statue by French sculptor Jean-Antoine Houdon from the late 18th century. Based on a life mask and other measurements of George Washington taken by Houdon, it is considered one of the most accurate depictions of the subject; the original sculpture is located in the rotunda of the Virginia State Capitol in Richmond and has been copied extensively. The date given for the sculpture varies, it was commissioned by the Virginia General Assembly in 1784, begun in 1785, signed "1788", completed in 1791 or'92, delivered in 1796. The original statue is carved from Carrara marble, it depicts a standing life-sized Washington. In his right hand is a cane, his left arm rests on a fasces on, slung his cape and sword, at the back is a plow, he is shown wearing his military uniform, as Washington wished to be depicted in contemporary attire, rather than that of antiquity popular in Neo-classical sculpture. With its selection of objects both civilian and military, the statue has been interpreted as invoking the imagery and ideal of an Ancient Roman dictator, with whom Washington has been compared in his decision to retire from public life following the Revolutionary War.
At the time of its commission, Washington had not yet served in the Constitutional Convention, would not become President of the United States until 1789. Chief Justice John Marshall, a contemporary of Washington's said of the work, "Nothing in bronze or stone could be a more perfect image than this statue of the living Washington." In 1784, the Virginia General Assembly commissioned a statue of George Washington "to be of the finest marble and the best workmanship," necessitating a European craftsman. The Governor of Virginia gave the responsibility of selecting the artist to Thomas Jefferson ambassador to France, who together with Benjamin Franklin recommended that Jean-Antoine Houdon, the most famous sculptor of the day, execute the work. Unsatisfied to work from a drawing of Washington by Charles Willson Peale sent for the project, lured by a potential commission for an equestrian monument by the Congress of the Confederation, Houdon agreed to travel to the United States to work directly from Washington.
His voyage was conditional on his life being insured for the trip, asking "that ten thousand livres be paid to his family should he die during the voyage". On July 28, 1785, Houdon sailed with Benjamin Franklin and "two of his workmen" from Southampton, arriving in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on September 14. In early October 1785, Houdon along with three assistants stayed at Washington's plantation Mount Vernon, taking detailed measurements of Washington's arms, legs and chest and making a life mask of his face. By December, Houdon had returned to France. Though inscribed with the date "1788", it was completed in France in 1791 or 1792, it was delivered to Richmond in 1796 and placed in the rotunda on May 14, 1796. Various explanations for the delay in its delivery have been given, including the French Revolution and untimely payments to Houdon, though most sources agree that the continued construction of the new Virginia State Capitol prevented its installation until the time it arrived; the equestrian monument that attracted Houdon to America was never commissioned.
The 1783 resolution authorizing such a statue would be fulfilled in 1860 by Clark Mills as Lieutenant General George Washington in Washington Circle. In the early 21st century, the statue, together with the life mask and bust created by Houdon during the design process, were used as part of a forensic reconstruction of George Washington at various ages undertaken by Mount Vernon. Beginning in the 19th century, numerous copies of the statue have been made in bronze and plaster, with molds made directly from the original. Following the destruction of a statue of Washington created by Antonio Canova when the North Carolina State House burned in 1831, there was a fear that a similar fate might befall Houdon's statue. During the 1850s, the Virginia General Assembly authorized the casting of 11 bronze copies of the monument. Six bronzes were produced by the foundry of Richmond artist William James Hubard. Known casts from the Hubard foundry are located at: Virginia Military Institute in Lexington, unveiled in 1856.
After the occupation of Lexington in the American Civil War, it was temporarily relocated to Wheeling, West Virginia, returned in 1866. North Carolina State Capitol, in 1857, it was the first monument placed on the new capitol's grounds, designed to replace the destroyed Canova statue. South Carolina State House grounds in Columbia, South Carolina, 1853, installed in 1858 Another traveled around a bit finding a home in Lafayette Park, St. Louis, Missouri in 1914 Rotunda of Alumni Hall at Miami University, Ohio. New York City Hall, New York City, cast 1857, purchased 1884. A plaster cast by Hubard, once located in the U. S. Capitol, was moved in 1950 to the Smithsonian American Art Museum, and in 2007 transferred to the Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation in Virginia. In the early 20th century, the Commonwealth of Virginia commissioned a new cast to be added to the National Statuary Hall Collection, it is now one of six state statues located in the United States Capitol rotunda in Washington, D. C. In 1910 an act of the general Assembly of Virginia stated, "That the permission and authority of the State of Virginia be....
Granted to the Gorham Manufacturing Company.... to make further copies or reproductions of the Houdon statue of George Washington from the molds now in possession of said company... belonging to the State of Virginia, for any National, Territorial, County of Municipal Govern
Historic Core, Los Angeles
The Historic Core is a neighborhood in Downtown Los Angeles between Hill Street on the West, Los Angeles Street on the East, Third Street on the North, Olympic Boulevard on the South. It overlaps with Skid Row on its eastern end; the Historic Core was the center of the city before World War II. With the general decline of downtown after World War II, the movement of all financial institutions several blocks to the west, ending up on Figueroa Street, Flower Street, Grand Avenue, the area suffered. In the 1950s it became the center of Latino entertainment in the city, e.g.: the Million Dollar Theatre featured the biggest names in the Spanish language entertainment world. This paralleled the general white flight occurring in Downtown Los Angeles at the time, which saw Broadway become a major center for Latino life in the city. Although prostitution and drug dealing had occurred in the area as far back as the early 1920s, they became epidemic in the 1960s; the area's movie palaces, built between 1911 and 1931, became grindhouses.
The last of them closed in the 1990s. Most of the older buildings have stores; the developing street gang problem in Los Angeles which began to worsen at the end of the 1960s and got worse in the late 1970s hurt traditional commercial activity in the area, as it did much of downtown. While the LAPD indicates that the area is a sort of neutral zone, which has not been claimed by any single gang and random gang violence is rare, the area remains one of the major areas for street drug sales in Los Angeles. In 1999, the Los Angeles City Council passed an Adaptive Re-Use Ordinance, allowing for the conversion of old, unused office buildings to apartments or "lofts." Developer Tom Gilmore purchased a series of century-old buildings and converted them into lofts near Main and Spring streets, a development now known as the "Old Bank District." Other notable redevelopment projects in the Historic Core have included the Eastern Columbia Building, Broadway Trade Center, Higgins Building, The Security Building, the Pacific Electric Building, The Judson, the Subway Terminal Building.
As of 2005, redevelopment projects in downtown Los Angeles have been divided about evenly between rentals and condominiums. The Eastern Columbia Building is considered the greatest surviving example of Art Deco architecture in the city. Gentrification Urban renewal Historic Core Business Improvement District
Triforium (Los Angeles)
Triforium is a 60-foot high, 60-ton concrete public art sculpture mounted with Venetian glass prisms, light bulbs, an internal carillon located at Fletcher Bowron Square in the Los Angeles Mall Civic Center complex, located at the intersection of Temple and Main Streets in Downtown Los Angeles, United States. The mall's architect, Robert Stockwell, commissioned artist Joseph Young to create the sculpture, it was installed in 1975. Young's original plans called for a kinetic sculpture, which would use motion sensors and a computer controlled system to detect and translate the motions of passersby into patterns of light and sound displayed by the Venetian glass prisms and carillon. Young predicted that his public artwork would become known as "the Rosetta Stone of art and technology" and boasted that it was the world's first "polyphonoptic" tower, he said that Triforium was a tribute to the unfinished, kaleidoscopic nature of Los Angeles. In the original concept, Young intended the sculpture to project laser beams into space, which would have made it the world's first astronomical beacon.
Budgetary restrictions, curtailed this design element. The initial cost of the sculpture was $925,000, it was dedicated on December 12, 1975, although an electrical snafu delayed the musical portion's debut. According to Michael Several, an authority on early public art projects in Los Angeles, the Triforium sculpture incorporates three two-legged concrete pillars, each supporting a bank of multicolored Venetian glass prisms; the installation originally included a custom-built Gerhard Finkenbeiner electronic 79-note glass-bell carillon with two octaves of English bells, two octaves of Flemish bells, which were synchronized to lighting effects contained within the glass prisms. Meant to play "everything from Beethoven to the Bee Gees", the carillon was operated manually, or by computer, with the resulting sound played through the speaker system built into the Triforium; the primitive computer installed in the structure to synchronize the lights and music was plagued with problems. Unveiled with much fanfare at the opening of the Los Angeles Mall, the Triforium sculpture subsequently fell into disrepair and became the object of ridicule.
Legend has it that a judge in the federal courthouse across the street claimed that the noise from the sculpture's sound system interfered with his trials and asked city officials to shut it down. Over the years, the sculpture suffered from a leaking reflection pool located at its base and pigeons roosted in the structure, it was reputed to be "too expensive to fix, but too expensive to tear down." A December 14, 2006, Los Angeles Times article mentioned several nicknames that the sculpture has acquired over its lifetime: The Psychedelic Nickelodeon, Three Wishbones in Search of a Turkey, Kitsch-22 of Kinetic Sculpture, Joe's L. A. Space Launch.. In 2002, Joseph Young reflected on the state of disrepair that the sculpture had fallen into: At times it was lonely... When you do something that affects public tastes, you have to be armed to face the extremes of behavior. After decades of inoperation, the lighting effects were restored and reactivated on December 13, 2006, following a $7,500 refurbishment.
The sound synchronization computer was still due to be replaced when the lights and sound were turned back on. The sound heard from the Triforium speakers now originates from an external playback source and not the Finkenbeiner Triforium Carillon, disconnected and is now owned. In 2016, the sculpture received a further upgrade, paid for with $100,000 won in the LA2050 grant competition directed by the Goldhirsh Foundation. According to Public Art in Public Places, this latest upgrade did not restore the original reflecting pool. After two years of upgrades, a team of sound and light engineering firms created The Triforium Project to sponsor and produce live musical performances. Google Arts & Culture - Triforium Public Art in Public Places - "Triforium" by Joseph L. Young Public Art Follies, LA Times 05/18/06 Website for the Triforium Carillon