Tom Bradley (American politician)
Thomas J. Bradley was an American politician and former police officer who served as the 38th Mayor of Los Angeles from 1973 to 1993, he has been the only African American Mayor of Los Angeles, his 20 years in office mark the longest tenure by any mayor in the city's history. His 1973 election made him the second African-American mayor of a major U. S. city. Bradley retired in 1993, after his approval ratings began dropping subsequent to the 1992 Los Angeles Riots. Bradley unsuccessfully ran for Governor of California in 1982 and 1986 and was defeated each time by the Republican George Deukmejian; the racial dynamics that appeared to underlie his narrow and unexpected loss in 1982 gave rise to the political term "the Bradley effect." In 1985, he was awarded the Spingarn Medal from the NAACP. Bradley, the grandson of a slave, was born on December 29, 1917, to Lee Thomas and Crenner Bradley, poor sharecroppers who lived in a small log cabin outside Calvert, Texas, he had four siblings — Lawrence, Willa Mae and Howard.
The family moved to Arizona to pick cotton and in 1924 to the Temple-Alvarado area of Los Angeles, where Lee was a Santa Fe Railroad porter and Crenner was a maid. Bradley attended Rosemont Elementary School, Lafayette Junior High School and Polytechnic High School, where he was the first black student to be elected president of the Boys League and the first to be inducted into the Ephebians national honor society, he was all-city tackle for the high school football team. He joined Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity. Among the jobs he had while at college was as a photographer for comedian Jimmy Durante. Bradley left his studies to join the Los Angeles Police Department in 1940, he became one of the "just 400 blacks" among the department's 4,000 officers. He recalled "the downtown department store that refused him credit, although he was a police officer, the restaurants that would not serve blacks." He told a Times reporter: When I came on the department, there were two assignments for black officers.
You either worked Newton Street Division, which has a predominantly black community, or you worked traffic downtown. You could not work with a white officer, that continued until 1964. Bradley and Ethel Arnold met at the New Hope Baptist Church and were married May 4, 1941, they had three daughters, Phyllis and a baby who died on the day she was born. He and his wife "needed a white intermediary to buy their first house in Leimert Park a all-white section of the city's Crenshaw district."Bradley was attending Southwestern University Law School while a police officer and began his practice as a lawyer when he retired from the police department. Upon his leaving the office of mayor in 1993, he joined the law offices of Brobeck, Phleger & Harrison, specializing in international trade issues, his entry into politics came. The club was part of the California Democratic Council, a liberal, reformist group organized in the 1950s by young Democrats energized by Adlai E. Stevenson's presidential campaigns.
It was predominantly white and had many Jewish members, thus marking the beginnings of the coalition, which along with Latinos, that would carry him to electoral victory so many times. His choice of a Democratic circle put him at odds with another political force in the African American community, representatives of poor, all-black areas who were associated with the political organization of Jesse M. Unruh an up-and-coming state assemblyman; the early stage of Bradley's political career was marked by clashes with African American leaders like onetime California Lieutenant Governor and former U. S. Representative Mervyn Dymally, an Unruh ally. Bradley applied for the 10th District seat in June 1961, when he was still a police lieutenant living at 3397 Welland Avenue; the City Council, which had the power to fill a vacancy, instead appointed Joe E. Hollingsworth, he ran against Hollingsworth in April 1963. There were only two candidates and Bradley, two elections — one for the unexpired term left by Controller Navarro, ending June 30, one for a full four-year term starting July 1.
Bradley won by 17,760 votes to 10,540 in the first election and by 17,552 votes to 10,400 in the second. By he had retired from the police force, he was sworn in as a councilman at the age of 45 on April 15, 1963, "the first Negro elected to the council."One of the first votes he made on a controversial subject was his opposition to a proposed study by City Attorney Roger Arnebergh and Police Chief William H. Parker of the Dictionary of American Slang, ordered in an 11-4 vote by the council. Councilman Tom Shepard's motion said the book was "saturated not only with phrases of sexual filth, but wordage defamatory of minority ethnic groups and definitions insulting religions and races."Bradley told Los Angeles Times reporter Richard Bergholz the next month that he "has been asked why he doesn't participate in public demonstrations. His answer: His power as a councilman can best be used in trying to bring groups together, that's where his time and energy should be spent." He said. In 1969, Bradley first challenged incumbent Mayor Sam Yorty, a conservative Democrat though the election was nonpartisan.
Armed with key endorsements, Bradley held a substantial lead over Yorty in the primary, but was a fe
Silver Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Silver Line is a limited-stop bus route with some bus rapid transit features operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. The Silver Line route runs between the El Monte Station, Downtown Los Angeles, South Los Angeles, the Harbor Gateway Transit Center in Gardena and San Pedro; the Silver Line offers frequent, all-stops service along the El Monte Busway and the Harbor Transitway, two grade-separated transit facilities built into the Los Angeles freeway system. The Silver Line was created as part of the conversion of the El Monte Busway and the Harbor Transitway from lanes reserved for buses and high occupancy vehicles into the Metro ExpressLanes that allow solo drivers to pay a toll to use lanes; the tolls collected have been used to improve amenities at stops. As Silver Line buses travel along the El Monte Busway and the Harbor Transitway they serve stations built into the center or side of the roadway. There is a 3.5 mile gap between the western end of El Monte Busway and the northern end of the Harbor Transitway in Downtown Los Angeles, where Silver Line buses travel on surface streets, making a limited number of stops.
Beginning in 2019, the line will be renamed to the G Line while retaining its silver coloring. Two services are operated under the Silver Line name: Route 910 operates with daily 24-hour service serving only the portion of the route between El Monte station, Downtown Los Angeles and the Harbor Gateway Transit Center. Route 950 operates with daily service serving the entire route between El Monte station, Downtown Los Angeles and San Pedro; the eastern section of Silver Line route runs on the El Monte Busway between the El Monte Station in El Monte and Union Station in Downtown Los Angeles. The southern section of the route runs on the Harbor Transitway between 37th Street/USC station in Downtown Los Angeles and the Harbor Gateway Transit Center near the city of Carson. Buses travel between the eastern and southern sections along surface streets in Downtown Los Angeles where Silver Line buses make a limited amount of stops near major employment centers, tourist destinations and Metro Rail stations.
Silver Line route 950 trips continue south of the Harbor Gateway Transit Center along the Harbor Freeway to San Pedro traveling in general purpose freeway lanes and making two stops en route at stations located on the side of the freeway near off and on ramps. In San Pedro, Silver Line route 950 buses once again travel along surface streets, serving the Harbor Beacon Park & Ride and making frequent stops along Pacific Avenue; the Silver Line connects to all Metro Rail lines, though it will not connect with the Crenshaw/LAX Line, scheduled to open in 2020. The Silver Line charges a premium fare. Metro day passes are accepted as full fare, but all other pass holders must pay for an upgraded 1 zone pass or pay the additional premium charge at the time of boarding. Like the other Metro Rail and Metro Busway lines, the Silver Line operates on a proof-of-payment system. Passengers may board at either the front or rear door of Silver Line buses and validate their Transit Access Pass electronic fare card at readers located on board the bus, near the door.
Metro's fare inspectors randomly inspect buses to ensure passengers have a valid fare product on their TAP card. TAP vending machines are available at most Silver Line stations and are located near most street stops in Downtown Los Angeles. But, because vending machines are not available at all stations and street stops, passengers who need to purchase a card or add funds can do so at the farebox on board the bus. None of the other Metro Rail or Metro Busway lines offer onboard TAP sales; as of December 15, 2014 the fares for the Silver Line are: Metro and Foothill Transit offer a reciprocal fare program called "Silver 2 Silver" where pass holders may ride either Silver Line or Silver Streak buses between Downtown Los Angeles and the El Monte Station. Passengers who have a Metro 7-Day or 30-Day pass, an EZ transit pass, or a Foothill Transit Local 31-Day pass are all charged additional when they board a Silver Line or Silver Streak bus; the El Monte Busway opened along Interstate 10 in 1973.
As the new Harbor Transitway was under construction in the early 1990s, Metro drew up plans to offer a unified bus rapid transit service along both corridors, connected by street running through Downtown Los Angeles. Ridership was radically lower than expected: planners had projected that 65,200 passengers would travel along the Harbor Transitway each day, but after 10 years ridership fell far below those predictions, with the route seeing just 3,000 passengers per weekday in 2004. In the early 2000s, Metro began depicting the two busways on its Metro Rail maps, in 2008, Metro once again looked at the concept of linking them with a "Dual Hub Bus Rapid Transit" route; the service was rolled out as the Silver Line in December 2009. Five Metro Express lines were truncated to terminate at either Harbor Gateway Transit Center or the El Monte station, where passengers would transfer to the Silver Line to continue into Downtown Los Angeles; as part of the Metro ExpressLanes project to convert the El Monte Busway and the Harbor Transitway from lanes reserved for buses and high occupancy vehicles into high occupancy toll lanes that allow solo drivers to pay a toll to use lanes, aging stations were refurbished and frequencies on the route were improved.
Harbor Gateway Transit Center
Harbor Gateway Transit Center is a Metro Silver Line station and a large bus station at southern end of the Harbor Transitway located in the southwest corner of Interstate 110 and State Route 91 in Harbor Gateway close to Carson. The station has 12 bus bays and 900 park and ride spaces, is the southern terminus of the Metro Silver Line. Many passengers connect to this station from other buses to transfer to the Silver Line. Public restrooms for passengers as began installation in October 2012 and opened in February 2013; the nextrip bus screens were installed in November 2012 and became functional in April 2013. The large hub is undergoing station improvements. Metro renamed the Artesia Transit Center to the Harbor Gateway Transit Center during December 2011 but completed the process by June 2013; the Metro pylon sign installed in May 2012 displays the station's name as Artesia Transit Center, but it was renamed to display "Harbor Gateway Transit Center." The station name signs were changed to reflect the new station's name.
On August 17, 2012, Metro Silver Line launched Expanded Late-Night Service for the line on Fridays and Saturdays. Metro added 1 new additional late night trip for the Silver line, both directions on Fridays and Saturdays; the late night service enhancement does not apply on Sundays nor on Mondays-Fridays. On Fridays and Saturdays, the last Metro Silver Line bus to Downtown Los Angeles and El Monte Bus Station departs at 1:56 a.m. On November 18, 2012 Torrance Transit added a new bus route that operates between Downtown Los Angeles, Harbor Gateway Transit Center and Torrance. Torrance transit line 4 line only runs during Mondays-Fridays during the peak hour; the line follows the Metro Silver Line route until terminating in Downtown Los Angeles: Union Station. On January 28, 2013 Metro added station art to the transit hub; this is one of the several improvements made as part of the Metro Express Lanes project. Thus, this is Metro Silver Line's 4th station to have station art; the other 3 include: Los Angeles County & USC Medical Center Station, Cal State LA Station & El Monte Station.
The art sculpture was developed by Alison Saar. The sculpture displays a willow tree, while on the east face a willow spirit, shown here, emerges mysteriously from the tree. Metro is changing the signage of the station to reflect the new name of the station. On March 8, 2013 Metro's South Bay Council staff discussed the completed station improvements and other upcoming improvements to the station's design; the Harbor Gateway Transit Center is receiving wayfinding improvements in two phases. Phase 1 will replace the station name signs on the benches to the new station name. Wayfinding signage will be installed in several parts of the station to help direct passengers from the parking lot to the bus station; the current non-working clock will be replaced by the Metro logo sign. Bus arrival pillars similar to the ones installed in the El Monte Station will be installed in the bus bays. Phase 2 signage is being designed, but Metro plans to add an 80-foot pillar near the area between the I-110 freeway and the Harbor Gateway Transit Center.
The tall pillar will have the Metro logo at the near top. Moreover, the pillar will look similar to the one installed at the El Monte Station; as of April 2016 two TAP card vending machines have been added. There are no ATM's at this location. There are two automated restrooms located near Bay 12. Pedestrian and parking access is via Cassidy Street & Vermont Avenue and from near 182nd Street & Hoover Street. Transitway services which continue southbound to Carson station use Figueroa Street. There are plenty of bus benches throughout the station. Metro Silver Line heading north to Downtown Los Angeles and El Monte Bus Station departs from bus bay #6. All southbound Metro Silver Line trips end at this transit center and disembark passengers at bays 7-9. Bay 1- Carson Circuit: North / South Shuttle Bay 2- Torrance Transit: 6, Metro Local: 130, 205 Bay 3- Gardena Transit: 4, Metro Local: 52 Bay 4- Metro Local: 130, 344 Bay 5- Metro Express: 550, Torrance Transit: 1, 4 Bay 6- Metro Silver Line Bays 7-9 - Discharge for southbound line 910 trips only on the Metro Silver Line, Discharge only for Metro Local buses ending at Harbor Gateway Transit Center.
Bay 10- Metro Local: 246, Metro Express: 550 Bay 11- Gardena Transit: 2, Metro Local: 205, Torrance Transit: 6 Bay 12- Gardena Transit: 2, Torrance Transit: 1, 4 The following is a list of bus services operated by Los Angeles Metro: Metro Local Lines 52, 130, 205, 246, Limited Line 344 operate daily. Metro Express Line 550 operates further north to Expo Park/USC Expo Line Station only during weekday rush hours only. During other times, passengers with destinations to Downtown Los Angeles will need to transfer to the Metro Silver Line which operates on the I-110 Harbor Transitway throughout the entire day. Metro Silver Line runs a 24-hour service for line 910 only, departing to El Monte. Metro Local: 52, 130, 205, 246, 344 Metro Express: 550 Metro Silver Line Dodger Stadium Express The Harbor Gateway Transit Center is served by several municipal operators, they include: Carson Circuit, Gardena Transit, Torrance Transit. Carson Circuit: North / South Shuttle Galaxy Express Gardena Transit: 2, 4 Torrance Transit: 1, 4, 6 The Home Depot South Garden Park Sam's Club Gardena Gateway Center Taco Bell Krispy Kreme Doughnuts Media related to Harbor Gateway Transit Center at Wikimedia Commons Status report
Grand Park is a 12-acre park located in the civic center of Los Angeles, California. It is part of the larger Grand Avenue Project, with its first phase having opened in July 2012. Grand Park is part of a joint venture by the city of Los Angeles County, it was designed and built by the Los-Angeles-based multidisciplinary design firm Rios Clementi Hale Studios. Park programming and entertainment and upkeep are maintained by the nearby Los Angeles Music Center. Grand Park stretches between the Los Angeles City Hall and the Los Angeles Music Center on Grand Avenue, it connects Bunker Hill to the civic center. The park plans include tree-shaded sidewalks, drought-tolerant plants, an interactive fountain plaza, performance lawns and courtyards, plenty of street lights, movable park furniture, kiosks to encourage the walking and exploration of the area. City officials and some visitors have compared Grand Park to other well-established urban parks such as New York's Central Park or San Francisco's Union Square.
Prior to the creation of Grand Park, the area was a public space with plazas, fountains and a Court of Flags. By virtue of the sunny weather, the park features programs year-round. In 2012, the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors allocated $3.3 million for the first year's operations to cover logistics such as security and maintenance, with $100,000 for programming. Events will be coordinated by the Performing Arts Center of Los Angeles County, which oversees the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion, Ahmanson Theatre, Mark Taper Forum and the Walt Disney Concert Hall; the inaugural event featured Bandaloop, a professed vertical dance company of aerialists, performing against the backdrop of Los Angeles City Hall. During the first six months, Grand Park hosted about 40 events; some were bids for a mass audience. The Community Terrace features a large picnic table and lawn area for gatherings and viewing visuals projected on nearby wall of the Hall of Records. Open lawn space can be used for major public events such as New Year’s Eve celebrations and festivals.
Direct access to the park is available on the Los Angeles Metro Red Line and Purple Line at the Civic Center/Grand Park station. The park is accessible via the Silver Line's 1st Street/Hill Street stop or its Spring Street/City Hall stop. Several local and express Metro bus routes share the same 1st Street/Hill Street stop at the civic center. Construction on Grand Park carries a price tag of $56 million; the park was paid for by $50 million from Related Companies, the developer planning the nearby building projects as part of the Grand Avenue Project. The park was supposed to be part of a phase of a $775-million Frank Gehry-designed mixed-use development, but that changed when the Great Recession struck, undermining the condominium sales market, a bedrock of the overall plan. Other phases of the project remained stalled amid the recession, but the park moved forward thanks to a special agreement between the joint powers authority overseeing the project and its developer; the Los Angeles Music Center's contract to operate Grand Park is expected to run until mid-2017.
Routine security is provided by the Music Center's security department, law enforcement services by the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department. In 2014, the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors approved funding of $1 million for an independent nonprofit group, the Grand Park Foundation. On December 31, 2013-January 1, 2014, "N. Y. E. L. A.", Los Angeles' first major public New Year's Eve celebration, was held in the park. The event, which included food trucks, art installations, various color and light shows, among other things, drew an estimated 25,000 spectators. At 11:59 p.m. a massive light projection onto the side of Los Angeles City Hall began, displaying various dramatic visual art before counting down to midnight with the crowd. It was intended to become an annual celebration, with the hope that it would rival other major cities' festivities in years to come; the sixth annual Grand Park + The Music Center's N. Y. E. L. A. Drew over 50,000 guests. On August 30-31, 2014, Jay Z's Labor Day Made in America Festival was held in Grand Park featuring, Imagine Dragons, John Mayer, Kanye West, many other performers.
An Armenian genocide memorial opened in September 2016. The music video for "Play That Song" by Train was filmed in front of the Arthur J. Will Memorial Fountain. During the 2028 Summer Olympics the park will serve as a venue for the marathon, race walk and road cycling. Bunker Hill, Los Angeles Civic Center, Los Angeles Downtown Los Angeles Grand Avenue Project Los Angeles Music Center Pershing Square Official Grand Park website
Dorothy Chandler Pavilion
The Dorothy Chandler Pavilion is one of the halls in the Los Angeles Music Center. The Music Center's other halls include the Mark Taper Forum, Ahmanson Theatre, Walt Disney Concert Hall; the Pavilion has 3,156 seats spread over four tiers, with chandeliers, wide curving stairways and rich décor. The auditorium's sections are the Orchestra, Loge, as well as Balcony. Construction started on March 9, 1962, it was dedicated September 27, 1964; the Pavilion was named for Dorothy Buffum Chandler who “led effort to build a suitable home for the Los Angeles Philharmonic and rejuvenate the performing arts in Los Angeles. The result was the Music Center of Los Angeles County, her tenacious nine-year campaign on behalf of the Music Center produced more than $19 million in private donations” noted Albert Greenstein in 1999. The building was designed by architect Welton Becket; the project was an example of his firm's approach of total design, in which he managed all aspects including design, construction and interior finishes to achieve a coherent whole.
In order to receive approval for construction from the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, Mrs. Chandler promised Kenneth Hahn that the building would be open free for the public for one day a year; the result was the Los Angeles County Holiday Celebration, a Christmas Eve tradition sponsored by the Board of Supervisors. The program is broadcast on KCET-TV and an edited version of the prior year's show is syndicated to public television stations via PBS; the opening concert was held on December 6, 1964 with Zubin Mehta conducting the Los Angeles Philharmonic with soloist Jascha Heifetz. The program included Fanfare by Richard Strauss, American Festival Overture by William Schuman, Roman Festivals by Ottorino Respighi, Beethoven's Violin Concerto; the Los Angeles Master Chorale, under Music Director Roger Wagner, was the other founding resident company at the Pavilion. Before creation of the Los Angeles Opera company, the New York City Opera came on tour and performed in the Pavilion. One such tour, in 1967, consisted of two performances of Madama Butterfly, one of La Traviata, two of Ginastera's Don Rodrigo, each with Plácido Domingo singing the main tenor role.
The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences held its annual Academy Awards in the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion from 1969 to 1987, 1990, 1992 to 1994, 1996, 1999. Since the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra and Los Angeles Master Chorale have moved to the newly constructed and adjacent Disney Hall which opened in October 2003, the Pavilion is home of the Los Angeles Opera and Glorya Kaufman Presents Dance at the Music Center; the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion is featured in the 2008 video game Midnight Club: Los Angeles. The site was used as the location for an avant-garde perfume ad directed by Spike Jonze. Since 1964, a Christmas Eve tradition for the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion is the annual free Holiday Celebration funded by Los Angeles County, it is six hours of dance by groups from all around Los Angeles county. The performances are broadcast on the KCET public television station with a one-hour version broadcast on PBS since 2002. Los Angeles Opera List of opera houses Toland, James W; the Music Center Story: a Decade of Achievement 1964–1974, The Music Center Foundation, Los Angeles, 1974.
Los Angeles Music Center's page on the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion Homepage of the Los Angeles Opera company
A metro station or subway station is a railway station for a rapid transit system, which as a whole is called a "metro" or "subway". A station provides a means for passengers to purchase tickets, board trains, evacuate the system in the case of an emergency; the location of a metro station is planned to provide easy access to important urban facilities such as roads, commercial centres, major buildings and other transport nodes. Most stations are located underground, with entrances/exits leading up to street level; the bulk of the station is positioned under land reserved for public thoroughfares or parks. Placing the station underground reduces the outside area occupied by the station, allowing vehicles and pedestrians to continue using the ground-level area in a similar way as before the station's construction; this is important where the station is serving high-density urban precincts, where ground-level spaces are heavily utilised. In other cases, a station may be elevated above a road, or at ground level depending on the level of the train tracks.
The physical and economic impact of the station and its operations will be greater. Planners will take metro lines or parts of lines at or above ground where urban density decreases, extending the system further for less cost. Metros are most used in urban cities, with great populations. Alternatively, a preexisting railway land corridor is re-purposed for rapid transit. At street level the logo of the metro company marks the entrances/exits of the station. Signage shows the name of the station and describes the facilities of the station and the system it serves. There are several entrances for one station, saving pedestrians from needing to cross a street and reducing crowding. A metro station provides ticket vending and ticket validating systems; the station is divided into an unpaid zone connected to the street, a paid zone connected to the train platforms. The ticket barrier allows passengers with valid tickets to pass between these zones; the barrier may operated by staff or more with automated turnstiles or gates that open when a transit pass is scanned or detected.
Some small metro systems dispense with paid zones and validate tickets with staff in the train carriages. Access from the street to ticketing and the train platform is provided by stairs, escalators and tunnels; the station will be designed to minimise overcrowding and improve flow, sometimes by designating tunnels as one way. Permanent or temporary barriers may be used to manage crowds; some metro stations have direct connections to important nearby buildings. Most jurisdictions mandate; this is resolved with elevators, taking a number of people from street level to the unpaid ticketing area, from the paid area to the platform. In addition, there will be stringent requirements for emergencies, with backup lighting, emergency exits and alarm systems installed and maintained. Stations are a critical part of the evacuation route for passengers escaping from a disabled or troubled train. A subway station may provide additional facilities, such as toilets and amenities for staff and security services, such as Transit police.
Some metro stations are interchanges, serving to transfer passengers between lines or transport systems. The platforms may be multi-level. Transfer stations handle more passengers than regular stations, with additional connecting tunnels and larger concourses to reduce walking times and manage crowd flows. In some stations where trains are automated, the entire platform is screened from the track by a wall of glass, with automatic platform-edge doors; these open, like elevator doors, only when a train is stopped, thus eliminate the hazard that a passenger will accidentally fall onto the tracks and be run over or electrocuted. Control over ventilation of the platform is improved, allowing it to be heated or cooled without having to do the same for the tunnels; the doors add cost and complexity to the system, trains may have to approach the station more so they can stop in accurate alignment with them. Metro stations, more so than railway and bus stations have a characteristic artistic design that can identify each stop.
Some have frescoes. For example, London's Baker Street station is adorned with tiles depicting Sherlock Holmes; the tunnel for Paris' Concorde station is decorated with tiles spelling the Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen. Every metro station in Valencia, Spain has a different sculpture on the ticket-hall level. Alameda station is decorated with fragments of white tile, like the dominant style of the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències; each of the original four stations on Line 8 of the Beijing Subway is decorated traditionally with elements of Chinese culture. On the Tyne and Wear Metro, the station at Newcastle United's home ground St James' Park is decorated in the clubs famous black and white stripes; each station of the Red Line and Purple Line subway in Los Angeles was built with different artwork and decorating schemes, such as murals, tile artwork and sculptural benches. Every station of the Mexico City Metro is prominently identified by a unique icon in addition to its name, because the city had high illiteracy rates at the time the system was designed.
Some metro systems, such as those of Naples, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kiev, Lisbon and Prague are famous for their beautiful architecture and public art; the Paris Métro is famous for its art nouveau station entrances.
Walt Disney Concert Hall
The Walt Disney Concert Hall at 111 South Grand Avenue in downtown Los Angeles, California, is the fourth hall of the Los Angeles Music Center and was designed by Frank Gehry. It opened on October 24, 2003. Bounded by Hope Street, Grand Avenue, 1st and 2nd Streets, it seats 2,265 people and serves, among other purposes, as the home of the Los Angeles Philharmonic orchestra and the Los Angeles Master Chorale; the hall is a compromise between an arena seating configuration, like the Berliner Philharmonie by Hans Scharoun, a classical shoebox design like the Vienna Musikverein or the Boston Symphony Hall. Lillian Disney made an initial gift of $50 million in 1987 to build a performance venue as a gift to the people of Los Angeles and a tribute to Walt Disney's devotion to the arts and to the city; the Frank Gehry–designed building opened on October 24, 2003. Both Gehry's architecture and the acoustics of the concert hall, designed by Minoru Nagata, the final completion supervised by Nagata's assistant and protege Yasuhisa Toyota, have been praised, in contrast to its predecessor, the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion.
The project was initiated in 1987, when widow of Walt Disney, donated $50 million. Frank Gehry delivered completed designs in 1991. Construction of the underground parking garage began in 1992 and was completed in 1996; the garage cost had been $110 million, was paid for by Los Angeles County, which sold bonds to provide the garage under the site of the planned hall. Construction of the concert hall itself stalled from 1994 to 1996 due to lack of fundraising. Additional funds were required since the construction cost of the final project far exceeded the original budget. Plans were revised, in a cost-saving move the designed stone exterior was replaced with a less costly stainless steel skin; the needed fundraising restarted in earnest in 1996, headed by Eli Broad and then-mayor Richard Riordan. Groundbreaking for the hall was held in December 1999. Delay in the project completion caused many financial problems for the county of LA; the County expected to repay the garage debts by revenue coming from the Disney Hall parking users.
Upon completion in 2003, the project cost an estimated $274 million. The remainder of the total cost was paid by private donations, of which the Disney family's contribution was estimated to $84.5 million with another $25 million from The Walt Disney Company. By comparison, the three existing halls of the Music Center cost $35 million in the 1960s; as construction finished in the spring of 2003, the Philharmonic postponed its grand opening until the fall and used the summer to let the orchestra and Master Chorale adjust to the new hall. Performers and critics agreed that it was well worth this extra time taken by the time the hall opened to the public. During the summer rehearsals a few hundred VIPs were invited to sit in including donors, board members and journalists. Writing about these rehearsals, Los Angeles Times music critic Mark Swed wrote the following account: When the orchestra got its next in Disney, it was to rehearse Ravel's lusciously orchestrated ballet and Chloé.... This time, the hall miraculously came to life.
Earlier, the orchestra's sound, wonderful as it was, had felt confined to the stage. Now a new sonic dimension had been added, every square inch of air in Disney vibrated merrily. Toyota says that he had never experienced such an acoustical difference between a first and second rehearsal in any of the halls he designed in his native Japan. Salonen could hardly believe his ears. To his amazement, he discovered that there were wrong notes in the printed parts of the Ravel that sit on the players' stands; the orchestra has owned these scores for decades, but in the Chandler no conductor had heard the inner details well enough to notice the errors. The hall met with laudatory approval including its performers. In an interview with PBS, Esa-Pekka Salonen, Music Director of the Los Angeles Philharmonic, said, "The sound, of course, was my greatest concern, but now I am happy, so is the orchestra," and said, "Everyone can now hear what the L. A. Phil is supposed to sound like." This remains one of the most successful grand openings of a concert hall in American history.
The walls and ceiling of the hall are finished with Douglas-fir while the floor is finished with oak. Columbia Showcase & Cabinet Co. Inc. based in Sun Valley, CA, produced all of the ceiling panels, wall panels and architectural woodwork for the main auditorium and lobbies. The Hall's reverberation time is 2.2 seconds unoccupied and 2.0 seconds occupied. Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority has an agreement with the Los Angeles Music Center to use the most advanced noise-suppression measures for construction of the Regional Connector Transit Corridor subway under 2nd Street where it passes the hall and the Colburn School of Music. Metro will use procedures to ensure that the rumble of trains does not intrude on the sound quality of recordings made in the venues or mar audiences' musical experience within this sensitive stretch of the tunnel. Metro will build an elevated walkway from the station to the concert hall. After the construction, modifications were made to the Founders Room exterior.
The reflective qualities of the surface were amplified by the concave sections of the Founders Room walls. Some residents of the neighboring condominiums suffered glare caused by sunlight, reflected off these surfaces and concentrated