Newark, New Jersey
Newark is the most populous city in the U. S. state of New Jersey and the seat of Essex County. For 2015, the Census Bureaus Population Estimates Program calculated a population of 281,944, Newark is the second largest city in the New York metropolitan area, located approximately 8 miles west of lower Manhattan. Settled in 1666 by Puritans from New Haven Colony, Newark is one of the oldest European cities in the United States and its location at the mouth of the Passaic River, has made the citys waterfront an integral part of the Port of New York and New Jersey. Today, Port Newark-Elizabeth is the container shipping terminal of the busiest seaport on the American East Coast. In addition, Newark Liberty International Airport was the first municipal airport in the United States. Several leading companies have their headquarters in Newark, including Prudential, PSEG, Panasonic Corporation of North America, Audible. com, IDT Corporation, the U. S. District Court for the District of New Jersey sits in the city as well.
Local cultural venues include the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, Newark Symphony Hall, The Prudential Center and the Newark Museum. Newark is divided into five wards, the East, South and Central wards. Newarks Branch Brook Park is the oldest county park in the United States and is home to the nations largest collection of cherry blossom trees, Newark was settled in 1666 by Connecticut Puritans led by Robert Treat from the New Haven Colony. It was conceived as an assembly of the faithful, though this did not last for long as new settlers came with different ideas. On October 31,1693 it was organized as a New Jersey township based on the Newark Tract, Newark was granted a Royal charter on April 27,1713. It was incorporated on February 21,1798 by the New Jersey Legislatures Township Act of 1798, during its time as a township, portions were taken to form Springfield Township, Caldwell Township, Orange Township, Bloomfield Township and Clinton Township. Newark was reincorporated as a city on April 11,1836, replacing Newark Township, the previously independent Vailsburg borough was annexed by Newark on January 1,1905.
In 1926, South Orange Township changed its name to Maplewood, as a result of this, a portion of Maplewood known as Ivy Hill was re-annexed to Newarks Vailsburg. During the American Revolutionary War British troops made several raids into the town, the city has experienced revitalization since the 1990s. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had an area of 26.107 square miles. It has the third-smallest land area among the 100 most populous cities in the U. S. behind neighboring Jersey City and Hialeah, the citys altitude ranges from 0 in the east to approximately 230 feet above sea level in the western section of the city. Newark is essentially a large basin sloping towards the Passaic River, Newarks high places have been its wealthier neighborhoods
Vineland, New Jersey
Vineland is a city in Cumberland County, New Jersey, United States. Vineland was formed on July 1,1952, through the merger of Landis Township and Vineland Borough, festivities on July 1,1952, when the merger took effect, included a parade and speeches from such notables as Senator Estes Kefauver. The name is derived from the plans of its founder to use the land to grow grapes. The first houses were built in 1862, and train service was established to Philadelphia and New York City, with the population reaching 5,500 by 1865 and 11,000 by 1875. Landis Avenue was constructed as a 100-foot wide and about 1-mile long road running east-west through the center of the community, thomas Bramwell Welch founded Welchs Grape Juice, and purchased the locally grown grapes to make unfermented wine. The fertile ground attracted the glass-making industry and was home to the Progresso soup company, throughout the first half of the 20th century, most of the city was involved in the poultry industry, which led to the city being dubbed The Egg Basket of America.
Vineland Poultry Laboratories was started by Arthur Goldhaft, dr. Goldhaft is credited with putting a chicken in every pot after developing the fowl pox chicken vaccine that saved millions of chickens from death. Dr. Goldhafts work at Vineland Poultry Laboratories in Vineland, helped protect the worlds chicken supply from the fowl pox disease, Vineland had New Jerseys first school for the intellectual disabled, the Vineland Developmental Center, which now has an east and west campus. These institutions housed mentally handicapped women in fully staffed cottages, Henry H. Goddard, an American psychologist, coined the term Moron while directing the Research Laboratory at the Training School for Backward and Feeble-minded Children in Vineland. This facility was so well known that one American Prison Association pamphlet in 1955 heralded Vineland as famous for its contributions to our knowledge of the feebleminded. The city of Vineland celebrated its 150th birthday in 2011, Mayor Robert Romano initially ordered a custom cake from Buddy Valastro of Carlos Bake Shop in Hoboken, the business featured in the TLC reality television series Cake Boss.
After outcry from business owners, the order was canceled. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had an area of 69.029 square miles. Of all the municipalities in New Jersey to hold the label of City, Vineland borders Deerfield Township and Maurice River Township. Vineland borders Salem County, Gloucester County, and Atlantic County, the city is approximately 38 miles from the Atlantic Ocean. Vineland has a Ukrainian community and is home to the Ukrainian Evangelical Baptist Church, as of the census of 2010, there were 60,724 people,21,450 households, and 15,230 families residing in the city. The population density was 887.5 per square mile, there were 22,661 housing units at an average density of 331.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 67. 03% White,14. 16% Black or African American,0. 67% Native American,1. 71% Asian,0. 04% Pacific Islander,12. 91% from other races, and 3. 48% from two or more races
Montclair, New Jersey
Montclair is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. As of 2010, it was the 60th-most-populous municipality in New Jersey, Montclair was first formed as a township on April 15,1868, from portions of Bloomfield Township, so that a second railroad could be built to Montclair. After a referendum held on February 21,1894, Montclair was reincorporated as a town and it derives its name from the French mont clair, meaning clear mountain or bright mountain. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has an area of 6.315 square miles. Montclair is on the east side of the First Mountain of the Watchung Mountains, some higher locations in the township provide excellent views of the surrounding area and of the New York City skyline about 12 miles away. Named localities in the township include Frog Hollow, Montclair Heights, South End, Upper Montclair, Montclair citizens use two main ZIP codes. The central and southern parts of the township are designated 07042, Upper Montclair lies north of Watchung Avenue and has a separate ZIP code,07043.
Because the ZIP codes do not exactly match municipal boundaries, a few homes near the borders with neighboring towns fall into the ZIP codes for those communities. A few homes in some adjoining municipalities use one of the two ZIP codes assigned to Montclair, as does HackensackUMC Mountainside, whose campus straddles the border with Glen Ridge, small areas in the southeast of the township fall into the Glen Ridge ZIP code 07028. Yantacaw and Toneys brooks are dammed in parks to create ponds, wigwam and Toneys brooks flow into the Second River, and the others flow into the Third River. Montclair lies just north of the northernmost extent of the Rahway River watershed, the southern border of Montclair is a straight line between Eagle Rock, on the ridge of the First Watchung Mountain, and the point where Orange Road crosses Nishuane Brook. The eastern border is roughly a line between that point and a point just southwest of where Broad Street crosses the Third River. The western border runs roughly along the ridge of the First Watchung Mountain between Eagle Rock and the Essex County/Passaic County border, the northern border is the border between those two counties.
Montclair has a climate, with warm-to-hot, humid summers and cool to cold winters. January tends to be the coldest month, with high temperatures in the upper 30s Fahrenheit. July, the warmest month, features high temperatures in the mid-80s and lows in the 70s, from April to June and from September to early November, Montclair experiences temperatures from the lower 60s to the lower 70s. Montclair gets approximately 50 inches of rain per year, above the United States average of 39 inches, snowfall is common from December to early March, and totals about 30 inches annually. The number of each year in Montclair with any measurable precipitation is 90
Trenton, New Jersey
Trenton is the capital city of the U. S. state of New Jersey and the county seat of Mercer County. It was briefly the capital of the United States, as of the 2010 United States Census, Trenton had a population of 84,913, making it the states 10th-largest municipality. The Census Bureau estimated that the population was 84,034 in 2014. Trenton dates back at least to June 3,1719, when mention was made of a constable being appointed for Trenton, while the area was still part of Hunterdon County. Boundaries were recorded for Trenton Township as of March 2,1720, a courthouse and jail were constructed in Trenton around 1720, Trenton became New Jerseys capital as of November 25,1790, and the City of Trenton was formed within Trenton Township on November 13,1792. Trenton Township was incorporated as one of New Jerseys initial group of 104 townships by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21,1798, on February 22,1834, portions of Trenton Township were taken to form Ewing Township. The remaining portion of Trenton Township was absorbed by the City of Trenton on April 10,1837, portions of Ewing Township and Hamilton Township were annexed to Trenton on March 23,1900.
The first settlement which would become Trenton was established by Quakers in 1679, in the called the Falls of the Delaware, led by Mahlon Stacy from Handsworth, Sheffield. Quakers were being persecuted in England at this time and North America provided an opportunity to exercise their religious freedom, by 1719, the town adopted the name Trent-towne, after William Trent, one of its leading landholders who purchased much of the surrounding land from Stacys family. This name was shortened to Trenton, during the American Revolutionary War, the city was the site of the Battle of Trenton, George Washingtons first military victory. On December 26,1776, Washington and his army, after crossing the icy Delaware River to Trenton, after the war, the Confederation Congress briefly met in Trenton in November and December 1784. Trenton became the capital in 1790, but prior to that year the New Jersey Legislature often met here. The city was incorporated in 1792, during the War of 1812, the United States Armys primary hospital was at a site on Broad Street.
Throughout the 19th century, Trenton grew steadily, as European immigrants came to work in its pottery, in 1837, with the population now too large for government by council, a new mayoral government was adopted, with by-laws that remain in operation to this day. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had an area of 8.155 square miles. Trenton is located near the geographic center of the state. However, Mercer County constitutes its own metropolitan area, formally known as the Trenton-Ewing MSA. Locals consider Trenton to be a part of an area called Central Jersey
Veterans Day is an official United States public holiday, observed annually on November 11, that honors military veterans, that is, persons who served in the United States Armed Forces. The United States previously observed Armistice Day, the U. S. holiday was renamed Veterans Day in 1954. In 1945, World War II veteran Raymond Weeks from Birmingham, had the idea to expand Armistice Day to celebrate all veterans, Weeks led a delegation to Gen. Dwight Eisenhower, who supported the idea of National Veterans Day. Weeks led the first national celebration in 1947 in Alabama and annually until his death in 1985, President Reagan honored Weeks at the White House with the Presidential Citizenship Medal in 1982 as the driving force for the national holiday. Elizabeth Dole, who prepared the briefing for President Reagan, determined Weeks as the Father of Veterans Day, representative Ed Rees from Emporia, presented a bill establishing the holiday through Congress. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, from Kansas, signed the bill into law on May 26,1954 and it had been eight and a half years since Weeks held his first Armistice Day celebration for all veterans.
Congress amended the bill on June 1,1954, replacing Armistice with Veterans, the National Veterans Award was created in 1954. Congressman Rees of Kansas received the first National Veterans Award in Birmingham, although originally scheduled for celebration on November 11 of every year, starting in 1971 in accordance with the Uniform Monday Holiday Act, Veterans Day was moved to the fourth Monday of October. In 1978, it was moved back to its original celebration on November 11, because it is a federal holiday, some American workers and many students have Veterans Day off from work or school. When Veterans Day falls on a Saturday either Saturday or the preceding Friday may be designated as the holiday, a Society for Human Resource Management poll in 2010 found that 21 percent of employers planned to observe the holiday in 2011. Non-essential federal government offices are closed, all federal workers are paid for the holiday, those who are required to work on the holiday sometimes receive holiday pay for that day in addition to their wages.
In his Armistice Day address to Congress, Wilson was sensitive to the toll of the lean War years, Hunger does not breed reform, it breeds madness. As Veterans Day and the birthday of the United States Marine Corps are only one day apart, several commentators have noted the irony of Election Day being a regular working day, while Veterans Day, which typically falls the following week, is a federal holiday. Many people have called for the holidays to be merged, so citizens can have a day off to vote and this would be seen as a way to honor voting by exercising democratic rights. Official Website United States Department of Veterans Affairs 5 U. S. C. §6103
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Society of the Cincinnati
Now in its third century, the Society promotes the public interest in the revolution through its library and museum collections and other activities. It is the oldest hereditary society in the United States, the concept of the Society of the Cincinnati was that of Major General Henry Knox. The first meeting of the Society was held in May 1783 at a dinner at Mount Gulian in Fishkill, New York, the meeting was chaired by Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Hamilton, and the participants agreed to stay in contact with each other after the war. Membership was generally limited to officers who had served at least three years in the Continental Army or Navy, it included officers of the French Army and Navy above certain ranks. Officers in the Continental Line who died during the War were entitled to be recorded as members, Members of the considerably larger fighting forces comprising the Colonial Militias and Minutemen were not entitled to join the Society. Later in the 18th century, the Societys rules adopted a system of primogeniture wherein membership was passed down to the eldest son after the death of the original member, each officer may be represented by only one descendant at any given time, following the rules of primogeniture.
The requirement for primogeniture made the society controversial in its early years, the Society is named after Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus, who left his farm to accept a term as Roman Consul and served as Magister Populi. He assumed lawful dictatorial control of Rome to meet a war emergency, when the battle was won, he returned power to the Senate and went back to plowing his fields. The Societys motto reflects that ethic of service, Omnia reliquit servare rempublicam. The Society has had three goals, To preserve the rights so dearly won, to promote the union of the states, and to assist members in need, their widows. Within 12 months of the founding, a constituent Society had been organized in each of the 13 states, of about 5,500 men originally eligible for membership,2,150 had joined within a year. King Louis XVI ordained the French Society of the Cincinnati, which was organized on July 4,1784. Up to that time, the King of France had not allowed his officers to wear any foreign decorations, George Washington was elected the first President General of the Society.
He served from December 1783 until his death in 1799, the second President General was Alexander Hamilton. Upon Hamiltons death due to his duel with Aaron Burr, the third President General of the Society was Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, in 1808, he ran unsuccessfully for President of the United States against James Madison. Its members have included military and political leaders, including 23 signers of the United States Constitution. James Armstrong, Samuel Elbert, George Mathews, John Milton, bernardus Swartwout, Cornelius Swartwout, BG Philip Van Cortlandt, Frederick Von Weisenfels. Count Axel von Fersen, Baron Curt von Stedingk, on June 19,1783, the General Society of the Cincinnati adopted the bald eagle as its insignia
Chestertown is a town in Kent County, United States. The population was 5,252 at the 2010 census and it is the county seat of Kent County. Founded in 1706, Chestertown rose in stature when it was named one of the English colony of Marylands six Royal Ports of Entry, the shipping boom that followed this designation made the town at the navigable head of the Chester River wealthy. In the mid-eighteenth century, Chestertown trailed only Annapolis and was considered Marylands second leading port, a burgeoning merchant class infused riches into the town, reflected in the many brick mansions and townhouses that sprung up along the waterfront. Another area in which Chestertown is second only to Annapolis is in its number of existing eighteenth century homes, as of the 1790 census, Chestertown was the geographical center of population of the United States. Chestertown was incorporated in 1805, and was named for the Chester River. Airy Hill, the Bernice J.25, Grand Army of the Republic, Washington College, Middle and West Halls, Chestertown is located at 39°13′10″N 76°4′6″W.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 2.91 square miles. As of the first US Census in 1790, Chestertown was the center of the nations population. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and cool, according to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Chestertown has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated Cfa on climate maps. As of the census of 2010, there were 5,252 people,1,971 households, the population density was 2,020.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,361 housing units at a density of 908.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 74. 2% White,20. 4% African American,0. 3% Native American,1. 8% Asian,1. 0% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 4. 2% of the population. 42. 2% of all households were made up of individuals and 22. 3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.00 and the average family size was 2.65. The median age in the town was 34.9 years. 12. 4% of residents were under the age of 18,28. 7% were between the ages of 18 and 24,16. 4% were from 25 to 44,19. 1% were from 45 to 64, and 23. 6% were 65 years of age or older.
The gender makeup of the town was 43. 1% male and 56. 9% female, as of the census of 2000, there were 4,746 people,1,891 households, and 945 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,818.1 people per square mile, there were 2,164 housing units at an average density of 829.0 per square mile
American Revolutionary War
From about 1765 the American Revolution had led to increasing philosophical and political differences between Great Britain and its American colonies. The war represented a culmination of these differences in armed conflict between Patriots and the authority which they increasingly resisted. This resistance became particularly widespread in the New England Colonies, especially in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. On December 16,1773, Massachusetts members of the Patriot group Sons of Liberty destroyed a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor in an event that became known as the Boston Tea Party. Named the Coercive Acts by Parliament, these became known as the Intolerable Acts in America. The Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, establishing a government that removed control of the province from the Crown outside of Boston. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, and established committees, British attempts to seize the munitions of Massachusetts colonists in April 1775 led to the first open combat between Crown forces and Massachusetts militia, the Battles of Lexington and Concord.
Militia forces proceeded to besiege the British forces in Boston, forcing them to evacuate the city in March 1776, the Continental Congress appointed George Washington to take command of the militia. Concurrent to the Boston campaign, an American attempt to invade Quebec, on July 2,1776, the Continental Congress formally voted for independence, issuing its Declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe began a British counterattack, focussing on recapturing New York City, Howe outmaneuvered and defeated Washington, leaving American confidence at a low ebb. Washington captured a Hessian force at Trenton and drove the British out of New Jersey, in 1777 the British sent a new army under John Burgoyne to move south from Canada and to isolate the New England colonies. However, instead of assisting Burgoyne, Howe took his army on a campaign against the revolutionary capital of Philadelphia. Burgoyne outran his supplies, was surrounded and surrendered at Saratoga in October 1777, the British defeat in the Saratoga Campaign had drastic consequences.
Giving up on the North, the British decided to salvage their former colonies in the South, British forces under Lieutenant-General Charles Cornwallis seized Georgia and South Carolina, capturing an American army at Charleston, South Carolina. British strategy depended upon an uprising of large numbers of armed Loyalists, in 1779 Spain joined the war as an ally of France under the Pacte de Famille, intending to capture Gibraltar and British colonies in the Caribbean. Britain declared war on the Dutch Republic in December 1780, in 1781, after the British and their allies had suffered two decisive defeats at Kings Mountain and Cowpens, Cornwallis retreated to Virginia, intending on evacuation. A decisive French naval victory in September deprived the British of an escape route, a joint Franco-American army led by Count Rochambeau and Washington, laid siege to the British forces at Yorktown. With no sign of relief and the situation untenable, Cornwallis surrendered in October 1781, Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tory majority in Parliament, but the defeat at Yorktown gave the Whigs the upper hand
Wilmington is the largest city in the state of Delaware, United States, built on the site of Fort Christina, the first Swedish settlement in North America. It is located at the confluence of the Christina River and Brandywine River and it is the county seat of New Castle County and one of the major cities in the Delaware Valley metropolitan area. Wilmington was named by Proprietor Thomas Penn after his friend Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington, as of the 2015 United States Census estimate, the population of the city is 71,948, reflecting an increase of 1. 5% from the 2010 Census. The Wilmington Metropolitan Division, comprising New Castle County, DE, Cecil County, MD and Salem County, Wilmington is built on the site of Fort Christina and the settlement Kristinehamn, the first Swedish settlement in North America. The area now known as Wilmington was settled by the Lenape band led by Sachem Mattahorn just before Henry Hudson sailed up the Len-api Hanna in 1609, the area was called Maax-waas Unk or Bear Place after the Maax-waas Hanna that flowed by.
It was called the Bear River because it flowed west to the Bear People, the Dutch heard and spelled the river and the place as Minguannan. The area was known as The Rocks, and is located near the foot of present-day Seventh Street. Fort Christina served as the headquarters for the colony of New Sweden which consisted of, for the most part, the lower Delaware River region, dr. Timothy Stidham was a prominent citizen and doctor in Wilmington. He was born in 1610, probably in Hammel and raised in Gothenburg and he arrived in New Sweden in 1654 and is recorded as the first physician in Delaware. The most important Swedish governor was Colonel Johan Printz, who ruled the colony under Swedish law from 1643 to 1653. He was succeeded by Johan Rising, who upon his arrival in 1654, seized the Dutch post Fort Casimir, located at the site of the present town of New Castle and this marked the end of Swedish rule in North America. Although during the American Revolutionary War only one small battle was fought in Delaware, the British remained in the town until they vacated Philadelphia in 1778.
In 1800, Eleuthère Irénée du Pont, a French Huguenot, knowledgeable in the manufacture of gunpowder, by 1802 DuPont had begun making the explosive in a mill on the Brandywine River north of Brandywine Village and just outside the town of Wilmington. The DuPont company became a supplier to the U. S. military. Located on the banks of the Brandywine River, the village was annexed by Wilmington city. The greatest growth in the city occurred during the Civil War, though officially remaining a member of the Union, was a border state and divided in its support of both the Confederate and the Union causes. The war created enormous demand for goods and materials supplied by Wilmington including ships, railroad cars, gunpowder and other war-related goods. By 1868, Wilmington was producing more iron ships than the rest of the combined and it rated first in the production of gunpowder and second in carriages
War of 1812
Historians in the United States and Canada see it as a war in its own right, but the British often see it as a minor theatre of the Napoleonic Wars. By the wars end in early 1815, the key issues had been resolved, the view was shared in much of New England and for that reason the war was widely referred to there as Mr. Madison’s War. As a result, the primary British war goal was to defend their North American colonies, the war was fought in three theatres. Second and naval battles were fought on the U. S. –Canadian frontier, large-scale battles were fought in the Southern United States and Gulf Coast. With the majority of its land and naval forces tied down in Europe fighting the Napoleonic Wars, early victories over poorly-led U. S. armies demonstrated that the conquest of the Canadas would prove more difficult than anticipated. Despite this, the U. S. was able to inflict serious defeats on Britains Native American allies, both governments were eager for a return to normality and peace negotiations began in Ghent in August 1814.
This brought an Era of Good Feelings in which partisan animosity nearly vanished in the face of strengthened American nationalism, the war was a major turning point in the development of the U. S. military, with militia being increasingly replaced by a more professional force. The U. S. acquired permanent ownership of Spains Mobile District, the government of Canada declared a three-year commemoration of the War of 1812 in 2012, intended to offer historical lessons and celebrate 200 years of peace across the border. At the conclusion of the commemorations in 2014, a new national War of 1812 Monument was unveiled in Ottawa. The war is remembered in Britain primarily as a footnote in the much larger Napoleonic Wars occurring in Europe, historians have long debated the relative weight of the multiple reasons underlying the origins of the War of 1812. This section summarizes several contributing factors which resulted in the declaration of war by the United States, as Risjord notes, a powerful motivation for the Americans was the desire to uphold national honour in the face of what they considered to be British insults such as the Chesapeake–Leopard Affair.
The approaching conflict was about violations of American rights, but it was vindication of American identity. Americans at the time and historians since often called it the United States Second War of Independence, in 1807, Britain introduced a series of trade restrictions via a series of Orders in Council to impede neutral trade with France, with which Britain was at war. The United States contested these restrictions as illegal under international law, the American merchant marine had come close to doubling between 1802 and 1810, making it by far the largest neutral fleet. Britain was the largest trading partner, receiving 80% of U. S. cotton, the British public and press were resentful of the growing mercantile and commercial competition. The United States view was that Britains restrictions violated its right to trade with others, during the Napoleonic Wars, the Royal Navy expanded to 176 ships of the line and 600 ships overall, requiring 140,000 sailors to man. The United States believed that British deserters had a right to become U. S.
citizens and this meant that in addition to recovering naval deserters, it considered any United States citizens who were born British liable for impressment. Aggravating the situation was the reluctance of the United States to issue formal naturalization papers and it was estimated by the Admiralty that there were 11,000 naturalized sailors on United States ships in 1805
Historical Society of Baltimore County
The Society accomplishes its mission through the production of presentations, workshops, entertaining educational publications, historical tours, and exhibits. A nonprofit organization, the Society maintains a library and research facility, since 1966, the Society has published History Trails, a county history journal. Located on Baltimore’s County Home Property, the Historical Society’s campus comprises several buildings of various ages and states of repair, chief of these is the Almshouse which houses the offices and library. Other buildings are the Pest house and Barn, the property is part of the former Montrose Estate of Judge Alexander Nisbet whose family burial plot is located on an adjacent property. Constructed of local limestone in 1872, the Almshouse was damaged by a fire in 1919 after which it was rebuilt, the building has been used in several different capacities since 1958 when modern methods of caring for the indigent dictated its closing as a poorhouse. The Historical Society and various county agencies have been located in the Almshouse since 1959, during the Cold War, the Almshouse was used as a fallout shelter, emergency supplies from that era still reside in the basement.
The Almshouse was designated a Baltimore County Landmark in 1980, the Pest House was used to quarantine residents who were ill. The two story building with a roof was built shortly after the Almshouse. The exterior is in condition, but the interior suffers from decades of non-use. In 2012, Preservation Maryland placed the Pest House on its list of threatened historic properties, the Barn is a modern post and beam structure, built on the original foundation, as a replacement for a 19th-century barn destroyed by fire in the 1970s. It now house a museum, named in honor of Baltimore County Veterinarian Dickinson Gorsuch whose bequest enabled the establishment of the museum in 1993. Objects from the collection of 10,000 items are not on general display. The Society has a collection of over 500 maps and atlases, the Societys library contains 3,500 volumes. More than 9,000 photographs reside in the Societys files, the Society maintains extensive genealogy files and tombstone inscription files and offers a free class each month in genealogical research.
Baltimore County Almhouse – Explore Baltimore Heritage