According to many definitions, a disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, intellectual, physical, sensory, or some combination of these. Other definitions describe disability as the societal disadvantage arising from such impairments. Disability affects a person's life activities and may be present from birth or occur during a person's lifetime. Disabilities is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, participation restrictions. An impairment is a problem in body structure. Disability is thus not just a health problem, it is a complex phenomenon, reflecting the interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives. Disability is a contested concept, with different meanings in different communities, it may be used to refer to physical or mental attributes that some institutions medicine, view as needing to be fixed. It may refer to limitations imposed on people by the constraints of an ableist society. Or the term may serve to refer to the identity of disabled people.
Physiological functional capacity is a related term that describes an individual's performance level. It gauges one's ability to perform the physical tasks of daily life and the ease with which these tasks are performed. PFC declines with advancing age to result in frailty, cognitive disorders or physical disorders, all of which may lead to labeling individuals as disabled; the discussion over disability's definition arose out of disability activism in the United States and the United Kingdom in the 1970s, which challenged how the medical concept of disability dominated perception and discourse about disabilities. Debates about proper terminology and their implied politics continue in disability communities and the academic field of disability studies. In some countries, the law requires that disabilities are documented by a healthcare provider in order to assess qualifications for disability benefits. For the purposes of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission regulations provide a list of conditions that should be concluded to be disabilities: deafness, blindness, an intellectual disability or missing limbs or mobility impairments requiring the use of a wheelchair, cancer, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia.
Contemporary understandings of disability derive from concepts that arose during the West's scientific Enlightenment. During the Middle Ages and other conditions were thought to be caused by demons, they were thought to be part of the natural order during and in the fallout of the Plague, which wrought impairments throughout the general population. In the early modern period there was a shift to seeking biological causes for physical and mental differences, as well as heightened interest in demarcating categories: for example, Ambroise Pare, in the sixteenth century, wrote of "monsters", "prodigies", "the maimed"; the European Enlightenment's emphases on knowledge derived from reason and on the value of natural science to human progress helped spawn the birth of institutions and associated knowledge systems that observed and categorized human beings. Contemporary concepts of disability are rooted in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century developments. Foremost among these was the development of clinical medical discourse, which made the human body visible as a thing to be manipulated and transformed.
These worked in tandem with scientific discourses that sought to classify and categorize and, in so doing, became methods of normalization. The concept of the "norm" developed in this time period, is signaled in the work of the Belgian statistician, sociologist and astronomer Adolphe Quetelet, who wrote in the 1830s of l'homme moyen – the average man. Quetelet postulated that one could take the sum of all people's attributes in a given population and find their average, that this figure should serve as a norm toward which all should aspire; this idea of a statistical norm threads through the rapid take up of statistics gathering by Britain, United States, the Western European states during this time period, it is tied to the rise of eugenics. Disability, as well as other concepts including: abnormal, non-normal, normalcy came from this; the circulation of these concepts is evident in the popularity of the freak show, where showmen profited from exhibiting people who deviated from those norms.
With the rise of eugenics in the latter part of the nineteenth century, such deviations were viewed as dangerous to the health of entire populations. With disability viewed as part of a person's biological make-up and thus their genetic inheritance, scientists turned their attention to notions of weeding such "deviations" out of the gene pool. Various metrics for assessing a person's genetic fitness, which were used to deport, sterilize, or institutionalize those deemed unfit. At the end of the Second World War, with the example of Nazi eugenics, eugenics faded from public discourse, d
Disability rights movement
The disability rights movement is a global social movement to secure equal opportunities and equal rights for all people with disabilities. It is made up of organizations of disability activists around the world working together with similar goals and demands, such as: accessibility and safety in architecture and the physical environment. Disability activists are working to break institutional and societal barriers that prevent people with disabilities from living their lives like other citizens; the social model of disability suggests disability is caused by the way society is organized, rather than by a person’s impairment. This model suggests; when barriers are removed, people with disabilities can be equal in society. There are three main types of barriers: Attitudinal barriers: are created by people who see only disability when associating with people with disabilities in some way; these attitudinal barriers can be witnessed through bullying and fear. These barriers include low expectations of people with disabilities.
These barriers contribute to all other barriers. Attitudes towards people with disabilities in low and middle-income countries can be more extreme. Environmental barriers: inaccessible environments, natural or built, create disability by creating barriers to inclusion. Institutional barriers: include many laws, practices, or strategies that discriminate against people with disabilities. For example, a study of five Southeast Asian countries found that electoral laws do not specially protect the political rights of persons with disabilities, while ‘some banks do not allow visually disabled people to open accounts, HIV testing centers refuse to accept sign language interpreters due to confidentiality policies’. Restrictive laws exist in some countries affecting people with intellectual or psychosocial disabilities. Other barriers include: internalised barriers, inadequate data and statistics, lack of participation and consultation of disabled people. Access to public areas such as city streets, public buildings, restrooms are some of the more visible changes brought about in recent decades to remove physical barriers.
A noticeable change in some parts of the world is the installation of elevators, automatic doors, wide doors and corridors, transit lifts, wheelchair ramps, curb cuts, the elimination of unnecessary steps where ramps and elevators are not available, allowing people in wheelchairs and with other mobility disabilities to use public sidewalks and public transit more and safely. People with color vision deficiency deal with implicit discrimination due to their inability to distinguish certain colors. A system of geometrically shaped code signs known as Coloradd was developed by Professor Miguel Neiva of the University of Minho, Portugal in 2010 to indicate colours to people who have difficulty discerning them, it has been adopted by numerous businesses to boost sales. Advocates for the rights of people with developmental disabilities focus their efforts on gaining acceptance in the workforce and in everyday activities and events from which they might have been excluded in the past. Unlike many of the leaders in the physical disability rights community, self-advocacy has been slow in developing for people with developmental disabilities.
As a result, much of the work done by the Disability Rights Movement was completed by allies, or those without disabilities but with a strong connection to someone with disabilities. Parents and siblings fought for education and acceptance when their loved ones with cognitive disabilities could not. Public awareness of the civil rights movement for this population remains limited, the stereotyping of people with developmental disabilities as non-contributing citizens who are dependent on others remains common. Today, the movement has a more social focus to increase this public awareness, as evidenced by the "R-Word" Campaign, in which they try to eliminate the colloquial use of the word "retard." Advocates for the rights of people with mental health disabilities focus on self-determination, an individual’s ability to live independently. The right to have an independent life, using paid assistant care instead of being institutionalized, if the individual wishes, is a major goal of the disability rights movement, is the main goal of the similar independent living and self-advocacy movements, which are most associated with people with intellectual disabilities and mental health disorders.
These movements have supported people with disabilities to live as more active participants in society. Access to education and employment have been a major focus of the disability rights movement. Adaptive technologies, enabling people to work jobs they could not have help create access to jobs and economic independence. Access in the classroom has helped improve education opportunities and independence for people with disabilities. Freedom from abuse and violations of a person's rights are important goals of the disability rights movement. Abuse and neglect includes inappropriate seclusion and restraint, inappropriate use of force by staff and/or providers, harassment and/or retaliation by staff or providers, failure to provide adequate nutrition, and/or medical and mental health care, and/or failure to provide a clean and safe living environment, as well as other issues which pose a serious threat to the physical and psyc
Deaf rights movement
The Deaf rights movement encompasses a series of social movements within the disability rights and cultural diversity movements that encourages deaf and hard of hearing to push society to adopt a position of equal respect for them. Acknowledging that those who were Deaf or hard of hearing had rights to obtain the same things as those hearing lead this movement. Establishing an educational system to teach those with Deafness was one of the first accomplishments of this movement. Sign language, as well as cochlear implants, has had an extensive impact on the Deaf community; these have all been aspects that have paved the way for those with Deafness, which began with the Deaf Rights movement. Oralism focuses on teaching deaf students through oral communicative means rather than sign languages. There is strong opposition within Deaf communities to the oralist method of teaching deaf children to speak and lip read with limited or no use of sign language in the classroom; the method is intended to make it easier for deaf children to integrate into hearing communities, but the benefits of learning in such an environment are disputed.
The use of sign language is central to Deaf identity and attempts to limit its use are viewed as an attack. Parents of deaf children have to opportunity to send their children to deaf schools, where the curriculum is taught in American Sign Language; the first school for the education of deaf individuals was the Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons, which opened on April 15, 1817. This was a coeducation insitiution; this school was renamed the American School for the Deaf, was granted federal money to set up of deaf institutions around the country. Many teachers in these schools were women, because according to PBS and the research done for the film Through Deaf Eyes, they were better at instructing due to the patience it took to do something repetitively; the American School for the Deaf was set up based on a British model of education for deaf individuals with instruction in the subjects of reading, history, an advanced study of the Bible. Gallaudet University is the only deaf university in the world, which instructs in American Sign Language, promotes research and publications for the deaf community.
Gallaudet University is responsible for expanding services and education for deaf individuals in developing countries around the world, as well as in the United States. Many deaf individuals choose to be educated in a deaf environment for their college level education. I. King Jordan had made history in 1988 for becoming the first deaf president of Gallaudet University after the protest, Deaf President Now Students, with the support of from many alumni, faculty and friends, protested the Board of Trustees' continued appointments of hearing presidents over qualified deaf candidates in an institution established to serve the deaf. There have been many individuals; these individuals have been hearing. A few of the most recognizable names include: Alexander Graham Bell, known for the invention of the telephone but to the Deaf, is seen as a villain of sorts. However, this is only a small number of individuals who have made advancements in the deaf community; the Americans with Disabilities Act known as the ADA, has made a huge impact on the deaf community.
In 1990 it was a landmark for people with disabilities. The ADA has been a great benefit for hard of hearing and deaf people to help them gain every aspect of life that a hearing person has; the ADA took the important principles in these laws and extended them to the broad mainstream of Americans public life. It prohibits discrimination in every aspect of society. Meaning you would have a legitimate reason to not hire someone with a disability; the legislation provides legal protection in employment, access to state and local government and public transportation, public accommodations, telecommunications. George H W Bush signed this into act, there was no acclaimed retaliation from this, it didn’t solve the problem of discrimination but it gave those who had a disability protection. In 1975 Congress found. There was another bill passed to help solve this problem called the Individual with Disabilities Act; the IDEA was made to "ensure that all children with disabilities have access to a free, public education that emphasizes special education and related services designed to meet their needs and prepare them for employment and independent living.
To ensure that the rights of children with disabilities and their parents are protected. To assist states, educational service agencies, federal agencies to pay for education for all children with disabilities, and to assess and ensure the effectiveness of efforts to educate children with disabilities." Deaf culture is a culture defined by many cultural and social norms. Within the Deaf community, there is strong opposition to the use of cochlear implants and sometimes hearing aids and similar technologies; this is justified in terms of a rejection of the view that deafness, as a condition, is something that needs to be fixed. Others argue that this technology threatens the continued existence of Deaf culture, but Kathryn Woodcock argues that it is a greater threat to Deaf culture to reject prospective members just because they used to hear
Nationality is a legal relationship between an individual person and a state. Nationality affords the state jurisdiction over the person and affords the person the protection of the state. What these rights and duties are varies from state to state. By custom and international conventions, it is the right of each state to determine who its nationals are; such determinations are part of nationality law. In some cases, determinations of nationality are governed by public international law—for example, by treaties on statelessness and the European Convention on Nationality. Nationality differs technically and from citizenship, a different legal relationship between a person and a country; the noun national can include both non-citizens. The most common distinguishing feature of citizenship is that citizens have the right to participate in the political life of the state, such as by voting or standing for election. However, in most modern countries all nationals are citizens of the state, full citizens are always nationals of the state.
In older texts, the word nationality rather than ethnicity used to refer to an ethnic group. This older meaning of nationality is not defined by political borders or passport ownership and includes nations that lack an independent state. Individuals may be considered nationals of groups with autonomous status that have ceded some power to a larger government. Nationality is the status that allows a nation to grant rights to the subject and to impose obligations upon the subject. In most cases, no rights or obligations are automatically attached to this status, although the status is a necessary precondition for any rights and obligations created by the state. In European law, nationality is the status or relationship that gives a nation the right to protect a person from other nations. Diplomatic and consular protection are dependent upon this relationship between the person and the state. A person's status as being the national of a country is used to resolve the conflict of laws. Within the broad limits imposed by few treaties and international law, states may define who are and are not their nationals.
However, since the Nottebohm case, other states are only required to respect claim by a state to protect an alleged national if the nationality is based on a true social bond. In the case of dual nationality, states may determine the most effective nationality for a person, to determine which state's laws are most relevant. There are limits on removing a person's status as a national. Article 15 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that "Everyone has the right to a nationality," and "No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality." Nationals have the right to enter or return to the country they belong to. Passports are issued to nationals of a state, rather than only to citizens, because the passport is the travel document used to enter the country. However, nationals may not have the right of abode in the countries passports. Conceptually, citizenship is focused on the internal political life of the state and nationality is a matter of international dealings.
In the modern era, the concept of full citizenship encompasses not only active political rights, but full civil rights and social rights. Nationality is a necessary but not sufficient condition to exercise full political rights within a state or other polity. Nationality is required for full citizenship, some people have no nationality in international law. A person, denied full citizenship or nationality is called a stateless person; the most significant difference between a national and a citizen is that the citizen has the right to vote for elected officials, to be elected. This distinction between full citizenship and other, lesser relationships goes back to antiquity; until the 19th and 20th centuries, it was typical for only a small percentage of people who belonged to a city or state to be full citizens. In the past, most people were excluded from citizenship on the basis of gender, socioeconomic class, ethnicity and other factors. However, they held a legal relationship with their government akin to the modern concept of nationality.
United States nationality law defines some persons born in U. S. outlying possessions as U. S. not citizens. British nationality law defines six classes of British national, among which "British citizen" is one class. In the Republic of China known as Taiwan, the status of national without household registration applies to people who have Republic of China nationality, but do not have an automatic entitlement to enter or reside in the Taiwan Area, do not qualify for civic rights and duties there. Under the nationality laws of Mexico and some other Latin American countries, nationals do not become citizens until they turn 18. Nationality is sometimes used as an alternative word for ethnicity or national origin, just as some people assume that citizenship and nationality are identical. In some countries, the cognate word for nationality in local language may be understood as a synonym of ethnicity or as an identifier of cultural and family-based self-determination, rather than on relations with a state or current government.
For example, some Kurds say that they have Kurdish nationality
Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process. Though the scope of the term differs between countries, civil liberties may include the freedom of conscience, freedom of press, freedom of religion, freedom of expression, freedom of assembly, the right to security and liberty, freedom of speech, the right to privacy, the right to equal treatment under the law and due process, the right to a fair trial, the right to life. Other civil liberties include the right to own property, the right to defend oneself, the right to bodily integrity. Within the distinctions between civil liberties and other types of liberty, distinctions exist between positive liberty/positive rights and negative liberty/negative rights. Many contemporary states have a constitution, a bill of rights, or similar constitutional documents that enumerate and seek to guarantee civil liberties. Other states have enacted similar laws through a variety of legal means, including signing and ratifying or otherwise giving effect to key conventions such as the European Convention on Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
The existence of some claimed civil liberties is a matter of dispute, as are the extent of most civil rights. Controversial examples include property rights, reproductive rights, civil marriage; the degree that democracies have involved themselves in needs to take into fact the influence of terrorism. Whether the existence of victimless crimes infringes upon civil liberties is a matter of dispute. Another matter of debate is the suspension or alteration of certain civil liberties in times of war or state of emergency, including whether and to what extent this should occur; the formal concept of civil liberties is dated back to Magna Carta, an English legal charter agreed in 1215 which in turn was based on pre-existing documents, namely the Charter of Liberties. The Constitution of People's Republic of China its Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens, claims to protect many civil liberties. Taiwan, separated from China, has its own Constitution; the Fundamental Rights—embodied in Part III of the constitution—guarantee liberties such that all Indians can lead their lives in peace as citizens of India.
The six fundamental rights are right to equality, right to freedom, right against exploitation, right to freedom of religion and educational rights and right to constitutional remedies. These include individual rights common to most liberal democracies, incorporated in the fundamental law of the land and are enforceable in a court of law. Violations of these rights result in punishments as prescribed in the Indian Penal Code, subject to discretion of the judiciary; these rights are neither immune from constitutional amendments. They have been aimed at overturning the inequalities of pre-independence social practices, they resulted in abolishment of un-touchability and prohibit discrimination on the grounds of religion, caste, sex, or place of birth. They forbid unfree labour, they protect cultural and educational rights of ethnic and religious minorities by allowing them to preserve their languages and administer their own educational institutions. All people, irrespective of race, caste or sex, have the right to approach the High Courts or the Supreme Court for the enforcement of their fundamental rights.
It is not necessary. In public interest, anyone can initiate litigation in the court on their behalf; this is known as "Public interest litigation". High Court and Supreme Court judges can act on their own on the basis of media reports; the Fundamental Rights emphasize equality by guaranteeing to all citizens the access and use of public institutions and protections, irrespective of their background. The rights to life and personal liberty apply for persons of any nationality, while others, such as the freedom of speech and expression are applicable only to the citizens of India; the right to equality in matters of public employment cannot be conferred to overseas citizens of India. Fundamental Rights protect individuals from any arbitrary State actions, but some rights are enforceable against private individuals too. For instance, the constitution prohibits begar; these provisions act as a check both on State action and actions of private individuals. Fundamental Rights are not absolute and are subject to reasonable restrictions as necessary for the protection of national interest.
In the Kesavananda Bharati vs. state of Kerala case, the Supreme Court ruled that all provisions of the constitution, including Fundamental Rights can be amended. However, the Parliament cannot alter the basic structure of the constitution like secularism, federalism, separation of powers. Called the "Basic structure doctrine", this decision is regarded as an important part of Indian history. In the 1978 Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India case, the Supreme Court extended the doctrine's importance as superior to any parliamentary legislation. According to the verdict, no act of parliament can be considered a law if it violated the basic structure of the constitution; this landmark guarantee of Fundamental Rights was regarded as a unique example of judicial independence in preserving the sanctity of Fundamental Rights. The Fundamental Rights can only be altered by a constitutional amendment, hence their inclusion is a check not only on the executive branch, but on the Parliament and state legislatures.
The imposition of a state of em
Race (human categorization)
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories viewed as distinct by society. First used to refer to speakers of a common language and to denote national affiliations, by the 17th century the term race began to refer to physical traits. Modern scholarship regards race as a social construct, an identity, assigned based on rules made by society. While based on physical similarities within groups, race is not an inherent physical or biological quality. Social conceptions and groupings of races vary over time, involving folk taxonomies that define essential types of individuals based on perceived traits. Scientists consider biological essentialism obsolete, discourage racial explanations for collective differentiation in both physical and behavioral traits. Though there is a broad scientific agreement that essentialist and typological conceptualizations of race are untenable, scientists around the world continue to conceptualize race in differing ways, some of which have essentialist implications.
While some researchers use the concept of race to make distinctions among fuzzy sets of traits or observable differences in behaviour, others in the scientific community suggest that the idea of race is used in a naive or simplistic way, argue that, among humans, race has no taxonomic significance by pointing out that all living humans belong to the same species, Homo sapiens, subspecies, Homo sapiens sapiens. Since the second half of the 20th century, the association of race with the ideologies and theories of scientific racism has led to the use of the word race itself becoming problematic. Although still used in general contexts, race has been replaced by less ambiguous and loaded terms: populations, ethnic groups, or communities, depending on context. Modern scholarship views racial categories as constructed, that is, race is not intrinsic to human beings but rather an identity created by dominant groups, to establish meaning in a social context; this involves the subjugation of groups defined as racially inferior, as in the one-drop rule used in the 19th-century United States to exclude those with any amount of African ancestry from the dominant racial grouping, defined as "white".
Such racial identities reflect the cultural attitudes of imperial powers dominant during the age of European colonial expansion. This view rejects the notion. Although commonalities in physical traits such as facial features, skin color, hair texture comprise part of the race concept, the latter is a social distinction rather than an inherently biological one. Other dimensions of racial groupings include shared history and language. For instance, African-American English is a language spoken by many African Americans in areas of the United States where racial segregation exists. Furthermore, people self-identify as members of a race for political reasons; when people define and talk about a particular conception of race, they create a social reality through which social categorization is achieved. In this sense, races are said to be social constructs; these constructs develop within various legal and sociopolitical contexts, may be the effect, rather than the cause, of major social situations.
While race is understood to be a social construct by many, most scholars agree that race has real material effects in the lives of people through institutionalized practices of preference and discrimination. Socioeconomic factors, in combination with early but enduring views of race, have led to considerable suffering within disadvantaged racial groups. Racial discrimination coincides with racist mindsets, whereby the individuals and ideologies of one group come to perceive the members of an outgroup as both racially defined and morally inferior; as a result, racial groups possessing little power find themselves excluded or oppressed, while hegemonic individuals and institutions are charged with holding racist attitudes. Racism has led to many instances including slavery and genocide. In some countries, law enforcement uses race to profile suspects; this use of racial categories is criticized for perpetuating an outmoded understanding of human biological variation, promoting stereotypes. Because in some societies racial groupings correspond with patterns of social stratification, for social scientists studying social inequality, race can be a significant variable.
As sociological factors, racial categories may in part reflect subjective attributions, self-identities, social institutions. Scholars continue to debate the degrees to which racial categories are biologically warranted and constructed. For example, in 2008, John Hartigan, Jr. argued for a view of race that focused on culture, but which does not ignore the potential relevance of biology or genetics. Accordingly, the racial paradigms employed in different disciplines vary in their emphasis on biological reduction as contrasted with societal construction. In the social sciences, theoretical frameworks such as racial formation theory and critical race theory investigate implications of race as social construction by exploring how the images and assumptions of race are expressed in everyday life. A large body of scholarship has traced the relationships between the historical, social production of race in legal and criminal language, their effects on the policing and disproportionate incarceration of certain groups.
Groups of humans have always identified themselves as distinct from neighboring groups, but such differences have not always been understood to be natural and global. These features a
The term digital rights describes the human rights that allow individuals to access, use and publish digital media or to access and use computers, other electronic devices, or communications networks. The term is related to the protection and realization of existing rights, such as the right to privacy or freedom of expression, in the context of new digital technologies the Internet. Right to Internet access is recognized as a right by the laws of several countries. A number of human rights have been identified as relevant with regard to the Internet; these include freedom of expression, data privacy and freedom of association. Furthermore, the right to education and multilingualism, consumer rights, capacity building in the context of the right to development have been identified; the Internet is a global public good that should be accessible to all and respectful of the rights of others, said an influential Jesuit magazine. With repressive regimes restricting access to information and communications, democratic governments should work to guarantee access to the Internet and adopt general principles to ensure network use respects universal human rights said an editorial in La Civilta Cattolica, a Jesuit journal reviewed by the Vatican before publication.
"What the law permits or prohibits offline must be the case online," said the editorial released Nov. 17. The "only widespread international consensus" on online material to be censored regards child pornography and cyberterrorism, the article said; the Jesuit journal said that with individuals abusing the freedom of expression, with companies exploiting computer users for financial gain and repressive regimes blocking information from their citizens, the world needs a "Charter of Human Rights for the Internet". The Electronic Frontier Foundation has criticized the United States government for considering during the Megaupload seizure process that people lose property rights by storing data on a cloud computing service. Several countries have adopted laws that require the state to work to ensure that Internet access is broadly available and/or preventing the state from unreasonably restricting an individual's access to information and the Internet: Costa Rica: A 30 July 2010 ruling by the Supreme Court of Costa Rica stated: "Without fear of equivocation, it can be said that these technologies have impacted the way humans communicate, facilitating the connection between people and institutions worldwide and eliminating barriers of space and time.
At this time, access to these technologies becomes a basic tool to facilitate the exercise of fundamental rights and democratic participation and citizen control, freedom of thought and expression, access to information and public services online, the right to communicate with government electronically and administrative transparency, among others. This includes the fundamental right of access to these technologies, in particular, the right of access to the Internet or World Wide Web." Estonia: In 2000, the parliament launched a massive program to expand access to the countryside. The Internet, is essential for life in the 21st century. Finland: By July 2010, every person in Finland was to have access to a one-megabit per second broadband connection, according to the Ministry of Transport and Communications, and by 2015, access to a 100 Mbit/s connection. France: In June 2009, the Constitutional Council, France's highest court, declared access to the Internet to be a basic human right in a strongly-worded decision that struck down portions of the HADOPI law, a law that would have tracked abusers and without judicial review and automatically cut off network access to those who continued to download illicit material after two warnings Greece: Article 5A of the Constitution of Greece states that all persons have the right to participate in the Information Society and that the state has an obligation to facilitate the production, exchange and access to electronically transmitted information.
Spain: Starting in 2011, Telefónica, the former state monopoly that holds the country's "universal service" contract, has to guarantee to offer "reasonably" priced broadband of at least one megabyte per second throughout Spain. The APC Internet Rights Charter was established by the Association for Progressive Communications at the APC Europe Internet Rights Workshop, held in Prague, February 2001; the Charter draws on the People's Communications Charter and develops seven themes: internet access for all. The APC states that "the ability to share information and communicate using the internet is vital to the realisation of human rights as enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women." In December 2003 the World Summit on the Information Society was convened under the auspice of the United Nations.
After lengthy negotiations between governments and civil society representatives the WSIS Declaration of Principles was adopted reaffirming human rights: "We reaffirm the universality, indivisibility and interrelation of all human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development, as enshrined in the Vienna Declaration. We reaffirm that democracy, sustainable development, respect for human ri