Reproductive rights are legal rights and freedoms relating to reproduction and reproductive health that vary amongst countries around the world. They include the right of all to make decisions concerning reproduction free of discrimination, Reproductive rights began to develop as a subset of human rights at the United Nations 1968 International Conference on Human Rights. States, have been slow in incorporating these rights in internationally legally binding instruments, issues related to reproductive rights are some of the most vigorously contested rights issues worldwide, regardless of the populations socioeconomic level, religion or culture. The issue of rights is frequently presented as being of vital importance in discussions. Reproductive rights are a subset of sexual and reproductive health and rights, in 1945, the United Nations Charter included the obligation to promote. Universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without discrimination as to race, language, the Charter did not define these rights.
Three years later, the UN adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the first international document to delineate human rights. Parents have the right to determine freely and responsibly the number. The 1975 UN International Womens Year Conference echoed the Proclamation of Teheran, the twenty-year Cairo Programme of Action was adopted in 1994 at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo. The non-binding Programme of Action asserted that governments have a responsibility to meet individuals reproductive needs, the ICPD addressed issues such as violence against women, sex trafficking, and adolescent health. Unlike previous population conferences, a range of interests from grassroots to government level were represented in Cairo. 179 nations attended the ICPD and overall eleven thousand representatives from governments, NGOs, international agencies, the ICPD did not address the far-reaching implications of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The Cairo Programme of Action was adopted by 184 UN member states, the Beijing Platform demarcated twelve interrelated critical areas of the human rights of women that require advocacy.
The Platform framed womens reproductive rights as indivisible and inalienable human rights, in relation to reproductive health, Principle 9 on The Right to Treatment with Humanity while in Detention requires that States shall. Nonetheless, African and Islamic Countries, as well as the Russian Federation, have objected to the use of these principles as Human Rights standards. The first legal textbook on reproductive rights law, Cases on Reproductive Rights and Justice by Melissa Murray, State abuses against reproductive rights have happened both under right-wing and left-wing governments. Some governments have implemented policies of forced sterilizations of undesirable population groups. It includes the right of all to make decisions concerning reproduction free of discrimination, coercion, in the exercise of this right, they should take into account the needs of their living and future children and their responsibilities towards the community
A state is a type of polity that is an organized political community living under a single system of government. States may or may not be sovereign, for instance, federated states are members of a federal union, and may have only partial sovereignty, but are, states. Some states are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony, in which ultimate sovereignty lies in another state, States that are sovereign are known as sovereign states. The term state can refer to the branches of government within a state, often as a manner of contrasting them with churches. Speakers of American English often use the state and government as synonyms. Many human societies have been governed by states for millennia, over time a variety of different forms developed, employing a variety of justifications of legitimacy for their existence. In the 21st century, the modern nation-state is the predominant form of state to which people are subjected, there is no academic consensus on the most appropriate definition of the state.
The term state refers to a set of different, but interrelated and often overlapping, general categories of state institutions include administrative bureaucracies, legal systems, and military or religious organizations. Another commonly accepted definition of the state is the one given at the Montevideo Convention on Rights, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, a state is a. an organized political community under one government, a commonwealth, a nation. B. such a community forming part of a federal republic, confounding the definition problem is that state and government are often used as synonyms in common conversation and even some academic discourse. According to this schema, the states are nonphysical persons of international law. The relationship between a government and its state is one of representation and authorized agency, States may be classified as sovereign if they are not dependent on, or subject to any other power or state. Other states are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony where ultimate sovereignty lies in another state, many states are federated states which participate in a federal union. A federated state is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation, such states differ from sovereign states in that they have transferred a portion of their sovereign powers to a federal government.
One can commonly and sometimes readily classify states according to their apparent make-up or focus, the concept of the nation-state, theoretically or ideally co-terminous with a nation, became very popular by the 20th century in Europe, but occurred rarely elsewhere or at other times. Imperial states have sometimes promoted notions of racial superiority, the concept of temple states centred on religious shrines occurs in some discussions of the ancient world. To some extent, urban secession, the creation of a new city-state, a state can be distinguished from a government. The government is the group of people, the administrative bureaucracy that controls the state apparatus at a given time
Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process. Other civil liberties include the right to own property, the right to defend oneself, within the distinctions between civil liberties and other types of liberty, distinctions exist between positive liberty/positive rights and negative liberty/negative rights. Many contemporary states have a constitution, a bill of rights, or similar constitutional documents that enumerate, the existence of some claimed civil liberties is a matter of dispute, as are the extent of most civil rights. Controversial examples include property rights, reproductive rights, and civil marriage, whether the existence of victimless crimes infringes upon civil liberties is a matter of dispute. Another matter of debate is the suspension or alteration of certain civil liberties in times of war or state of emergency, including whether and to what extent this should occur.
The formal concept of civil liberties is often dated back to Magna Carta, the Constitution of Peoples Republic of China, especially its Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens, claims to protect many civil liberties. Taiwan, which is separated from China, has its own Constitution, the Fundamental Rights—embodied in Part III of the constitution—guarantee liberties such that all Indians can lead their lives in peace as citizens of India. The six fundamental rights are right to equality, right to freedom, right against exploitation, right to freedom of religion and educational rights and right to constitutional remedies. These include individual rights common to most liberal democracies, incorporated in the law of the land and are enforceable in a court of law. Violations of these result in punishments as prescribed in the Indian Penal Code. These rights are neither absolute nor immune from constitutional amendments and they have been aimed at overturning the inequalities of pre-independence social practices.
Specifically, they resulted in abolishment of un-touchability and prohibit discrimination on the grounds of religion, caste and they forbid human trafficking and unfree labour. They protect cultural and educational rights of ethnic and religious minorities by allowing them to preserve their languages, all people, irrespective of race, caste or sex, have the right to approach the High Courts or the Supreme Court for the enforcement of their fundamental rights. It is not necessary that the party has to be the one to do so. In public interest, anyone can initiate litigation in the court on their behalf and this is known as Public interest litigation. High Court and Supreme Court judges can act on their own on the basis of media reports, the Fundamental Rights emphasize equality by guaranteeing to all citizens the access and use of public institutions and protections, irrespective of their background. The rights to life and personal liberty apply for persons of any nationality, while others, such as the freedom of speech, the right to equality in matters of public employment cannot be conferred to overseas citizens of India.
Fundamental Rights primarily protect individuals from any arbitrary State actions, for instance, the constitution abolishes untouchability and prohibits begar
A patients bill of rights is a list of guarantees for those receiving medical care. It may take the form of a law or a non-binding declaration, typically a patients bill of rights guarantees patients information, fair treatment, and autonomy over medical decisions, among other rights. In the United States there have been a number of attempts to enshrine a patients bill of rights in law, a patients bill of rights was considered by the United States Congress in 2001. Its proposed title was the Bipartisan Patient Protection Act and it was known officially as Senate Bill S.1052 and informally as the McCain-Edwards-Kennedy Patients Bill of Rights. The bill was an attempt at providing comprehensive protections to all Americans covered by insurance plans. The House of Representatives and Senate passed differing versions of the proposed law, the Senates proposal would have conferred a broad array of rights on patients. The industry, goes to lengths to keep its involvement in these campaigns hidden from public view.
Indeed, in a successful 1998 effort to kill the Patient Bill of Rights then, like most front groups, the Health Benefits Coalition was set up and run out of one of Washington’s biggest P. R. firms. The P. R. firm provided all the work for the Coalition. Industry allies in Congress made sure the Patients’ Bill of Rights would not become law, some have cited differences between positive rights and personal freedoms. American Iatrogenic Association Promoting accountability for medical professionals and institutions Summary of the McCain-Edwards-Kennedy Patients Bill of Rights S.10522001
Safety is the state of being safe, the condition of being protected from harm or other non-desirable outcomes. Safety can refer to the control of recognized hazards in order to achieve a level of risk. There are two different meanings of safety. For example, home safety may indicate an ability to protect against external harm events. Discussions of safety often include mention of related terms, with time the definitions between these two have often become interchanged and frequently appear juxtaposed in the same sentence. Readers unfortunately are left to conclude whether they comprise a redundancy and this confuses the uniqueness that should be reserved for each by itself. When seen as unique, as we intend here, each term will assume its place in influencing and being influenced by the other. Safety is the condition of a “steady state” of an organization or place doing what it is supposed to do, for any organization, place, or function, large or small, safety is a normative concept. It complies with situation-specific definitions of what is expected and acceptable, in the world of everyday affairs, not all goes as planned.
Some entity’s steady state is challenged and this is where security science, which is of more recent date, enters. Using this generic definition of safety it is possible to specify the elements of a security program, Safety can be limited in relation to some guarantee or a standard of insurance to the quality and unharmful function of an object or organization. It is used in order to ensure that the object or organization will do only what it is meant to do and it is important to realize that safety is relative. Eliminating all risk, if possible, would be extremely difficult. A safe situation is one where risks of injury or property damage are low and it is important to distinguish between products that meet standards, that are safe, and those that merely feel safe. Substantive or objective safety occurs when the real-world safety history is favorable, perceived or subjective safety refers to the users level of comfort and perception of risk, without consideration of standards or safety history.
For example, traffic signals are perceived as safe, yet under some circumstances, traffic roundabouts have a generally favorable safety record yet often make drivers nervous. Low perceived safety can have costs, for example, after the 9/11/2001 attacks, many people chose to drive rather than fly, despite the fact that, even counting terrorist attacks, flying is safer than driving. Perceived risk discourages people from walking and bicycling for transportation, enjoyment or exercise, called social safety or public safety, security addresses the risk of harm due to intentional criminal acts such as assault, burglary or vandalism
Men's rights movement
The mens rights movement is a part of the larger mens movement. It branched off from the liberation movement in the early 1970s. The mens rights movement is made up of a variety of groups and individuals who focus on social issues and government services. Some scholars consider the mens rights movement or parts of the movement to be a backlash to feminism and activities associated with the mens rights movement have been criticized by some scholars, the Southern Poverty Law Center, and commentators. Some sectors of the movement have been described as misogynistic, others argue that perceived disadvantage is often due to loss of entitlement and privilege. The term mens rights was used at least as early as February 1856 when it appeared in Putnams Magazine, three loosely connected mens rights organizations formed in Austria in the interwar period. The League for Mens Rights was founded in 1926 with the goal of combatting all excesses of womens emancipation, in 1927, the Justitia League for Family Law Reform and the Aequitas Worlds League for the Rights of Men split from the League of Mens Rights.
The three mens rights groups opposed womens entry into the market and what they saw as the corrosive influence of the womens movement on social and legal institutions. The organizations ceased to exist before 1939, the modern mens rights movement emerged from the mens liberation movement, which appeared in the first half of the 1970s when some scholars began to study feminist ideas and politics. The mens liberation movement acknowledged mens institutional power while critically examining the costs of traditional masculinity, in the late 1970s, the mens liberation movement split into two separate strands with opposing views, the pro-feminist mens movement and the anti-feminist mens rights movement. Mens rights activists have rejected feminist principles and focused on areas in which they believe men are disadvantaged, oppressed, in the 1980s and 90s, mens rights activists opposed societal changes sought by feminists and defended the traditional gender order in the family and the workplace.
Some mens rights activists see men as a group and believe that society. One of the first major mens rights organizations was the Coalition of American Divorce Reform Elements, founded by Richard Doyle in 1971, from which the Mens Rights Association spun off in 1973. Free Men Inc. was founded in 1977 in Columbia, spawning several chapters over the following years, Mens Rights, Inc. was formed in 1977. In the United Kingdom, a rights group calling itself the UK Mens Movement began to organize in the early 1990s. The Save Indian Family Foundation was founded in 2005, and in 2010 claimed to have over 30,000 members, Mens rights groups have formed in some European countries during periods of shifts toward conservatism and policies supporting traditional family and gender relations. In the United States, the mens rights movement has ties to neoconservatism. Mens rights activists have received lobbying support from organizations and their arguments have been covered extensively in neoconservative media
The laws are designed to prevent the businesses that engage in fraud or specified unfair practices from gaining an advantage over competitors. They may provide protection for those most vulnerable in society. Consumer protection laws are a form of government regulation that aim to protect the rights of consumers, for example, a government may require businesses to disclose detailed information about products—particularly in areas where safety or public health is an issue, such as food. A consumer is defined as someone who acquires goods or services for use or ownership rather than for resale or use in production. Consumer protection can be asserted via non-government organizations and individuals as consumer activism, Consumer protection law or consumer law is considered an area of law that regulates private law relationships between individual consumers and the businesses that sell those goods and services. Its a way of preventing fraud and scams from service and sales contracts, bill collector regulation, utility turnoffs, the following lists consumer legislation at the nation-state level.
In the EU member states Germany and the United Kingdom there is the applicability of law at the EU level to be considered, in Australia, the corresponding agency is the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission or the individual State Consumer Affairs agencies. The Australian Securities and Investments Commission has responsibility for consumer protection regulation of financial services, however, in practice it does so through privately run EDR schemes such as the Financial Ombudsman Service. Germany as a state of the European Union is bound by the consumer protection directives of the European Union. A minister of the cabinet is responsible for consumer rights. In the current cabinet of Angela Merkel, this is Heiko Maas.84,71 BVerwGE 183), in India The Consumer protection act,1986 is governing consumer protection. Appeal could be filed to the State Consumer Disputes Redress Commissions, in recent years, many effective judgment have been passed by some state and National Consumer Forums.
The Sale of Goods Act of 1930 act provides some safeguards to buyers of goods if goods purchased do not fulfill the express or implied conditions, the Civil Code in Taiwan contains five books, General Principles, Rights over Things and Succession. The second book of the Code, the Book of Obligations, the Consumer Protection Commission of Executive Yuan serves as an ombudsman supervising, reporting any unsafe products/services and periodically reviewing the legislation. Specifics of the division of labour between the EU and the UK are detailed here, domestic laws originated within the ambit of contract and tort but, with the influence of EU law, it is emerging as an independent area of law. In many circumstances, where law is in question, the matter judicially treated as tort, contract. Consumer Protection issues are dealt with when complaints are made to the Director-General of Fair Trade, the Office of Fair Trading will investigate, impose an injunction or take the matter to litigation. However, consumers cannot directly complain to the OFT, complaints need to be made to the Citizens Advice Consumer Service who will provide legal advice to complainants, or re-direct the individual complaint to Trading Standards for investigation
Freedom of thought
Freedom of thought is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, independent of others viewpoints. It is different from and not to be confused with the concept of freedom of speech or expression, Freedom of thought is the precursor and progenitor of—and thus is closely linked to—other liberties, including freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and freedom of expression. Though freedom of thought is axiomatic for many other freedoms they are in no way required for it to operate, conception of a freedom or a right does not guarantee its inclusion, legality, or protection via a philosophical caveat. It is an important concept in the Western world and nearly all democratic constitutions protect these freedoms. For instance, the Bill of Rights contains the famous guarantee in the First Amendment that laws may not be made that interfere with religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, U. S. Supreme Court Justice Benjamin Cardozo reasoned in Palko v. Connecticut, Freedom of thought.
Is the matrix, the condition, of nearly every other form of freedom. With rare aberrations a pervasive recognition of truth can be traced in our history. Such ideas are a part of international human rights law. The United Nations Human Rights Committee states that this, distinguishes the freedom of thought, conscience and it does not permit any limitations whatsoever on the freedom of thought and conscience or on the freedom to have or adopt a religion or belief of ones choice. Similarly, Article 19 of the UDHR guarantees that Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression and it is impossible to know with certainty what another person is thinking, making suppression difficult. The concept is developed throughout the Bible, most fully in the writings of Paul of Tarsus, although Greek philosophers Plato and Socrates had discussed Freedom of Thought minimally, the edicts of King Ashoka have been called the first decree respecting Freedom of Conscience. Queen Elizabeth I revoked a thought censorship law in the sixteenth century, according to Sir Francis Bacon, she did not to make windows into mens souls.
After leaving the safety of England, Bruno was eventually burned as a heretic in Rome for refusing to recant his ideas, for this reason he is considered by some to be a martyr for free thought. However, freedom of expression can be limited through censorship, book burning, or propaganda, Freedom of expression can be stifled without institutional interference when majority views become so widely accepted that the entire culture represses dissenting views. For this reason, some condemn political correctness as a form of limiting freedom of thought, karsons arrest raised important questions regarding freedom of thought and whether or not it applies in times of tragedy. This was explored in George Orwells novel 1984, with the idea of Newspeak, Sir John Laws, The Limitations of Human Rights, P. L. Summer, Sweet & Maxwell and Contributors, p260 Voltaire
Human rights are moral principles or norms, which describe certain standards of human behaviour, and are regularly protected as legal rights in municipal and international law. They are applicable everywhere and at time in the sense of being universal. They require empathy and the rule of law and impose an obligation on persons to respect the rights of others. They should not be taken away except as a result of due process based on circumstances, for example, human rights may include freedom from unlawful imprisonment, torture. The doctrine of human rights has been influential within international law. Actions by states and non-governmental organizations form a basis of public policy worldwide, the idea of human rights suggests that if the public discourse of peacetime global society can be said to have a common moral language, it is that of human rights. The strong claims made by the doctrine of human rights continue to provoke considerable skepticism and debates about the content, ancient peoples did not have the same modern-day conception of universal human rights.
Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the family is the foundation of freedom. All human beings are free and equal in dignity and rights. According to Jack Donnelly, in the ancient world, traditional societies typically have had elaborate systems of duties, conceptions of justice, political legitimacy, and human flourishing that sought to realize human dignity, flourishing, or well-being entirely independent of human rights. These institutions and practices are alternative to, rather than different formulations of, one theory is that human rights were developed during the early Modern period, alongside the European secularization of Judeo-Christian ethics. The most commonly held view is that the concept of human rights evolved in the West, for example, McIntyre argues there is no word for right in any language before 1400. One of the oldest records of rights is the statute of Kalisz, giving privileges to the Jewish minority in the Kingdom of Poland such as protection from discrimination.
Samuel Moyn suggests that the concept of rights is intertwined with the modern sense of citizenship. The earliest conceptualization of human rights is credited to ideas about natural rights emanating from natural law, in particular, the issue of universal rights was introduced by the examination of extending rights to indigenous peoples by Spanish clerics, such as Francisco de Vitoria and Bartolomé de Las Casas. In Britain in 1689, the English Bill of Rights and the Scottish Claim of Right each made illegal a range of oppressive governmental actions, the Virginia Declaration of Rights of 1776 encoded into law a number of fundamental civil rights and civil freedoms. These were followed by developments in philosophy of human rights by philosophers such as Thomas Paine, John Stuart Mill, hegel during the 18th and 19th centuries. Although the term had been used by at least one author as early as 1742, in the 19th century, human rights became a central concern over the issue of slavery
Human skin color
Human skin color ranges in variety from the darkest brown to the lightest hues. An individuals skin pigmentation is the result of genetics, being the product of both of the biological parents genetic makeup. The actual skin color of different humans is affected by many substances, melanin is produced within the skin in cells called melanocytes and it is the main determinant of the skin color of darker-skinned humans. The skin color of people with skin is determined mainly by the bluish-white connective tissue under the dermis. The red color underlying the skin becomes more visible, especially in the face, Color is not entirely uniform across an individuals skin, for example, the skin of the palm and the sole is lighter than most other skin, and this is especially noticeable in darker-skinned people. There is a correlation between the geographic distribution of UV radiation and the distribution of indigenous skin pigmentation around the world. Areas that receive higher amounts of UVR, generally located closer to the equator, areas that are far from the tropics and closer to the poles have lower intensity of UVR, which is reflected in lighter-skinned populations.
Natural skin color can darken as a result of tanning due to exposure to sunlight. In addition, it has observed that adult human females on average are significantly lighter in skin pigmentation than males. Females need more calcium during pregnancy and lactation, the body synthesizes vitamin D from sunlight, which helps it absorb calcium. Females evolved to have lighter skin so their bodies absorb more calcium, the social significance of differences in skin color has varied across cultures and over time, as demonstrated with regard to social status and discrimination. Melanin is produced by cells called melanocytes in a process called melanogenesis, melanin is made within small membrane–bound packages called melanosomes. As they become full of melanin, they move into the arms of melanocytes. Under normal conditions, melanosomes cover the part of the keratinocytes. One melanocyte supplies melanin to thirty-six keratinocytes according to signals from the keratinocytes and they regulate melanin production and replication of melanocytes.
People have different skin colors mainly because their melanocytes produce different amount, the genetic mechanism behind human skin color is mainly regulated by the enzyme tyrosinase, which creates the color of the skin and hair shades. Differences in skin color are attributed to differences in size, melanocytes produce two types of melanin. The most common form of melanin is eumelanin, a brown-black polymer of dihydroxyindole carboxylic acids
Childrens rights are the human rights of children with particular attention to the rights of special protection and care afforded to minors. The Convention on the Rights of the Child of 1989 defines a child as any person who has not reached the age of eighteen years. Other definitions include the rights to care and nurturing, a child is any human being below the age of eighteen years, unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier. The field of childrens rights spans the fields of law, religion, is a mass of human rights law, both treaty and soft law, both general and child-specific, which recognises the distinct status and particular requirements of children. As minors by law children do not have autonomy or the right to decisions on their own for themselves in any known jurisdiction of the world. Instead their adult caregivers, including parents, social workers, youth workers, some believe that this state of affairs gives children insufficient control over their own lives and causes them to be vulnerable.
Louis Althusser has gone so far as to describe this legal machinery, as it applies to children, on this view, children are to be regarded as a minority group towards whom society needs to reconsider the way it behaves. Researchers have identified children as needing to be recognized as participants in society whose rights, sir William Blackstone recognized three parental duties to the child, maintenance and education. In modern language, the child has a right to receive these from the parent, consensus on defining childrens rights has become clearer in the last fifty years. A1973 publication by Hillary Clinton stated that childrens rights were a slogan in need of a definition, children’s rights law is defined as the point where the law intersects with a childs life. Children have two types of rights under international human rights law. General rights operative in childhood include the right to security of the person, to freedom from inhuman, cruel, or degrading treatment, Childrens rights are defined in numerous ways, including a wide spectrum of civil, economic and cultural rights.
These have been labeled as the right of empowerment and as the right to protection, United Nations educational guides for children classify the rights outlined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child as the 3 Ps, Provision and Participation. They may be elaborated as follows, Children have the right to a standard of living, health care and services. These include a diet, a warm bed to sleep in. Protection, Children have the right to protection from abuse and this includes the right to safe places for children to play, constructive child rearing behavior, and acknowledgment of the evolving capacities of children. Participation, Children have the right to participate in communities and have programs and this includes childrens involvement in libraries and community programs, youth voice activities, and involving children as decision-makers. Human Rights Watch, an advocacy organization, includes child labor, juvenile justice and abandoned children, street children
Divine right of kings
The divine right of kings, divine right, or Gods mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy. It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, the king is thus not subject to the will of his people, the aristocracy, or any other estate of the realm. It implies that only God can judge an unjust king and that any attempt to depose, dethrone or restrict his powers runs contrary to the will of God and it is only an implication and the Bible states Iron sharpens iron, referring to accountability to each other. It implies the higher accountability of Monarchs to implement policies in line with Christs commandment to Love one another and it is often expressed in the phrase by the Grace of God, attached to the titles of a reigning monarch. In the pagan world, kings were often seen as ruling with the backing of heavenly powers or perhaps even being divine beings themselves. However, the Christian notion of a right of kings could be traced to the biblical story found in 1 Samuel.
And the anointing is to such an effect that the monarch became inviolable, adomnan of Iona is one of the earliest Christian proponents of this concept of kings ruling with divine right. He wrote of the Irish King Diarmait mac Cerbaills assassination and claimed that divine punishment fell on his assassin for the act of violating the monarch, the same angel visited Columba on three successive nights, and finally Columba agreed and Aedan came to receive ordination. Adomnans writings most likely influenced other Irish writers, who in turn influenced continental ideas as well, pepin the Shorts coronation may have come from the same influence. The Carolingian dynasty and the Holy Roman Emperors influenced all subsequent western ideas of kingship, the immediate author of the theory was Jean Bodin, who based it on the interpretation of Roman law. With the rise of nation-states and the Protestant Reformation, the theory of divine right justified the kings authority in both political and spiritual matters.
The theory came to the fore in England under the reign of James I of England, louis XIV of France strongly promoted the theory as well. The Scots textbooks of the right of kings were written in 1597–98 by James VI of Scotland before his accession to the English throne. James I based his theories in part on his understanding of the Bible, the state of monarchy is the supremest thing upon earth, for kings are not only Gods lieutenants upon earth and sit upon Gods throne, but even by God himself they are called gods. There be three principal that illustrate the state of monarchy, one out of the word of God. In the Scriptures kings are called gods, and so their power after a certain relation compared to the Divine power, Kings are compared to fathers of families, for a king is truly parens patriae, the politic father of his people. And lastly, kings are compared to the head of this microcosm of the body of man, jamess reference to Gods lieutenants is apparently a reference to the controversial text in Romans 13, where Paul refers to Gods ministers.
Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers, for there is no power but of God, the powers that be are ordained of God