Aloísio Leo Arlindo Lorscheider, O. F. M. was a prominent cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church in Brazil during the 1980s. He was renowned as an advocate of liberation theology in the 1970s and was seen by some observers as a serious candidate for the papacy in the two conclaves of 1978. Lorscheider was of German descent, born in Estrela, Rio Grande do Brazil, he entered the local Franciscan minor seminary of Taquari at the age of nine years. He began his novitiate in December 1942 and was ordained as a priest on 22 August 1948, he taught a number of subjects – German, Latin – but it was not long before he went to Rome to study dogmatic theology. Lorscheider received his doctorate in 1952, returned to Brazil to teach that same subject at the Franciscan Seminary of Divinopolis. In 1958 Lorscheider was called back to Rome to teach, in 1962 made bishop of Santo Ângelo. Lorscheider attended the Second Vatican Council between 1962 and 1965, he was named Archbishop of Fortaleza in the northeastern state of Ceará.
As Lorscheider grew in popularity with his flock and his ability as a prelate was recognised, Pope Paul VI gave him a cardinal's hat in May 1976, becoming Cardinal-Priest of S. Pietro in Montorio. Although at the time he was the fourth-youngest cardinal in the college, Lorscheider doubted his own health. However, some oddsmakers with Ladbrokes considered him a serious papabile in the August 1978 conclave. Lorscheider headed the National Conference of Brazilian Bishops from 1971 to 1978, he led the Latin American Episcopal Conference in 1976. In 1995, Pope John Paul II named Lorscheider Archbishop of Aparecida in São Paulo State, he resigned the pastoral government of the Aparecida archdiocese at the beginning of 2004. It is thought Lorscheider was one of the most vital supporters of Albino Luciani's rise to the papacy, of Karol Wojtyła's in the October 1978 conclave. After the death of John Paul II in 2005, Lorscheider said that the European cardinals' "sense of superiority" would not allow them to elect a non-European pope.
In poor health and ineligible to vote because he was over the age of 80, he did not attend the pre-conclave discussions at the 2005 conclave that elected Joseph Ratzinger to succeed John Paul II. He died on 23 December 2007 in Brazil after a long hospitalization, he defended Leonardo Boff when that theologian was brought to heel by Joseph Ratzinger in the 1980s, continued his strong social activism, being jailed in 1993 as a result of participating in a protest against government policy. With the crackdown on dissent in the John Paul II papacy after Cardinal Ratzinger became prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in 1981, Lorscheider found himself opposing brother cardinals whom he had been firmly associated with during the Montini papacy. During his Church career, he developed his outspoken stance on the appalling poverty that blighted the region, he believed that the Church was obliged to take a firm stand against this poverty and his hard-working and personable character allowed him to develop links with the poor that he observed to be lacking in previous generations of priests.
He was a vehement critic of Brazil's military dictatorship and its torture of political opponents and favoured a flexible approach to church structure. Biography Azzoni, Tales. "Brazilian Cardinal Aloisio Lorscheider, 83". Washington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved 10 July 2018. Obituary in The Times, January 14, 2008
Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul is a state located in the southern region of Brazil. It is the ninth largest by area. Located in the southernmost part of the country, Rio Grande do Sul is bordered clockwise by Santa Catarina to the north and northeast, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Uruguayan departments of Rocha, Treinta y Tres, Cerro Largo and Artigas to the south and southwest, the Argentine provinces of Corrientes and Misiones to the west and northwest; the capital and largest city is Porto Alegre. The state has the highest life expectancy in Brazil, the crime rate is considered to be low. Despite the high standard of living, unemployment is still high and according to census data, it is one of the most difficult states in Brazil for foreigners to find jobs; the state has a gaucho culture like its foreign neighbors. It was inhabited by Guarani people; the first Europeans there were Jesuits, followed by settlers from the Azores. In the 19th century it was the scene of conflicts including the Farroupilha Revolution and the Paraguayan War.
Large waves of German and Italian migration have shaped the state. Rio Grande do Sul is bordered to the northeast by the Brazilian State of Santa Catarina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, on the southwest by Uruguay, to the northwest by the Argentine provinces of Corrientes and Misiones; the northern part of the state lies on the southern slopes of the elevated plateau extending southward from São Paulo across the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, is much broken by low mountain ranges whose general direction across the trend of the slope gives them the appearance of escarpments. A range of low mountains extends southward from the Serra do Mar of Santa Catarina and crosses the state into Uruguay. West of this range is a vast grassy plain devoted principally to stock-raising — the northern and most elevated part being suitable in pasturage and climate for sheep, the southern for cattle. East of it is a wide coastal zone only elevated above the sea; the coast is one great sand beach, broken only by the outlet of the two lakes, called the Rio Grande, which affords an entrance to navigable inland waters and several ports.
There are two distinct river systems in Rio Grande do Sul – that of the eastern slope draining to the lagoons, that of the Río de la Plata basin draining westward to the Uruguay River. The larger rivers of the eastern group are the Jacuí, Sinos, Caí, Gravataí and Camaquã, which flow into the Lagoa dos Patos, the Jaguarão which flows into the Lagoa Mirim. All of the first named, except the Camaquã, discharge into one of the two arms or estuaries opening into the northern end of Lagoa dos Patos, called the Guaíba River, though technically it is not a river but a lake; the Guaíba River is broad, comparatively deep and about 56 kilometres long, with the rivers discharging into it affords upwards of 320 kilometres of fluvial navigation. The Jacuí is one of the most important rivers of the state, rising in the ranges of the Coxilha Grande of the north and flowing south and southeast to the Guaíba estuary, with a course of nearly 480 kilometres It has two large tributaries, the Vacacaí from the south and the Taquari from the north, many small streams.
The Jaguarão, which forms part of the boundary line with Uruguay, is navigable 42 km up to and beyond the town of Jaguarão. In addition to the Lagoa dos Patos and Lagoa Mirim there are a number of small lakes on the sandy, swampy peninsulas that lie between the coast and these two, there are others of a similar character along the northern coast; the largest lake is the Lagoa dos Patos, which lies parallel with the coastline and southwest, is about 214 kilometres long exclusive of the two arms at its northern end, 40 58 km long and of its outlet, the Rio Grande, about 39 km long. Its width varies from 35 to 58 km; the lake is comparatively shallow and filled with sand banks, making its navigable channels tortuous and difficult. The Lagoa Mirim occupies a similar position farther south, on the Uruguayan border, is about 175 kilometres long by 10 to 35 km wide, it is more irregular in outline and discharges into Lagoa dos Patos through a navigable channel known as the São Gonçalo Channel. A part of the lake lies in Uruguayan territory, but its navigation, as determined by treaty, belongs to Brazil.
Both of these lakes are evidently the remains of an ancient depression in the coastline shut in by sand beaches built up by the combined action of wind and current. They are of the same level as the ocean, but their waters are affected by the tides and are brackish only a short distance above the Rio Grande outlet. One-third of the state belongs to the Río de la Plata drainage basin. Of the many streams flowing northward and westward to the Uruguay, the largest are the Ijuí of the plateau region, the Ibicuí, which has its source near Santa Maria in the central part of the state and flows westward to the Uruguay a short distance above Uruguaiana, the Quaraí River which forms part of the boundary line with Uruguay; the Uruguay River itself is formed by the confluence of the Pelotas rivers. The Pelotas, which has its source in the Serra do Mar on the Atlantic coast, the Uruguay River forms the northern and western boundary line of the state down to the mouth of the Quaraí, on the Uruguayan frontier.
Rio Grande do Sul lies within the south temperate zone and is predom
Cardinal electors for the 2005 papal conclave
The papal conclave of 2005 was convened to elect a pope, the head of the Catholic Church, to succeed Pope John Paul II, following his death on 2 April 2005. According to the apostolic constitution Universi Dominici gregis, which governed the vacancy of the Holy See, only cardinals who had not passed their 80th birthday on the day on which the Holy See fell vacant were eligible to participate in the papal conclave. Although not a formal requirement, the cardinal electors invariably elect the pope from among their number; the election is carried out by secret ballot. Of the 183 members of the College of Cardinals at the time of the vacancy of the Holy See, there were 117 cardinal electors who were eligible to participate in the subsequent conclave. Two cardinal electors did not participate, decreasing the number in attendance to 115; the number of votes required to be elected pope with a two-thirds supermajority or with a one-half simple majority were 77 or 58, respectively. Of the 115 attending cardinal electors, five were cardinal bishops, 93 were cardinal priests and 17 were cardinal deacons.
The oldest cardinal elector in the conclave was Marco Cé, at the age of 79, while the youngest cardinal elector was Péter Erdő, at the age of 52. Another 66 cardinals were ineligible to participate for reasons of age; the cardinal electors entered the Sistine Chapel to begin the conclave on 18 April 2005. On 19 April 2005, after four ballots over two days, they elected Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, who took the papal name Benedict XVI; the College of Cardinals is divided into three orders: cardinal bishops, cardinal priests and cardinal deacons, with precedence in that sequence. This is the order in which the cardinal electors process into the conclave, take the oath and cast their ballots reflecting seniority and honour. For cardinal bishops, except for those who are Eastern Catholic patriarchs, the Dean is first in precedence, followed by the Vice-Dean and by the rest in order of appointment as cardinal bishops. For cardinal bishops who are Eastern Catholic patriarchs, for cardinal priests and for cardinal deacons, precedence is determined by the date of the consistory in which they were created cardinals and by the order in which they appeared in the official announcement or bulletin.
Three of the cardinal electors were from Eastern Catholic Churches: Ignace Moussa I Daoud, Varkey Vithayathil and Lubomyr Husar. In addition, the senior cardinal bishop, the senior cardinal priest, the senior cardinal deacon and the junior cardinal deacon were assigned specific roles in the conclave, such as presiding over the conclave itself or announcing the election of the pope; these were Joseph Ratzinger, William Wakefield Baum, Jorge Arturo Medina Estévez and Attilio Nicora. The Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, in charge of administering the Holy See during its vacancy, was Eduardo Martínez Somalo; the data in the table are as of 2 the date on which the Holy See fell vacant. By default, the cardinals are sorted by precedence within each table, as denoted by the No. column. All cardinals are of the Latin Church. Cardinals belonging to institutes of consecrated life or to societies of apostolic life are indicated by the respective post-nominal letters; the 115 attending cardinal electors were from 52 countries on all six inhabited continents.
Cardinals created by Paul VI Cardinals created by John Paul II Cardinal electors for the August and October 1978 papal conclaves Cardinal electors for the 2013 papal conclave List of living cardinals
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare, the Third Order of Saint Francis, they adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others. Francis began preaching around 1207 and traveled to Rome to seek approval from Pope Innocent III in 1209 to form a new religious order; the original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the Pope disallowed ownership of property, requiring members of the order to beg for food while preaching. The austerity was meant to emulate the ministry of Jesus Christ. Franciscans preached in the streets, while boarding in church properties. Saint Clare, under Francis's guidance, founded the Poor Clares in 1212, which remains a Second Order of the Franciscans; the extreme poverty required of members was relaxed in the final revision of the Rule in 1223.
The degree of observance required of members remained a major source of conflict within the order, resulting in numerous secessions. The Order of Friars Minor known as the "Observant" branch, is one of the three Franciscan First Orders within the Catholic Church, the others being the "Conventuals" and "Capuchins"; the Order of Friars Minor, in its current form, is the result of an amalgamation of several smaller orders completed in 1897 by Pope Leo XIII. The latter two, the Capuchin and Conventual, remain distinct religious institutes within the Catholic Church, observing the Rule of Saint Francis with different emphases. Conventual Franciscans are sometimes referred to as greyfriars because of their habit. In Poland and Lithuania they are known as Bernardines, after Bernardino of Siena, although the term elsewhere refers to Cistercians instead; the name of the original order, Ordo Fratrum Minorum stems from Francis of Assisi's rejection of extravagance. Francis was the son of a wealthy cloth merchant, but gave up his wealth to pursue his faith more fully.
He had cut all ties that remained with his family, pursued a life living in solidarity with his fellow brothers in Christ. Francis adopted the simple tunic worn by peasants as the religious habit for his order, had others who wished to join him do the same; those who joined him became the original Order of Friars Minor. The modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance, they all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. First OrderThe First Order or the Order of Friars Minor are called the Franciscans; this order is a mendicant religious order of men, some of whom trace their origin to Francis of Assisi. Their official Latin name is the Ordo Fratrum Minorum. St. Francis thus referred to his followers as "Fraticelli", meaning "Little Brothers". Franciscan brothers are informally called the Minorites; the modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance.
They all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. These are The Order of Friars Minor known as the Observants, are most simply called Franciscan friars, official name: Friars Minor; the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin or Capuchins, official name: Friars Minor Capuchin. The Conventual Franciscans or Minorites, official name: Friars Minor Conventual". Second OrderThe Second Order, most called Poor Clares in English-speaking countries, consists of religious sisters; the order is called the Order of St. Clare, but in the thirteenth century, prior to 1263, this order was referred to as "The Poor Ladies", "The Poor Enclosed Nuns", "The Order of San Damiano". Third OrderThe Franciscan third order, known as the Third Order of Saint Francis, has many men and women members, separated into two main branches: The Secular Franciscan Order, OFS known as the Brothers and Sisters of Penance or Third Order of Penance, try to live the ideals of the movement in their daily lives outside of religious institutes.
The members of the Third Order Regular live in religious communities under the traditional religious vows. They grew out of the Secular Franciscan Order; the 2013 Annuario Pontificio gave the following figures for the membership of the principal male Franciscan orders:. Order of Friars Minor: 2,212 communities. A sermon Francis heard in 1209 on Mt 10:9 made such an impression on him that he decided to devote himself wholly to a life of apostolic poverty. Clad in a rough garment, and, after the Evangelical precept, without staff or scrip, he began to preach repentance, he was soon joined by a prominent fellow townsman, Bernard of Quintavalle, who contributed all that he had to the work, by other companions, who are said to have reached the number of eleven within a yea
Pontifical University Antonianum
The Pontifical University Antonianum the Pontifical University of St. Anthony or The Antonianum, is a Franciscan university founded in honour of Anthony of Padua in Rome, it is located in the Rione Esquiline, a block north of the Basilica of St John Lateran, at Via Merulana 124, near the intersection of Via Labicana/Viale Manzoni and Via Merulana. In 1883, Father Bernardino Dal Vago da Portogruaro, Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, proposed the construction of a new academic college: Così avverrà che, a tempo debito, l’Ordine sarà illuminato da uomini veramente dotti e perfettamente versati nelle singole discipline scolastiche e ciascuna provincia potrà andare gloriosa e giovarsi di tali professori e maestri. So that the Order will, in due course, be lit by learned men and well versed in individual academic subjects and each province will be glorious and benefit from these professors and teachers. Construction of the university began in 1884 and the institution was opened 6 years in 1890 by Luigi Canali.
To obtain legal recognition from the Italian state, the university was founded as a Missionary College attached to the Roman Curia and the Propaganda Fide. Though this allowed the university to open and operate, missionary work was not the original aim of the university and its academic leaders were keen to secure recognition for the institution in its own right; the process was delayed first by World War I and by the publication, by Pope Pius XI, of the Deus Scientiarum Dominus, which dictated new rules for academic study. On 17 May 1933, the Congregation of Seminaries and Universities issued a decree granting the university the right to issue academic qualifications. On 14 June 1938, the institution was granted the right to use the title Pontifical by Pope Pius XI. On 11 January 2005, Pope John Paul II granted the University the right to use the Pontifical University title; the University has four faculties and a number of associated institutes, which run 180 courses per year: Faculty of Theology Faculty of Biblical Sciences Faculty of Canon Law Faculty of PhilosophyThe University includes the Franciscan Institute of Spirituality, operated by the Order of Friars Minor.
Order of Friars Minor
German Brazilians refers to Brazilian people of ethnic German ancestry or origin. German Brazilians live in the country's South Region, with lesser but still significant degree in the Southeast Region. German dialects together make up the second most spoken first language in Brazil after Portuguese. A few Brazilian municipalities have Brazilian Hunsrückisch and Germanic East Pomeranian as co-official with Portuguese, they are located in Espírito Santo. In the year 2000 Brazilian census 12 million people in Brazil claimed to be of German descent. According to Born and Dickgiesser the number of Brazilians of German descent in 1986 was 3.6 million. Between 1824 and 1972, about 260,000 Germans settled in Brazil, the fifth largest nationality to immigrate after the Portuguese, the Italians, the Spanish, the Japanese; the rapid increase in numbers is due to a high birth rate, the highest in Brazil. In the 19th century the average number of births per German-Brazilian woman was 10; the vast majority settled in the Southern Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, as well as in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.
Less than 5% of Germans settled in Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo. The state heavily affected by German immigration is Santa Catarina, the only state where Germans were the main nationality among immigrants. Germans and Austrians were about 50% of all immigrants settled in Santa Catarina, between 15–20% in Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná. In the rest of the country, Germans accounted for less than 5% of immigrants; the 19th century was marked by an intense emigration of Europeans to different parts of the world, which led to a process of Europeanisation of these areas. Between 1816 and 1850, 5 million people left Europe. Between 1846 and 1932, 60 million Europeans emigrated. Many Germans left the German states after the failed revolutions of 1848. Between 1878 and 1892, another 7 million Germans left Germany. From 1820 to 1840, Germans represented 21.4% of all European immigrants entering the USA. German immigration to Brazil was small compared to the numbers who went to the United States, compared to immigration of other nationalities, such as Portuguese and Spaniards, who together made up over 80% of the immigrants to Brazil during the period of greatest immigration by Europeans.
Germans appeared in fourth place among immigrants to Brazil, but dropped to fifth place when Japanese immigration increased after 1908. Though the immigration of Germans to Brazil was small, it had a notable impact on the ethnic composition of the country of the Southern Brazilian population. Different factors led to this large influence. First of all, German immigration to Brazil is an old phenomenon which started as early as 1824, many decades before the beginning of the immigration of other European ethnic groups to Brazil. For example, the first significant groups of Italians to immigrate to Brazil only arrived in 1875, many decades after the arrival of the first Germans; when the settlement of other Europeans in Brazil began, the Germans had been living there for many generations. Another factor was the high birth rates among German Brazilians. Research has found that between 1826 and 1828 a first-generation German Brazilian woman had an average of 8.5 children, the second generation had an average of 10.4 children per woman.
Birth rates among German Brazilian women were higher than those of other Brazilian women, resulting in faster growth of the population of German origin than of the population of non-German origin and a rapid increase in the population of German origin in the country. The book The Monroe Doctrine by T B Edgington said: "The natural increase of the German population in southern Brazil is marvelous; as a rule they rear from ten to fifteen children in each family. Blumenau, a colony, settled by the Germans over fifty years ago, more than doubles itself every ten years. Southern Brazil is now called ‘Greater Germany’, the Germans exercise there a commercial and financial supremacy." Though the population of German descent makes up a small minority in Brazil, they represent a large percentage of the population of the South. Jean Roche estimated that people of German descent made up 13.3% of the population in Rio Grande do Sul in 1890, that they had increased to 21.6% of the population in 1950. By 1920, the vast majority of the population of German descent was Brazilian-born.
The Census of 1920 revealed that foreigners constituted only 3% of the population of the old German communities of São Leopoldo, Estrela and Bom Retiro do Sul. São Leopoldo with 46,482 inhabitants, had only 1,159 foreigners. In the new German communities the proportion of foreigners was larger, for example in Ijuí and Erechim, indicating they were newer destinations of immigrants in the state; the Census of 1940 revealed that all the population of German descent was native-born. When German-speaking immigrants first arrived in Brazil starting at the beginning of the 19th century, they did not identify themselves so much as a unified German-Brazilian group. However, as time went on this common regional identity did emerge for many different geo-socio-political reasons. Germans immigrated from what is now Germany, but from other countries where German communities were establis
In the Roman Catholic Church a consistory is a formal meeting of the College of Cardinals called by the pope. There are two kinds of consistories and ordinary. An "extraordinary" consistory is held to allow the pope to consult with the entire membership of the College of Cardinals. An "ordinary" consistory attended by cardinals resident in Rome. For example, the pope elevates new cardinals to the College at a consistory. A meeting of the College of Cardinals to elect a new pope is not a conclave; the term consistory comes from the Latin: con-sistere. Early popes conferred with their Roman presbytery which included the deacons appointed to oversee different parts of Rome; this tradition continued as deacons were replaced with cardinals and those cardinals continued to meet at the request of successive popes. Consistories became an opportunity for the pope to decide matters of state and dispense justice directly, with the support and advice of Roman bishops and those bishops from other regions who happened to be in Rome.
Pope Leo IV ordered. Pope John VIII relaxed that edict and an order of twice-monthly consistories. With the Gregorian Reform, the Church limited outside influences on the papacy and the selection of popes and the power of cardinals increased. Tradition developed that the pope would use consistories to reveal a list of those that were to be elevated to the rank of cardinal. Responsibility for matters of justice was transferred to the Roman Rota and the functions of the Church were transferred to the Roman Curia reducing the need for regular consistories. Subsequently, consistories became ceremonial in function. At a consistory for the creation of cardinals, the pope creates new cardinals in the presence of a number, if not all, of the cardinals. Though the names of the new cardinals have been announced in advance, they only become cardinals at the consistory when the pope formally publishes the decree of elevation if the new cardinal is not present. New cardinals present are presented with their rings and birette by the pope.
The zucchetto and the biretta are the distinctive color of cardinals' vesture. At the consistory new cardinals, with certain exceptions, are assigned titular churches in the Diocese of Rome. Pope Benedict XVI in 2007 and 2010 held a day-long meeting with the entire College, the cardinals designate, various advisers on the day preceding the Consistory of Creation. Francis followed this custom for his first two consistories, his 2014 consistory for creating new cardinals was preceded by an extraordinary consistory where Cardinal Walter Kasper gave an address designed to launch the discussions of the Synod on the Family held in the year. In 2015 a similar extraordinary consistory on the eve of a consistory to create cardinals discussed the reform of the Roman Curia just a few days before Francis formed the Council of Cardinals to advise him on that reform. Pope Benedict and Pope Francis have each held five consistories. List of the creations of the cardinals In pectore, a way of creating a cardinal without public announcement Additional sourcesGuido Marini, "Modifications to the Rite Approved by Benedict XVI: A Consistory between Tradition and Innovation", Office for the Liturgical Celebrations of the Supreme Pontiff, Retrieved 31 August 2017 "Consistory".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. "Roman Catholic Consistories for the creation of Cardinals form 1903 to 2005". Wedept.fiu.edu. Archived from the original on Feb 22, 2018