A telenovela is a type of limited-run television serial drama or soap opera produced in Latin America. The word combines tele, short for televisión or televisão, novela, a Spanish and Portuguese word for "novel". Similar genres around the world include teleserye, téléroman, or dramas. In Spain, they are called culebrones because of the convoluted plots. Described using the American colloquialism Spanish soap opera, many telenovelas share some stylistic and thematic similarities to the soap opera familiar to the English-speaking world; the significant difference is their series run length. This makes them shorter than most other television series, but still much longer than a miniseries; this planned run results in a faster-paced, more concise style of melodrama compared to a typical soap opera. Episodes of telenovelas last between 30 and 45 minutes, more than an hour, except for final episodes; the telenovela combines drama with the 19th-century feuilleton, evolved from the Latin American radionovela, according to Blanca de Lizaur.
The medium has been used by authorities in various countries to transmit sociocultural messages by incorporating them into storylines, which has decreased their credibility and audiences in the long run. By the 1970s and 1980s, Mexico became a world pioneer in using telenovelas to shape behavior successful in introducing the idea of family planning. Mexico and Brazil in the 1990s, played a key role in the international export of telenovelas, while Asia overtook the role in the 21st century, thus the so-called'Telenovela Craze' that spread in many regions in the world until today. Over time telenovelas evolved in the themes that they address. Couples who kiss each other in the first minutes of the first episode sometimes stay together for many episodes before the scriptwriter splits them up. Moreover taboo themes such as urban violence and homosexuality were incorporated into telenovelas. In the 2000s, Latin America and Asia altogether emerged as the biggest producers of telenovelas, which evolved out from soap operas to form another category of television drama, were one of the most common forms of popular entertainment in the world.
By 2018 some signs of fading popularity emerged. Telenovelas, which are sometimes called "tassels" or "comedias," are produced in Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries and are shown during prime time; the first telenovelas were produced in Brazil and Mexico: Sua vida me pertence was shown twice a week, Senderos de amor and Ángeles de la calle were shown once a week. Between 1957 and 1958 Mexico produced its first drama serial in the modern telenovela format of Monday to Friday slots, Senda prohibida, written by Fernanda Villeli; the first global telenovela was Los ricos también lloran, exported to Russia, the United States and other countries. Countries that produce well-known telenovelas are Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Germany, the Philippines, Spain and the USA. Telenovelas tend to fall within these seven categories: Working-class melodrama, the most popular to date, easy to understand and contains less explicit content; this is reliant of the common rags-to-riches plot featuring a poor woman who falls in love with a rich man whose family spurns her, such as the Las Tres Marias.
Historical romance is set in the past, such as the colonial period, the restoration of the Republic, the late 19th Century the Mexican Revolution, the 20th-century military dictatorships Teen drama, which portrays the lives of high school teenagers and their issues with sex and other coming-of-age topics. This genre started with Quinceañera in 1987. Mystery/thriller is a category of telenovela, more cold-hearted than the other subgenres, it may portray a mysterious death or disappearance, which may tear couples families apart, such as Cuna de Lobos, La Casa al Final de la Calle, La Mujer de Judas, ¿Dónde está Elisa?, El Rostro de la Venganza or La Casa de al Lado. Chile has produced this genre. Romantic comedy, which portrays love stories with some or lots of comedy such as Las tontas no van al cielo "Fools Don't Go to Heaven" or Yo soy Betty, la fea. Pop band story portrays the lives of aspiring popstars such as in Alcanzar una estrella and its sequel Alcanzar una estrella II, as well as Rebelde, which spawned a multi-platinum pop group, RBD.
Some, though not all, of these type of telenovelas are geared towards a teenage and/or pre-teen audience. Narcotraffic Recently narcotrafficer telenovelas have become presented. Besides these, another category of serial that has become popular in recent
Antônio Frederico de Castro Alves was a Brazilian poet and playwright, famous for his abolitionist and republican poems. One of the most famous poets of the "Condorism", he won the epithet of "O Poeta dos Escravos", he is the patron of the 7th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters. Castro Alves was born in the town of Curralinho, in the Brazilian state of Bahia, to Antônio José Alves, a medician, Clélia Brasília da Silva Castro, one of the daughters of José Antônio da Silva Castro, a prominent fighter in the 1821–23 Siege of Salvador. In 1853, he was sent to study in the Colégio Sebrão, run by Abílio César Borges, the Baron of Macaúbas. There, he would befriend Ruy Barbosa. In 1862, he moved to Recife in order to study at the Faculdade de Direito do Recife, but he was rejected twice, he only was able to join the college in 1864, there meeting Tobias Barreto and José Bonifácio the Younger. They would influence Alves' writing style, in turn, Alves influenced them both, his father would die in 1866, short after, he met Portuguese actress Eugênia Câmara, would start dating her afterwards.
In 1867, Alves returns to Bahia alongside Câmara, there he writes his drama Gonzaga, ou A Revolução de Minas, based on the life of famous Luso-Brazilian Neoclassic poet Tomás António Gonzaga and his participation in the failed 1789 Minas Conspiracy. In the following year, he and Câmara would go to São Paulo, where Alves entered the Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de São Paulo and once more would meet Ruy Barbosa. In there, he befriended Pedro Luís Pereira de Sousa, wrote a poem named "Deusa incruenta", based on Sousa's work "Terribilis Dea", his play Gonzaga would be performed on the end of 1868, being well received by critics and public alike, but Alves was sad because his romantic engagement with Eugênia Câmara had terminated. During a hunting trip in the same year, Alves received an accidental shotgun shot in his left foot, that had to be amputated due to the menace of gangrene. However, a prosthesis was made for him, thus he was able to walk again, he would spend the year of 1870 in his home-state of Bahia, trying to recover from the tuberculosis he got while in São Paulo.
In 1870, Alves published the poetry book Espumas Flutuantes – the only work he would publish during his lifetime. All his other works would receive a posthumous publication. Alves' attempts to mitigate the tuberculosis were in vain. Espumas Flutuantes Gonzaga, ou A Revolução de Minas A Cachoeira de Paulo Afonso Vozes d'África O Navio Negreiro Os Escravos Alves translated into Portuguese many poems by Victor Hugo, Lord Byron's "Darkness" and "Lines Inscribed Upon a Cup Formed from a Skull", they can be found on Espumas Flutuantes. Alves was portrayed by Paulo Maurício in the 1949 film Vendaval Maravilhoso, loosely based on Jorge Amado's 1941 book The ABC of Castro Alves, by Bruno Garcia in Silvio Tendler's 1999 documentary Castro Alves: Retrato Falado do Poeta. Castro Alves' biography at the official site of the Brazilian Academy of Letters Works by or about Castro Alves at Internet Archive Works by Castro Alves at LibriVox
Ouro Preto Vila Rica, is a city in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, a former colonial mining town located in the Serra do Espinhaço mountains and designated a World Heritage site by UNESCO because of its outstanding Baroque Portuguese colonial architecture. Ouro Preto is located in one of the main areas of the Brazilian Gold Rush. 800 tons of gold were sent to Portugal in the eighteenth century, not to mention what was circulated in an illegal manner, nor what remained in the colony, such as gold used in the ornamentation of the churches. The municipality became the most populous city of Latin America, counting on about 40 thousand people in 1730 and, decades after, 80 thousand. At that time, the population of New York was less than half of that number of inhabitants and the population of São Paulo did not surpass 8 thousand. Population: Data from the 2010 Census Resident population: 70,227 Urban area: 56,293 Rural area: 9,985 Area of the municipality: 1,245 km² Temperature: between 6 and 28 degrees Celsius.
In June and July the temperature can reach -2 degrees Celsius. Average elevation: 1,116 m; the highest point is Pico de Itacolomi with 1,722 meters. The city has twelve districts: Amarantina, Antônio Pereira, Cachoeira do Campo, Engenheiro Correia, Lavras Novas, Miguel Burnier, Santa Rita, Santo Antônio do Leite, Santo Antônio do Salto, São Bartolomeu and Rodrigo Silva. Rivers: sources for the Velhas, Gualaxo do Norte, Gualaxo do Sul, Mainart e Ribeirão Funil. Per Capita Income: R$23,622 HDI: 0.788 The city is linked by unlit winding roads to highways for: Belo Horizonte 100 km Rio de Janeiro 475 km São Paulo 675 km Brasília 840 kmBordering municipalities are: North: Itabirito and Santa Bárbara South: Ouro Branco, Catas Altas da Noruega and Itaverava East: Mariana West: Belo Vale and Congonhas Located at 1,179 m above sea level, Ouro Preto has a subtropical highland climate, with warm and humid summers and mild, dry winters. Frost occur in June and July. There is a report of snow in the city in the year of 1843.
Founded at the end of the 17th century, Ouro Preto was called Vila Rica, or "rich village", the focal point of the gold rush and Brazil's golden age in the 18th century under Portuguese rule. The city centre contains well-preserved Portuguese colonial architecture, with few signs of modern urban development. New construction must keep with the city's historical aesthetic. 18th- and 19th-century churches decorated with gold and the sculptured works of Aleijadinho make Ouro Preto a tourist destination. The tremendous wealth from gold mining in the 18th century created a city which attracted the intelligentsia of Europe. Philosophy and art flourished, evidence of a baroque revival called the "Barroco Mineiro" is illustrated in architecture as well as by sculptors such as Aleijadinho, painters such as Mestre Athayde, composers such as Lobo de Mesquita, poets such as Tomás António Gonzaga. At that time, Vila Rica was the largest city in Brazil, with 100,000 inhabitants. In 1789, Ouro Preto became the birthplace of the Inconfidência Mineira, a failed attempt to gain independence from Portugal.
The leading figure, was hanged as a threat to any future revolutionaries. In 1876, the Escola de Minas was created; this school established the technological foundation for several of the mineral discoveries in Brazil. Ouro Preto was capital of Minas Gerais from 1720 until 1897, when the needs of government outgrew this town in the valley; the state government was moved to the planned city of Belo Horizonte. Although Ouro Preto now relies on the tourism industry for part of its economy, there are important metallurgic and mining industries located in town, such as Novelis Alcan, the most important aluminum factory in the country, the Companhia Vale do Rio Doce, others. Main economic activities are tourism, transformation industries, mineral riches such as deposits of iron, manganese and marble. Minerals of note are: gold, dolomite, pyrite, muscovite and imperial topaz; the imperial topaz is a stone only found in Ouro Preto. Soapstone handicraft items are a popular souvenir among tourists, can be found in many shops in the town centre and street fairs.
Jewelry made of local precious and semi-precious gemstones can be found in abundance for sale. Ouro Preto is a university town with an intense student life; the Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto has 10,000 students in the city. Many of them live in communal houses that are somewhat similar to fraternity houses as found in North American colleges; these communal or shared houses are called repúblicas, of which 66 belong to the university, called repúblicas federais, 250 are owned. The repúblicas system of Ouro Preto is unique in Brazil. No other university city in the country has the same characteristics of the student lodgings found there, it shares traits with the repúblicas of the Portuguese University of Coimbra, where the tradition originated. Before universities were founded in Brazil, Coimbra was where most of the rich students who could afford an overseas education went to; each república has its own different history. There are repúblicas in which the freshmen known as "bixos", have to undergo a hazing period, called batalha, before being accepted permanently as residents of the houses.
The final choice
Ana Maria Machado
Ana Maria Machado is a Brazilian writer of children's books, one of the most significant alongside Lygia Bojunga Nunes and Ruth Rocha. She received the international Hans Christian Andersen Medal in 2000 for her "lasting contribution to children's literature". Machado was born in Rio de Janeiro in 1941, she started her career as a painter in New York City. After studying Romance languages she did a PhD with Roland Barthes at the'École pratique des hautes études' in Paris, she worked as journalist for the BBC in London. In 1979, she opened the first children's bookshop in Brazil,'Malasartes'. In 1969, Ana Maria Machado started to write. "I belong to that generation of writers who began to write during the military dictatorship, as children’s literature, alongside poetry and song texts, were amongst the few literary forms with which, through the poetic and symbolic use of language, you could make the ideas of a joie de vivre, individual freedom and respect for human rights known." Her story'Menina Bonita do laço de fita' about a white and a black rabbit who marry and have a whole hoard of black and black and white patterned children, is a charming book about the living together of diverse ethnic groups.
In'Era uma vez um tirano' three children defy a tyrant who has forbidden colour and any happiness. Without pointing fingers, Ana Maria Machado always dresses up her messages in humorous stories and trusts the ability of her young readers to read between the lines. Similar to many Brazilian children's book authors of her generation, Ana Maria Machado is said to be in the tradition of the great children's book author, Jose Bento Monteiro Lobato, her writing is marked, in the style of "magical realism", by a subtle mix of social satire and fantastic elements as well as a conscious and playful use of language and narrative structures. In'História meio ao contrário', Ana Maria Machado turns the classic narrative structure of the fairy tale on its head and lets her story begin with: "And if they didn’t die they are still alive today" and end with "once upon a time". In'Bisa Bia, Bisa Bel', one of her central works, Isabell's internal dialogue with her dead great-grandmother, Bisa Bia, her own great-grandchild from the future, Bisa Bel, becomes a magical journey to the invisible connections between the generations, which allow Isabell to find her own way.
For the author, fantasy means to expand the sense for space and time and to allow reality and fantasy to mix with each other. Just as brilliantly in ‘Palavra de Honra’ Machado tells the story of a Luso-Brazilian family which has become wealthy since their arrival in the 19th century; the reader encounters Letícia, who tries to reconstruct her own story out of the dispersed remains of the family legacy. Ana Maria Machado lives with her family in Rio de Janeiro; the biennial Hans Christian Andersen Award conferred by the International Board on Books for Young People is the highest recognition available to a writer or illustrator of children's books. Jansson received the writing award in 2000. Ana Maria Machado has written more than hundred books for children and adults in 17 countries for which she has received the most significant Brazilian awards and many international honours. Alice e Ulisses, 1983 Tropical Sol da Liberdade, 1988 Canteiros de Saturno, 1991 Aos Quatro Ventos, 1993 O Mar Nunca Transborda, 1995 A Audácia dessa Mulher, 1999 Esta Força Estranha, 1998 Para Sempre, 2001 Official website University of San Francisco School of Education
Euclides da Cunha
Euclides da Cunha was a Brazilian journalist and engineer. His most important work is Os Sertões, a non-fictional account of the military expeditions promoted by the Brazilian government against the rebellious village of Canudos, known as the War of Canudos; this book was a favorite of Robert Lowell. Jorge Luis Borges commented on it in his short story "Three Versions of Judas"; the book was translated into English by Samuel Putnam and published by the University of Chicago Press in 1944. It remains in print, he was influenced by Naturalism and its Darwinian proponents. Os Sertões characterised the coast of Brazil as a chain of civilisations while the interior remained more primitive, he occupied the 7th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters from 1903 until his death in 1909. He served as inspiration for the character of The Journalist in Mario Vargas Llosa's The War of the End of the World. Euclides da Cunha was born January 20, 1866 in Cantagalo, Rio de Janeiro, where he lived until he was three years old.
He attended Escola Militar da Praia Vermelha, a military school in Rio, beginning in 1886. He was Expelled from the military school in 1888, due to his participation in an act of protest during a visit of the Brazilian War Minister, Tomás Coelho, a member of the last Conservative cabinet of the Brazilian Empire, he was readmitted to the Escola Militar in 1889. He was admitted to the Brazilian War School in 1891, he was discharged from the Army in 1896. In 1897 he Accompanied the Army in the Campanha de Canudos, against a rebellious group of peasants under the leadership of Antonio Conselheiro. Between 7 August and 1 October, he was in the Sertão, as war correspondent for the O Estado de S. Paulo newspaper. In 1903 he was elected to the Academia Brasileira de Letras and the Instituto Histórico e Geográfico, the Historical and Geographic Institute In 1909 he was admitted as chairman and professor of Logic at the Colégio Pedro II, a public secondary school in Rio. On August 15, 1909 he tried to kill a young Army lieutenant, the lover of his wife, but his brother shot back in self-defense and Euclides was killed instead.
He was 43 years old. 1902 Os Sertões -- Penguin Classics in a new translation, ISBN 978-0-14-310607-4 1907 Contrastes e confrontos, lit. Contrasts and Confrontations 1907 Peru versus Bolívia 1939 Canudos, diário de uma expedição – news articles published in the periodical O Estado de S. Paulo 1967 Canudos e inéditos – news articles published by the periodical O Estado de S. Paulo Goldberg, Isaac. "Euclides da Cunha." In: Brazilian Literature. New York: Alfred A. Knoff, pp. 210–221. Euclides da Cunha site and works Casa Euclidiana, São José do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, Brazil Short biography in English Works by or about Euclides da Cunha at Internet Archive Works by Euclides da Cunha at LibriVox
Henrique Maximiano Coelho Neto was a Brazilian writer and politician. He founded and occupied the second chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters, from 1897 until his death in 1934, he was the president of the aforementioned Academy in 1926. Coelho Neto was born in the city of Caxias, Maranhão, on February 21, 1864, his father was Portuguese, his mother was an indigenous woman, Ana Silvestre Coelho. At six years of age, his parents moved to Rio de Janeiro, he began his education at the Externato of the Colegio Pedro II. He soon gave up. In 1883 he enrolled at the University of São Paulo School of Law, living in the boarding house where lived Raul Pompeia, who attended the Academy of São Paulo at that time, he soon found. In anticipation of reprisals, he moved to the Law Faculty of Recife, where he completed the first year of law, having been a student of the jurist and poet Tobias Barreto. Returning to São Paulo, he devoted himself passionately to the abolitionist and Republican campaign, an attitude that led to new frictions with the University of São Paulo School of Law.
In 1885 he abandoned his legal studies and moved to Rio de Janeiro. He became part of a group of bohemians that included figures such as Olavo Bilac, Luís Murat, Guimarães Passos and Francisco de Paula Ney; the history of this generation appears in his novels A Conquista and Fogo Fátuo, dedicated to his friend Francisco de Paula Ney, a brilliant orator and journalist known for his bohemian life style and his famous anecdotes. He joined the newspaper Gazeta da Tarde moving to the sheet Cidade do Rio, where he held the position of secretary. From this period date his first published volumes. In 1890, he married daughter of educator Alberto Olympio Brandão, they had 14 children. One of those was the famous football player João Coelho Neto, he was appointed to the post of secretary of the government of the state of Rio de Janeiro and the following year, director of State Affairs. In 1892 he was appointed professor of art history at the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes and professor of literature at the Colégio Pedro II.
Author of numerous books, articles and serials, he was appointed professor of history of theater and dramatic literature at the Escola de Arte Dramática in 1910, soon after director of the same institution. He was elected congressman for Maranhão in 1909 and was reelected in 1917, he was secretary-general of the League of National Defense and a member of the Advisory Board of the Municipal Theater of Rio de Janeiro. In addition to holding public office, Coelho Neto maintained and intensified his activities in magazines and newspapers of all sizes, in Rio and other cities. In addition to signing works with his own name, he wrote under numerous pseudonyms, including Anselmo Ribas, Ariel, Amador Santelmo, Blanco Canabarro, Charles Rouget, Democ, N. Puck, Fur-Fur and Manés. In 1923, he converted to Spiritualism, delivering a speech about his adoption of the spiritual doctrine in the Salão da Velha Guarda in Rio de Janeiro, he was active in all literary genres and was for many years the most read writer in Brazil.
He wrote what could have been The Mysteries of Rio de Janeiro. However, only the first episode was completed, he was the most read Brazilian writer in the first decades of the twentieth century. However, he and his work were attacked by the Modernists during the Modern Art Week in 1922 and this contributed to his neglect by publishers and the Brazilian public. Romance Bárbaro O Mistério Fogo fátuo, romance, Álbum de Caliban, Contos da vida e da morte, Mano, Livro da Saudade, romance, A cidade maravilhosa, contos, O polvo, romance A descoberta da Índia, narrativa histórica, O Fruto, contos, O rei fantasma, romance, O Rajá de Pendjab Rapsódias, Sertão A Bico de Penna Água de Juventa, Romanceiro Theatro, vol. I – Os Raios X, O Relicário, O Diabo no corpo Theatro, vol. II – As Estações, Ao Luar, Ironia, A Mulher, Fim de Raça Theatro, vol. IV – Quebranto, comédia em 3 actos, e o sainete Nuvem Theatro, vol. V – O dinheiro, Bonança, e o Intruso Fabulário O Arara, Jardim das Oliveiras, romance, 1908 Inverno em Flor, romance, Apólogos, contos para crianças Miragem, Mysterios do Natal, contos para crianças O Morto, Memórias de um Fuzilado, Rei Negro Capital Federal, Impressões de um Sertanejo, romance, A Conquista, Tormenta, romance, Tréva Banzo, Turbilhão O meu dia As Sete Dores de Nossa Senhora Balladilhas, Pastoral Vida Mundana, Patinho torto Às quintas Scenas e perfis Feira livre Immortalidade, romance, O Paraíso Bazar Fogo Fátuo fogo de vista Theatro lyrico os pombos Teatrinho, collection of dramatic texts for children, in collaboration with Olavo Bilac Teatro infantil, date unknown, new collection with the same theme COUTINHO, Afrânio.
Enciclopédia de literatura brasileira. São Paulo: Global. Biography at Biografias Works by Coelho Neto at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Coelho Neto at Internet Archive Works by Coelho Neto at LibriVox
A jurist is someone who researches and studies jurisprudence. Such a person can work as an legal writer or law lecturer. In the United Kingdom, New Zealand, South Africa, in many other Commonwealth countries, the word jurist sometimes refers to a barrister, whereas in the United States of America and Canada it refers to a judge, thus a jurist, someone who studies and comments on law, stands in contrast with a lawyer, someone who applies law on behalf of clients and thinks about it in practical terms. There is a fundamental difference between that of a jurist. Many legal scholars and authors have explained that a person may be both a lawyer and a jurist, but a jurist is not a lawyer, nor a lawyer a jurist. Both must possess an acquaintance with the term "law"; the work of the jurist is the study and arrangement of the law—work which can be done wholly in the seclusion of the library. The work of the lawyer is the satisfaction of the wishes of particular human beings for legal assistance—work which requires dealing to some extent therefore with people in the office, in the court room, or in the market-place.
The term jurist has another sense, wider, synonymous with legal professional, i.e. anyone professionally involved with law and justice. In some other European languages, a word resembling jurist is used in this major sense; this is a sequential classification of some notable jurists. History of the legal profession History of the American legal profession Law professor Legal profession List of jurists Paralegal Media related to Jurists at Wikimedia Commons