Portela (samba school)
The Grêmio Recreativo Escola de Samba Portela is one of the most traditional samba schools of the city of Rio de Janeiro, champion of the 2017 Carnival parade. It is the greatest winner of the top-tier Rio parade with 22 titles in total. In the beginning of the 20th century, in Oswaldo Cruz, there was the carnivalesque group of dancers called Quem Fala de Nós Come Mosca, of Dona Ester. A dissidence of this carnivalesque group of dancers surged in 1922 and another bloco, the Baianinhas de Osvaldo Cruz was created, and on the other hand, a dissidence of Baianas created the Conjunto Carnavalesco Osvaldo Cruz on April 11 of 1926. The founders were from Osvaldo Cruz, but Grêmio Recreativo Escola de Samba Portela was founded, on 412 Portela Road, in the neighborhood of Madureira. After the victory of the concourse between sambistas in 1929, performed in the house of Zé Espinguela, the bloco changes its name to Quem nos Faz é o Capricho. In 1931, when the samba schools are still being determined, the group changes its name again, this time to Vai como Pode, a name that without doubt is humbler than the previous one.
In 1935, the school was the champion of the first official parade of the city of Rio de Janeiro. The denomination "Vai como Pode" was used until 1935, after the Carnaval, on March 1 of 1935, on the occasion of the renovation of the licence of the school in the police, the officer Dulcídio Gonçalves refused to renovate the license with this name, considering it as vulgar and not dignified for a samba school; the same officer suggested a new name, Grêmio Recreativo e Escola de Samba Portela, in homage to the street in Madureira where sambistas had gathered. The change pleased the community. In 1939, the samba of Paulo da Portela, "Teste ao Samba", is considered the first samba-enredo. In the same year, Portela renovated things by bringing to the parade costumes framed to the enredo. In 1941, after a misunderstanding with the master of ceremonies Manuel Bambã, Paulo da Portela the group stopped parading; this occurred because Paulo during a long period of time argued that all of the components would parade costumed, dressed with the colors of the school, however on the day of the parade he came back from a presentation in São Paulo, along with Heitor dos Prazeres and Cartola, all of them were dressed in black and white.
With no time to change costumes, they agreed to parade without changing clothes, together, in the samba schools of each one. However, in the turn to parade for Portela, Bambã did not authorize that the other two, for not being from the school and not being dressed, would parade. Bambã had misunderstandings with Heitor, that once belonged Portela, that he stayed. However, in that epoch many portelenses favoured Bambã, because they judged lack of coherency on the part of Paulo da Portela, that argued so much that they should parade with the colours of the school and parade with black and white. After this, Paulo da Portela never paraded for his school. In total, Portela conquered 22 titles of Carnaval, being the school with the largest number of titles to date Some of the great Brazilian samba composers, such as Monarco, Zé Keti, Manacéa, Aldir Blanc, Paulinho da Viola, João Nogueira, Noca da Portela, among others, beyond being one of the most traditional samba schools of Brazil, worked for the school.
Portela has an important participation in the cultural life of the city during the entire year, through the presentations of her Velha Guarda and of her prizewinning bateria, among other things. The school's symbol is an eagle; the Velha Guarda released an album called Tudo Azul in 1999. Her bateria – called Tabajara do Samba – is characterized by the touch of the Surdo de Terceira invented by Sula in the 1940s, the touch of the boxes with a peculiar frill, it is the most heavy bateria of the Carioca Carnaval and counts on a big number of surdos of First and Third. They were masters of GRES Portela: Master Betinho of the foundation in the 1960s, Master Cinco in the 1970s, Master Marçal in the 1980s, Mater Timbó in the 1990s, among others. More than three decades Portela does not know how to win the carnival alone. From 1990, the school suffered many internal problems, that reflected on the parades and on the collocations of the parades; the best moment was in 1995 when the plot "Gosto que me enrosco" gave the vice-championship to the school of Madureira.
In 2005, the worst of all, Portela stayed in 13th place, in the polemic parade where the school was prohibited to use her Velha Guarda. In 2006, the school recovered and stays in 7th place, in 2007 with the plot about the 2007 Pan American Games falls one step, staying in 8th place. Formed an opposition movement that promoted carreatas and various events through the neighborhood of Madureira, culminated in the election of May 19, 2013, where the plate "Portela Verdade", formed by Serginho Procópio and member of the old-guard, the police Marcos Falcon besides Monarco as president of honor of the plate. Was approved by winning beat President Nilo Figueiredo, who announced the result that ended with 154 votes for Serginho, 151 Nile and 8 null votes. In 2014, the team was presented: the carniva
For people with the surname, see Salgueiro. Salgueiro is a city in Brazil, it is located in the mesoregion of Sertão Pernambucano. Salgueiro covers an area of 1687 square kilometers and had in 2015 an estimated population of 59,769 inhabitants, it is the see city of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Salgueiro, a suffragan see of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Olinda e Recife. State - Pernambuco Region - Sertão Pernambucano Boundaries - Ceará. Clima - Semi desertic, - hot and dry Main road - BR 232 Distance to Recife - 510 km The main economic activities in Salgueiro are based in general commerce and agribusiness plantations of onions and tomatoes. Economy by Sector 2006
Rio de Janeiro (state)
Rio de Janeiro is one of the 27 federative units of Brazil. It has the second largest economy of Brazil, with the largest being that of the state of São Paulo; the state of Rio de Janeiro is located within the Brazilian geopolitical region classified as the Southeast. Rio de Janeiro shares borders with all the other states in the same Southeast macroregion: Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and São Paulo, it is bounded on the south by the South Atlantic Ocean. Rio de Janeiro has an area of 43,653 km2, its capital is the city of Rio de Janeiro, the capital of the Portuguese Colony of Brazil from 1763 to 1815, of the following United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves from 1815 to 1822, of independent Brazil as a kingdom and republic from 1822 to 1960. The archaic demonym meaning for the Rio de Janeiro State is "fluminense", taken from the Latin word flumen, meaning "river". Despite the fact "carioca" is a most ancient demonym of Rio de Janeiro's inhabitants, it was replaced by "fluminense" in 1783, when it was sanctioned as the official demonym of the Royal Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, a few years after the City of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro has become the capital city of the Brazilian colonies.
From 1783 and during the Imperial Regime, "carioca" remained only as a nickname by which other Brazilians called the inhabitants of Rio. During the first years of the Brazilian Republic, "carioca" was the name given to those who lived in the slums or a pejorative way to refer the bureaucratic elite of the Federal District. Only when the City of Rio lost its status as Federal District and became a Brazilian State when the capital was moved to Brasília earlier in 1960, "carioca" was made a co-official demonym with "guanabarino". In 1975, the Guanabara State was ended and extinct by President Ernesto Geisel becoming the present City of Rio de Janeiro and "carioca" was made the demonym of its municipality. Although "carioca" is not recognized as an official demonym of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazilians call the inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro in general as "cariocas", most of its inhabitants claim to be "cariocas". Nowadays, social movements like "Somos Todos Cariocas" have tried to achieve the official recognition of "carioca" as a co-official demonym of the Rio de Janeiro State.
The state's 22 largest cities are Rio de Janeiro, São Gonçalo, Duque de Caxias, Nova Iguaçu, Niterói, Campos dos Goytacazes, Belford Roxo, São João de Meriti, Petrópolis, Volta Redonda, Magé, Macaé, Itaboraí, Cabo Frio, Armação dos Búzios, Angra dos Reis, Nova Friburgo, Barra Mansa, Barra do Piraí, Teresópolis and Nilópolis. Rio de Janeiro is one of the smallest in Brazil, it is, the third most populous Brazilian state, with a population of 16 million of people in 2011 and has the third longest coastline in the country. In the Brazilian flag, the state is represented by the beta star in the Southern Cross. European presence in Rio de Janeiro is as old as Brazil itself, dating back to 1502. Rio de Janeiro originated from parts of the captainships of São Vicente. Between 1555 and 1567, the territory was occupied by the French, who intended to install a colony, France Antarctique. Aiming to prevent the occupation of the Frenchmen, in March 1565, the city of Rio de Janeiro was established by Estácio de Sá.
In the 17th century, cattle raising and sugar cane cultivation stimulated the city's progress, definitively assured when the port started to export gold extracted from Minas Gerais in the 18th century. In 1763, Rio de Janeiro became the capital of Colonial Brazil. With the flight of the Portuguese royal family from Portugal to Brazil in 1808, the region soon benefited from urban reforms to house the Portuguese. Chief among the promoted changes were: the transformation of agencies of public administration and justice, the creation of new churches, hospitals, the foundation of the first bank of the country - the Banco do Brasil - and the Royal Press, with the Gazette do Rio of Janeiro; the following years witnessed the creation of the Academia Real Militar. There followed a process of cultural enhancement influenced not only by the arrival of the Royal Family, but by the presence of European graphic artists who were hired to record the society and Brazilian natural features. During this same time, the Escola Real de Ciências, Artes e Ofícios was founded as well.
In 1834, the city of Rio de Janeiro was transformed into a "neutral city", remaining as capital of the state, while the captainships became provinces, with headquarters in Niterói, a neighboring city. In 1889, the city became the capital of the Republic, the neutral city became the federal district and the province a state. In 1894, Petrópolis became the capital of Rio de Janeiro, until 1902 when Niterói recovered its capital status. With the relocation of the federal capital to Brasília in 1960, the city of Rio de Janeiro became Guanabara State. Niterói remained the state capital for Rio de Janeiro state, while Rio de Janeiro served the same status for Guanabara. In 1975, the states of Guanabara and Rio de Janeiro were merged under the name of Rio de Janeiro, with the city of Rio de Janeiro as state capital; the symbols of the former State of Rio de Janeiro were preserved, while the symbols of Guanabara were kept by the city of Rio de Janeir
Mocidade Independente de Padre Miguel
The Grêmio Recreativo Escola de Samba Mocidade Independente de Padre Miguel is a samba school of the city of Rio de Janeiro, being located on Rua Coronel Tamarindo, in the neighborhood of Padre Miguel. The Mocidade was founded on 10 November 1955, by eight people: Silvio Trindade, Renato da Silva, Djalma Rosa, Olímpio Bonifácio, Orozimbo de Oliveira, Garibaldi F. Lima, Felipe de Souza, Ary de Lima e Alfredo Briggs; the first flag of the school was offered by Mrs. Gilda Faria Lima; the first queen of the school was Mrs. Neuza de Oliveira; the samba school participated for the first time, in an official parade, with the plot "O Baile das Rosas", when it got 5th place. In 1958, it was the champion of Group 2 with the plot "Apoteose ao Samba". From 1959 forth, it did not anymore any relegation to the lower divisions. In 1959, the bateria, under the expert Master André, gave for the first time the famous "paradinha" in front of the judging committee, maintaining the rhythm so that the school would continue developing.
The folk would pass to accompany such "bossa" with the shout of "Olé". During this period, the Mocidade was known as "a bateria that carried a school on its back", because the bateria was more known than the school itself, that only years would become a school that would compete with the famous of that epoch. In the year of 1974, Arlindo Rodrigues presented the plot "A Festa do Divino", but on that same year the school could win the championship, had she not gotten 4 in clothings and 9 in harmony. The difference between Salgueiro and Mocidade was 6, therefore they would have tied only if Mocidade would have gotten 10. If they would tie, Salgueiro would win the championship because it got 10 in harmony. From on, the school stopped being known only because of the bateria, became known as a good samba school. In 76, by irony, Mocidade tied second place, with Mangueira, lost the decision for getting one point less in the so famous bateria. In 1979, still with Arlindo Rodrigues, Mocidade conquered for the first time the championship of the 1-A Division with "O Descobrimento do Brasil" in its debut appearance.
Next year, Fernando Pinto assumed the post of carnival producer and director, producing exceptional carnivals in Mocidade and becoming known as the most creative and ingenious carnival producer known. In Fernando Pinto's first year in Mocidade, in 1980, the school conquered second place with the plot "Tropicália Maravilha". In 1983, Mocidade received the banner of the best communication with the public with the plot "Como era verde o meu Xingu". In 1984 it became the Madrinha to the London School of Samba, the first samba school to be established in the UK. In 1989, Mocidade visited London to perform at the 3rd European Samba Encontro and formally adopt the LSS, it advanced to the Special Group in 1990, won three general championships since then. After years away from Champions Parade in youth gave a back on top, with a beautiful tribute to Morocco however in the final voting ended with vice-championship, which ratified title, due to error of a magistrate who used the Book Abre-Alas wrong. With this surprise the Mocidade Independente samba school thus won its fourth championship title, shared with Portela.
Andrezinho Castor de Andrade Dudu Nobre Lucinha Nobre Marcos Palmeira Mestre André Paulinho Mocidade Tôco Regina Casé Carlos Alberto Parreira Elza Soares Rodrigo Santoro Leandro Hassum Monique Evans Oswaldo de Oliveira Dill Costa Arlindo Rodrigues Fernando Pinto Renato Lage Ney Vianna Paulinho Mocidade Wander Pires Andrea de Andrade Claudia Leitte Special Group: 1979, 1985, 1990, 1991, 1996 and 2017 Gold Standard: 1983, 1991 and 1999 Standard Award: 1974, 1976, 1991, 1992 and 2001 Official website London School Of Samba Samba Classes and private gigs with the colours and style of Mocidade
The Carnival in Rio de Janeiro is a festival held every year before Lent and considered the biggest carnival in the world with two million people per day on the streets. The first Carnival festival in Rio occurred in 1723; the typical Rio carnival parade is filled with revelers and adornments from numerous samba schools which are located in Rio. A samba school is composed of a collaboration of local neighbours that want to attend the carnival together, with some kind of regional and common background. There is a special order; each school begins with the "comissão de frente", the group of people from the school that appear first. Made of ten to fifteen people, the "comissão de frente" introduces the school and sets the mood and style of their presentation; these people have choreographed dances in fancy costumes that tell a short story. Following the "comissão de frente" is the first float of the samba school, called "abre-alas"; these are followed by the Mestre-sala and Porta-Bandeira, with one to four pairs, one active and three reserve, to lead the dancers, which include the old guard veterans and the "ala das baianas", with the bateria at the rear and sometimes a brass section and guitars.
The Rio Carnival celebration dates back to 1640s. During that time, elaborate feasts were organized to give honor to the Greek wine gods. According to Greek mythology; the Romans used to the god of the grape-harvest. The festival ‘Entrudo’ was introduced by the Portuguese and this inspired the birth of the Carnival in Brazil. In 1840, the first Rio masquerade took place, polka and waltz took center stage. Africans subsequently influenced the Carnival with the introduction of samba music in 1917, now considered a traditional Brazilian form of sounds; the Samba school parades were held in the Praça Onze was known the birthplace of samba carioca called Pequena Africa. Future Estácio de Sá, together with Portela and Estação Primeira de Mangueira paraded for the first time in the city in 1929. In 1930, five schools were parading. With the works of in Avenida Presidente Vargas the parade moved there, from 1942 to 1945 the parade was held in São Januário. From 1952 temporary stands for the public to watch the parades were built, in 1961 paid tickets made their debut to take advantage of the rising international and national interest and the increasing tourist arrivals.
In 1974, due to the works of the subway, that year's parade was held and broadcast on the first time on color television from Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos. In 1978, the parade was transferred to the Marquês de Sapucaí Avenue, where it remains up to this day. In 1983, the governor Leonel Brizola, commissioned the architect Oscar Niemeyer the project of a permanent local stadium for the parades in that area, because until the bleachers were assembled at the time of the carnival and removed. With the increase in the number of schools taking part, which made the parade more long and tiring for the public, in 1984 the parade started to be carried out in two days: Sunday and Monday for the major schools and Saturday for the lower level schools. In the first year were proclaimed the champions of each day parade and supercampeã, the hose, a result of the Desfile das Campeãs held the following Saturday. However, this practice has not been successful, why the Mangueira became only supercampeã of history.
The schools of the Special Group under LIESA march for two days, while the A Series schools march on Friday and Saturday under LIERJ, which has the B Series, which marches on Fat Tuesday. Both organizations were under the AESCRJ banner before it lost organizing rights, thus providing for the establishment of new organizations like LIESB and Samba é Nosso for the lower level divisions; the Série A champion school which advances directly as a participant in the Special Group for the next year's Carnival marches last on Carnival Monday while the Special Group champion marches for one more time on the Saturday after Ash Wednesday. As of 2018, however the LIESB does not have conditions to take the parade of the Série E, handed over the management of this series and its schools to ACAS, which now operates the series as a rookie level organization for samba schools; the Carnival began on Friday and ends on Ash Wednesday, but the Winners' Parade happens on the Saturday after the carnival ends. The winning school and runners' up of the Special Group, as well as the A Series champion, all march past one final time on this night.
March 1 to 6, 2019 February 21 to 26, 2020 February 12 to 17, 2021 February 15 to 20, 2022 In 1984, the government decided to give Rio Carnival its new home in the Sambadrome. Today, some of the most famous events of Rio Carnival are ticketed events. There are different types of Sambadrome tickets. Grandstand tickets are general admissions tickets that are available on a first-come, first-served basis and are not allocated ahead of time. Frisas are open air box seats located along the samba runway. Camarotes are luxury boxes situated between the grandstands. Sector 9 is the tourist sector which are the same as grandstand tickets, with the difference being that they are allocated so people have assigned seats. Carnival ticket prices can vary depending on the ticket type and season; the cheapest sectors are 12 and 13. Tickets can be bought in advance through international brokers, or through local travel agents in Rio de Janeiro.'Pur
Tijuca is a neighbourhood of the Northern Zone of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It comprises the region of Saens Afonso Pena squares. According to the 2000 Census, the district has close to 150,000 inhabitants, it borders with Praça da Bandeira, Maracanã, Vila Isabel, Andaraí, Grajaú and Alto da Boa Vista neighbourhoods. It is one of the most traditional districts of Rio de Janeiro and has the third largest urban forest in the world, the Tijuca Forest, result of reforestation from coffee fields that led to lack of water at that time. A middle class district, it has been inhabited by Portuguese immigrant families and the families of military officers. Tijuca hosts Salgueiro, Império da Tijuca and Unidos da Tijuca, three of the main Rio de Janeiro Samba Schools, that together have won 13 titles. Tijuca is home to many favelas such as Salgueiro, Formiga and Casa Branca
Nova Friburgo is a municipality in the state of Rio de Janeiro in southeastern Brazil. It is located in the mountainous region, in the Center Mesoregion of the state, 136 km from its capital Rio de Janeiro; the town is 846 metres above sea level. Its population was 184,786 and its area is 933 km²; the main economic activities are the undergarment industry, goat raising, various industries and tourism. It is the coldest city of the state. Up to the 19th century, the region of the present Nova Friburgo was inhabited by Coroado Purí Indians. In 1818, King John VI was interested in improving the relationship with Germany, in order to obtain support against the French empire, he proposed a planned settlement that would promote the civilization in Brazil. A royal decree authorized the Canton of Fribourg, in Switzerland, to establish a colony of 100 Swiss families in the Morro Queimado Farm, in Cantagalo District, a place with climate and natural characteristics similar to those in their country. Between 1819 and 1820, the region was settled in total 1,458 immigrants.
It was named Nova Friburgo by the Swiss after the homeland of most of the families. Following the Independence of Brazil in 1822, the Imperial Government continued the policy of populating the nation by attracting European colonization. Eighty German families assigned to settlements in the Province of Bahia, for unknown reasons ended up in Nova Friburgo, where they arrived on the 3 and 4 May 1824. Similar arrivals of Italians, Portuguese and a minority of Syrians led to such population increases that the once village was elevated to city status on 8 January 1890. In 1872, the Baron of Nova Friburgo brought to the region the Leopoldina Railroad, to allow for the flow of the coffee from Cantagalo. Agriculture was the basis of economic activity until 1910, when the arrival of industrialists pioneered the development of an industrial sector still thriving to the present day. Of similar importance was the relative proximity to Niterói and Rio de Janeiro and the improvement of transport and communication links such as paved roads and telegraph.
This encouraged a small tourist industry to grow, together with local commerce, became the main source of income for the city. Nova Friburgo was affected by the 2011 Brazilian floods on 11 January with mudslides causing at least 820 deaths and more than 200 people to go missing in the biggest natural disaster in the history of Brazil; the population was left with no water, food or gas. Nova Friburgo has a highland tropical climate, with fresh and dry winters and humid and mild summers. Annual average temperature is 19 °C; the city has a strong drive towards tourism due to the landscape, rivers and bucolic spots. It has the second largest network of hotels of the state, after the capital Rio de Janeiro; the urban district is visited for the tranquility and romanticism. However, there are attractions more distant to the center, which are appreciated by those who are interested in ecotourism and adventure sports like rafting and canoeing; the district of Lumiar is one of the most important sites for these sports in the state.
Nova Friburgo is known as the national capital of the undergarment industry, due to the vast production and variety of models, the local brands begin to compete in the international market. Other major industries include metallurgic industries. Agriculture is important in the area of olericulture and goat raising, as well as in the production of flowers, of which the municipality is the second largest producer in the country, surmounted only by Holambra, in the state of São Paulo; the municipality contains part of the Central Rio de Janeiro Atlantic Forest Mosaic of conservation units, created in 2006. It contains 33,992 hectares of the 35,038 hectares Macaé de Cima Environmental Protection Area, created in 2001; the main attractions of the city are: Alpine-style architecture of the buildings of MuryShopping, the Bucsky and Garlipp hotels and the restaurant Bräun & Bräun "Casa Suiça" Cheese-making school FRIALP District of Lumiar District of São Pedro da Serra Encontro dos Rios Gastronomic center, in the district of Mury Getulio Vargas Square Marcilio Dias Square, which marks the beginning of the settlement, for it is the area where the first Germans camped, coming from Europe Nova Friburgo Country Club Park of Furnas do Catete, with the Cão Sentado Stone Pedra Riscada Saint John Baptist Cathedral Suspiro Square, with the biggest chairlift of the country The municipality contains 19% of the 46,350 hectares Três Picos State Park, created in 2002.
Population: 202,085 Urban: 178,377 Rural: 23,708 Male: 97,253 Female: 104,832 White: 78,3% Pardo: 13,9% Black: 7,0% Asian: 0,1% Indigenous: 0,1% 0,5% not reported Portuguese, German, Austrian, Lebanese, Hungarian, Japanese. Fribourg, Switzerland City's official website