Fruit anatomy is the plant anatomy of the internal structure of fruit. Fruits are ovaries of one or more flowers. In fleshy fruits, the outer layer is the pericarp, the tissue that develops from the ovary wall of the flower and surrounds the seeds, but in some pericarp fruits, the edible portion is not derived from the ovary. For example, in the fruit of the ackee tree the edible portion is an aril, in the pineapple several tissues from the flower and stem are involved; the outer covering of a seed is tough. Fruits are found in three main anatomical categories: simple fruits, aggregate fruits, multiple fruits. Aggregate fruits contain many ovaries or fruitlets. Examples include blackberries. Multiple fruits are formed from the fused ovaries of multiple flowers or inflorescence. An example of multiple fruits are the fig and the pineapple. Simple fruit may contain one or many seeds, they can be either dry. In fleshy fruit, during development, the pericarp and other accessory structures become the fleshy portion of the fruit.
The types of fleshy fruits are berries and drupes. In berries, the entire pericarp is fleshy but this excludes the exocarp which acts as more as a skin. There are berries that are known as pepo, a type of berry with an inseparable rind, or hesperidium, which has a separable rind. An example of a pepo is the cucumber and a lemon would be an example of a hesperidium; the fleshy portion of the pomes is developed from the floral tube and like the berry most of the pericarp is fleshy but the endocarp is cartilaginous, an apple is an example of a pome. Lastly, drupes are known for being one seeded with a fleshy mesocarp, an example of this would be the peach. However, there are fruits were the fleshy portion is developed from tissues that are not the ovary, such as in the strawberry; the edible part of the strawberry is formed from the receptacle of the flower. Due, to this difference the strawberry is known as an accessory fruit. There is a shared method of seed dispersal within fleshy fruits; these fruits depend on animals to eat the fruits and disperse the seeds in order for their populations to survive.
Dry fruits develop from the ovary but unlike the fleshy fruits they do not depend on the mesocarp but the endocarp for seed dispersal. Dry fruits depend more like wind and water. Dry fruits' seeds can perform pod shattering, which involve the seed being ejected from the seed coat by shattering it; some dry fruits are able to perform wisteria, an extreme case where there is an explosion of the pod, resulting the seed to be dispersed over long distances. Like fleshy fruits, dry fruits can depend on animals to spread their seeds by adhering to animal's fur and skin, this is known as epizoochory. Types of dry fruits include achenes, follicles or nuts. Dry fruits can be separated into dehiscent and indehiscent fruits. Dry dehiscent fruits are described as a fruit where the pod has an increase in internal tension to allow seeds to be released; these include the sweet pea, alfalfa, mustard and poppy. Dry indehiscent fruit differ in that they do not have this mechanism and depend on physical forces. Examples of species indehiscent fruit are sunflower seeds and dandelions.
There is a wide variety in the structures of fruit across the different species of plants. Evolution has selected for certain traits in plants; this diversity arose through the selection of advantageous methods for seed protection and dispersal in different environments. It is known. A study looking at the Rubiaceae family found that within the family, fleshy fruits had evolved independently at least 12 times; this means that fleshy fruits were not passed on to following generations but that this form of fruit was selected for in different species. This may imply that fleshy fruit is a favorable and beneficial trait because not only does it disperse the seeds, but it protects them. There is a variety of dispersal methods that are used by different plants; the origins of these modes of dispersal have been found to be a more recent evolutionary change. Of the methods of dispersal, the plants that use animals have not changed in many ways from the original trait. Due to this, it may be assumed that animal dispersal is an efficient form of dispersal, however there has been no evidence that it increases dispersal distances.
Therefore, the question remains. It has been found, that simple changes within developmental regulatory genes can cause large alterations within the anatomical structure of the fruit. Without knowing the mechanism involved in the biodiversity of fruit, it is clear that this diversity is important to the continuation of plant populations. In berries and drupes, the pericarp forms the edible tissue around the seeds. In other fruits such as Citrus stone fruits only some layers of the pericarp are eaten. In accessory fruits, other tissues develop into the edible portion of the fruit instead, for example the receptacle of the flower in strawberries. In fleshy fruits, the pericarp is made up of three distinct layers: the epicarp, the outermost layer. In a citrus fruit, the epicarp and mesocarp make up the peel. In dry fruits, the layers of the pericarp are not cle
In plant taxonomy, commelinids is a name used by the APG IV system for a clade within the monocots, which in its turn is a clade within the angiosperms. The commelinids are the only clade; the remaining monocots are a paraphyletic unit. Known as the commelinid monocots it forms one of three groupings within the monocots, the final branch, the other two groups being the alismatid monocots and the lilioid monocots. Members of the commelinid clade have cell walls containing UV-fluorescent ferulic acid; the commelinids were first recognized as a formal group in 1967 by Armen Takhtajan, who named them the Commelinidae and assigned them as a subclass to Liliopsida. The name was used in the 1981 Cronquist system. However, by the release of his 1980 system of classification, Takhtajan had merged this subclass into a larger one, no longer considered to be a clade. In the Takhtajan system treated this as one of six subclasses within the class Liliopsida, it consisted of: subclass Commelinidae superorder Bromelianae order Bromeliales order Velloziales superorder Pontederianae order Philydrales order Pontederiales order Haemodorales superorder Zingiberanae order Musales order Lowiales order Zingiberales order Cannales superorder Commelinanae order Commelinales order Mayacales order Xyridales order Rapateales order Eriocaulales superorder Hydatellanae order Hydatellales superorder Juncanae order Juncales order Cyperales superorder Poanae order Flagellariales order Restionales order Centrolepidales order Poales The Cronquist system treated this as one of four subclasses within the class Liliopsida.
It consisted of: subclass Commelinidae order Commelinales order Eriocaulales order Restionales order Juncales order Cyperales order Hydatellales order Typhales The APG II system does not use formal botanical names above the rank of order. The commelinids now constitute a well-supported clade within the monocots, this clade has been recognized in all four APG classification systems; the commelinids of APG II and APG III contain the same plants as the commelinoids of the earlier APG system. In APG IV the family Dasypogonaceae is no longer directly placed under commelinids but instead a family of order Arecales. Media related to Commelinids at Wikimedia Commons
Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0. Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to Wikipedia articles on individual species by April 2005. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of several people who are interested in getting involved with the project and contacted potential supporters in early summer 2004. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies. Mandl defined two major tasks: Figure out how the contents of the data base would need to be presented—by asking experts, potential non-professional users and comparing that with existing databases Figure out how to do the software, which hardware is required and how to cover the costs—by asking experts, looking for fellow volunteers and potential sponsorsAdvantages and disadvantages were discussed by the wikimedia-I mailing list.
The board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project is hosted at species.wikimedia.org. It was merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14, 2004. On October 10, 2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles. On May 20, 2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8, 2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users. On October 23, 2011, the project reached 300,000 articles. On June 16, 2014, the project reached 400,000 articles. On January 7, 2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. On October 30, 2018, the project reached 600,000 articles, a total of 1.12 million pages. Wikispecies comprises taxon pages, additionally pages about synonyms, taxon authorities, taxonomical publications, institutions or repositories holding type specimen. Wikispecies asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons. Wikispecies does not allow the use of content.
All Species Foundation Catalogue of Life Encyclopedia of Life Tree of Life Web Project List of online encyclopedias The Plant List Wikispecies, The free species directory that anyone can edit Species Community Portal The Wikispecies Charter, written by Wales
Cladium californicum is a species of flowering plant in the sedge family known as California sawgrass. It is native to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico where it grows in moist areas in a number of habitat types in alkaline soils. Cladium californicum is a perennial herb with a hollow, rounded stem 1–2 m tall, it grows from rhizomes in dense clumps. The narrow leaves edged with small, sharp teeth; the inflorescence is a large panicle of spikelets yielding purplish-brown fruits. Jepson Manual Treatment Photo gallery
The Poales are a large order of flowering plants in the monocotyledons, includes families of plants such as the grasses and sedges. Sixteen plant families are recognized by botanists to be part of Poales; the flowers are small, enclosed by bracts, arranged in inflorescences. The flowers of many species are wind pollinated; the APG III system accepts the order within a monocot clade called commelinids, accepts the following 16 families: The earlier APG system adopted the same placement of the order, although it used the spelling "commelinoids". It did not include the Bromeliaceae and Mayaceae, but had the additional families Prioniaceae and Hydatellaceae; the morphology-based Cronquist system did not include an order named Poales, assigning these families to the orders Bromeliales, Hydatellales, Juncales and Typhales. In early systems, an order including the grass family did not go by the name Poales but by a descriptive botanical name such as Graminales in the Engler system and in the Hutchinson system, Glumiflorae in the Wettstein system or Glumaceae in the Bentham & Hooker system.
The earliest fossils attributed to the Poales date to the late Cretaceous period about 66 million years ago, though some studies suggest the origin of the group may extend to nearly 115 million years ago in South America. The earliest known fossils include pollen and fruits; the phylogenetic position of Poales within the commelinids was difficult to resolve, but an analysis using complete chloroplast DNA found support for Poales as sister group of Commelinales plus Zingiberales. Major lineages within the Poales have been referred to as bromeliad, xyrid and restiid clades. A phylogenetic analysis resolved most relationships within the order but found weak support for the monophyly of the cyperid clade; the relationship between Centrolepidaceae and Restoniaceae within the restiid clade remains unclear. The four most species-rich families in the order are: Poaceae: 12,070 species Cyperaceae: 5,500 species Bromeliaceae: 3,170 species Eriocaulaceae: 1,150 speciesDiversity of Poales The Poales are the most economically important order of monocots and the most important order of plants in general.
Within the order, by far the most important family economically is the family of grasses, which includes the starch staples barley, millet and wheat as well as bamboos, a few "seasonings" like sugarcane and lemongrass. Graminoids the grasses, are dominant in open habitats like prairie/steppe and savannah and thus form a large proportion of the forage of grazing livestock. Due to pastoral nostalgia or a desire for open areas for play, they dominate most Western yards as lawns, which consume vast sums of money in upkeep. Many Bromeliaceae are used as ornamental plants. Many wetland species of sedges, rushes and cattails are important habitat plants for waterfowl, are used in weaving chair seats, were important pre-agricultural food sources for man. Two sedges and water chestnut are still at least locally important wetland starchy root crops. Bremer, K. "Gondwanan Evolution of the Grass Alliance of Families". Evolution. 56: 1374–1387. Doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2002.tb01451.x. Judd, W. S. C. S. Campbell, E. A. Kellogg, P. F. Stevens, M. J. Donoghue.
Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, 2nd edition. Pp. 276–292. Sinauer Associates, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-87893-403-0. Linder, H. Peter. "Evolutionary History of the Poales". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 36: 107–124. Doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.36.102403.135635. Small, J. K.. Flora of the Southeastern United States, 48. New York, United States NCBI Taxonomy Browser APWeb
Typha is a genus of about 30 species of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the family Typhaceae. These plants have a variety of common names, in British English as bulrush, or reedmace, in American English as reed, cattail, or punks, in Australia as cumbungi or bulrush, in Canada as bulrush or cattail, in New Zealand as raupō. Other taxa of plants may be known including some sedges in Scirpus and related genera; the genus is distributed in the Northern Hemisphere, where it is found in a variety of wetland habitats. The rhizomes are edible. Evidence of preserved starch grains on grinding stones suggests they were eaten in Europe 30,000 years ago. Typha are aquatic or semi-aquatic, herbaceous perennial plants; the leaves are glabrous, linear and basal on a simple, jointless stem that bears the flowering spikes. The plants are monoecious, with unisexual flowers; the numerous male flowers form a narrow spike at the top of the vertical stem. Each male flower is reduced to a pair of stamens and hairs, withers once the pollen is shed.
Large numbers of tiny female flowers form a dense, sausage-shaped spike on the stem below the male spike. In larger species this can be up to 30 centimetres long and 1 to 4 centimetres thick; the seeds are minute, 0.2 millimetres long, attached to fine hairs. When ripe, the heads disintegrate into a cottony fluff. Typha are among the first wetland plants to colonize areas of newly exposed wet mud, with their abundant wind-dispersed seeds. Buried seeds can survive in the soil for long periods of time, they germinate best with sunlight and fluctuating temperatures, typical of many wetland plants that regenerate on mud flats. The plants spread by rhizomes, forming large, interconnected stands. Typha are considered to be dominant competitors in wetlands in many areas, they exclude other plants with their dense canopy. In the bays of the Great Lakes, for example, they are among the most abundant wetland plants. Different species of cattails are adapted to different water depths. Well-developed aerenchyma make the plants tolerant of submersion.
The dead stalks are capable of transmitting oxygen to the rooting zone. Although Typha are native wetland plants, they can be aggressive in their competition with other native species, they have been problematic in many regions from the Great Lakes to the Everglades. Native sedges are displaced and wet meadows shrink as a response to altered hydrology of the wetlands and increased nutrient levels. An introduced or hybrid species may be contributing to the problem. Control is difficult; the most successful strategy appears to be mowing or burning to remove the aerenchymous stalks, followed by prolonged flooding. It may be more important to prevent invasion by preserving water level fluctuations, including periods of drought, to maintain infertile conditions. Typha are eaten by wetland mammals such as muskrats, that use them to construct feeding platforms and dens, providing nesting and resting places for waterfowl; the following names are accepted: The most widespread species is Typha latifolia, distributed across the entire temperate northern hemisphere.
It has been introduced to Australia. T. angustifolia does not extend as far north. T. domingensis has a more southern American distribution, it occurs in Australia. T. orientalis is widespread in Asia and New Zealand. T. laxmannii, T. minima, T. shuttleworthii are restricted to Asia and southern Europe. The rushes are harvested and the leaves dried for use in chair seats. Re-wetted, the leaves are twisted and wrapped around the chair rungs to form a densely woven seat, stuffed. Many parts of the Typha plant are edible to humans; the starchy rhizomes are nutritious with a protein content comparable to that of rice. They can be processed into a flour with 266 kcal per 100 grams, they are most harvested from late autumn to early spring. They are fibrous, the starch must be scraped or sucked from the tough fibers. Plants growing in polluted water can accumulate lead and pesticide residues in their rhizomes, these should not be eaten; the outer portion of young plants can be peeled and the heart can be eaten raw or boiled and eaten like asparagus.
This food has been popular among the Cossacks in Russia, has been called "Cossack asparagus". The leaf bases can be eaten raw or cooked in late spring when they are young and tender. In early summer the sheath can be removed from the developing green flower spike, which can be boiled and eaten like corn on the cob. In mid-summer when the male flowers are mature, the pollen can be collected and used as a flour supplement or thickener; the roots may be boiled, fried, or mashed with butter or sour cream much like potatoes. The seeds can be used to feed cattle and chickens, they can be found in African countries like Ghana. For local tribes around Lake Titicaca in Peru and Bolivia, Typha were among the most important plants and every part of the plant had multiple uses. For example, they were used to construct other boats. During World War II, the United States Navy used the down of Typha as a substitute for kapok in life vests and aviation jackets. Tests showed that after 100 hours of submersion, the buoyancy was still effective.
Typha are used as thermal insulation in buildings as an organic alternative to conventional insulating materials such as glass wool or stone woo
The Everglades is a natural region of tropical wetlands in the southern portion of the U. S. state of Florida, comprising the southern half of a large drainage basin and part of the neotropic ecozone. The system begins near Orlando with the Kissimmee River, which discharges into the vast but shallow Lake Okeechobee. Water leaving the lake in the wet season forms a slow-moving river 60 miles wide and over 100 miles long, flowing southward across a limestone shelf to Florida Bay at the southern end of the state; the Everglades experience a wide range of weather patterns, from frequent flooding in the wet season to drought in the dry season. The Seminole Tribe gave the large body of water the name Okeechobee meaning "River of Grass" to describe the sawgrass marshes, part of a complex system of interdependent ecosystems that include cypress swamps, the estuarine mangrove forests of the Ten Thousand Islands, tropical hardwood hammocks, pine rockland, the marine environment of Florida Bay. Human habitation in the southern portion of the Florida peninsula dates to 15,000 years ago.
Before European colonization, the region was dominated by the native Tequesta tribes. With Spanish colonization, both tribes declined during the following two centuries; the Seminole, formed from Creek people, warring to the North, assimilated other peoples and created a new culture after being forced from northern Florida into the Everglades during the Seminole Wars of the early 19th century. After adapting to the region, they were able to resist removal by the United States Army. Migrants to the region who wanted to develop plantations first proposed draining the Everglades in 1848, but no work of this type was attempted until 1882. Canals were constructed throughout the first half of the 20th century, spurred the South Florida economy, prompting land development. In 1947, Congress formed the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Project, which built 1,400 miles of canals and water control devices; the Miami metropolitan area grew at this time and Everglades water was diverted to cities.
Portions of the Everglades were transformed into farmland. 50 percent of the original Everglades has been developed as agricultural or urban areas. Following this period of rapid development and environmental degradation, the ecosystem began to receive notable attention from conservation groups in the 1970s. Internationally, UNESCO and the Ramsar Convention designated the Everglades a Wetland Area of Global Importance; the construction of a large airport 6 miles north of Everglades National Park was blocked when an environmental study found that it would damage the South Florida ecosystem. With heightened awareness and appreciation of the region, restoration began in the 1980s with the removal of a canal that had straightened the Kissimmee River; however and sustainability concerns have remained pertinent in the region. The deterioration of the Everglades, including poor water quality in Lake Okeechobee, was linked to the diminishing quality of life in South Florida's urban areas. In 2000 the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan was approved by Congress to combat these problems.
To date, it is the most expensive and comprehensive environmental restoration attempt in history, but its implementation has faced political complications. The first written record of the Everglades was on Spanish maps made by cartographers who had not seen the land, they named the unknown area between the Gulf and Atlantic coasts of Florida Laguna del Espíritu Santo. The area was featured on maps for decades without having been explored. Writer John Grant Forbes stated in 1811, "The Indians represent as impenetrable. British surveyor John Gerard de Brahm, who mapped the coast of Florida in 1773, called the area "River Glades". Both Marjory Stoneman Douglas and linguist Wallace McMullen suggest that cartographers substituted "Ever" for "River"; the name "Everglades" first appeared on a map in 1823, although it was spelled as "Ever Glades" as late as 1851. The Seminole call it Pahokee, meaning "Grassy Water." The region was labeled "Pa-hai-okee" on a U. S. military map from 1839, although it had earlier been called "Ever Glades" throughout the Second Seminole War.
The Everglades consist of multiple South Florida towns: Belle Glade, Wellington, Parts of Miami, Parts of Fort Lauderdale, Immokalee and Everglades City. The everglades are the Florida national park. A 2007 survey by geographers Ary J. Lamme and Raymond K. Oldakowski found that the "Glades" has emerged as a distinct vernacular region of Florida, it comprises the interior areas and southernmost Gulf Coast of South Florida corresponding to the Everglades itself. It is one of the most sparsely populated areas of the state; the geology of South Florida, together with a warm, subtropical climate, provides conditions well-suited for a large marshland ecosystem. Layers of porous and permeable limestone create water-bearing rock and soil that affect the climate and hydrology of South Florida; the properties of the rock underneath the Everglades can be explained by the geologic history of the state. The crust underneath Florida was at one point part of the African region of the supercontinent Gondwana.
About 300 million years ago, North America merged with Africa, connecting Florida with North America. Volcanic activity centered on the eastern side of Florida covered the prevalent sedimentary rock with igneous rock. Continental rifting began to separate North A