A cladogram is a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms. A cladogram is not, however, an evolutionary tree because it does not show how ancestors are related to descendants, nor does it show how much they have changed. A cladogram uses lines that branch off in different directions ending at a clade, a group of organisms with a last common ancestor. There are many shapes of cladograms but they all have lines that branch off from other lines; the lines can be traced back to. These branching off points represent a hypothetical ancestor which can be inferred to exhibit the traits shared among the terminal taxa above it; this hypothetical ancestor might provide clues about the order of evolution of various features and other evolutionary narratives about ancestors. Although traditionally such cladograms were generated on the basis of morphological characters, DNA and RNA sequencing data and computational phylogenetics are now commonly used in the generation of cladograms, either on their own or in combination with morphology.
The characteristics used to create a cladogram can be categorized as either morphological or molecular. Prior to the advent of DNA sequencing, cladistic analysis used morphological data. Behavioral data may be used; as DNA sequencing has become cheaper and easier, molecular systematics has become a more and more popular way to infer phylogenetic hypotheses. Using a parsimony criterion is only one of several methods to infer a phylogeny from molecular data. Approaches such as maximum likelihood, which incorporate explicit models of sequence evolution, are non-Hennigian ways to evaluate sequence data. Another powerful method of reconstructing phylogenies is the use of genomic retrotransposon markers, which are thought to be less prone to the problem of reversion that plagues sequence data, they are generally assumed to have a low incidence of homoplasies because it was once thought that their integration into the genome was random. Researchers must decide which character states are "ancestral" and which are derived, because only synapomorphic character states provide evidence of grouping.
This determination is done by comparison to the character states of one or more outgroups. States shared between the outgroup and some members of the in-group are symplesiomorphies. Note that character states unique to a single terminal do not provide evidence of grouping; the choice of an outgroup is a crucial step in cladistic analysis because different outgroups can produce trees with profoundly different topologies. A homoplasy is a character state, shared by two or more taxa due to some cause other than common ancestry; the two main types of homoplasy are reversion. Characters that are homoplastic, such as white fur in different lineages of Arctic mammals, should not be included as a character in a phylogenetic analysis as they do not contribute anything to our understanding of relationships. However, homoplasy is not evident from inspection of the character itself, is detected by its incongruence on a most-parsimonious cladogram. Note that characters that are homoplastic may still contain phylogenetic signal.
A well-known example of homoplasy due to convergent evolution would be the character, "presence of wings". Although the wings of birds and insects serve the same function, each evolved independently, as can be seen by their anatomy. If a bird, a winged insect were scored for the character, "presence of wings", a homoplasy would be introduced into the dataset, this could confound the analysis resulting in a false hypothesis of relationships. Of course, the only reason a homoplasy is recognizable in the first place is because there are other characters that imply a pattern of relationships that reveal its homoplastic distribution. A cladogram is the diagrammatic result of an analysis, which groups taxa on the basis of synapomorphies alone. There are many other phylogenetic algorithms that treat data somewhat differently, result in phylogenetic trees that look like cladograms but are not cladograms. For example, phenetic algorithms, such as UPGMA and Neighbor-Joining, group by overall similarity, treat both synapomorphies and symplesiomorphies as evidence of grouping, The resulting diagrams are phenograms, not cladograms, the results of model-based methods that take into account both branching order and "branch length," count both synapomorphies and autapomorphies as evidence for or against grouping, The diagrams resulting from those sorts of analysis are not cladograms, either.
There are several algorithms available to identify the "best". Most algorithms use a metric to measure. Most cladogram algorithms use the mathematical techniques of minimization. In general, cladogram generation algorithms must be implemented as computer programs, although some algorithms can be performed manually when the data sets are modest; some algor
Denise Lewis, is a British female sports presenter and former track and field athlete, who specialised in the heptathlon. She won the gold medal in the heptathlon at the 2000 Sydney Olympics, was twice Commonwealth Games champion, was the 1998 European Champion and won World Championships silver medals in 1997 and 1999, she was the first European to win the Olympic heptathlon, though Europeans, including Briton Mary Peters, had won the Olympic pentathlon precursor event. Her personal best score for the heptathlon is 6831 points, set at the Décastar meeting in 2000; this is a former British record and ranks her third on the all-time British lists behind Katarina Johnson-Thompson and Jessica Ennis-Hill. Lewis was honoured as Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 2001 New Year Honours. Since retiring from athletics, she has undertaken various television and media work and is now a regular athletics pundit for BBC Television, including during London 2012 and Rio 2016; the first day of the 2000 Summer Olympics heptathlon was 23 September.
In the first event, Lewis recorded 13.23 seconds for the 100 metres hurdles to be in second place behind the world champion, Eunice Barber, who had finished in 12.97 seconds. Ghada Shouaa, the 1996 Olympic champion, pulled-out after only 20 metres of her heat. After a poor performance in the high jump of only 1.75 m, some way off her personal best, Lewis was in eighth place, 152 points behind Barber who had increased her lead. In the third event, the shot put, Lewis recorded a distance of 15.55 m. 30 points behind Natallia Sazanovich and 45 points ahead of former world champion Sabine Braun. Barber's distance of 11.27 m put her in eighth place. In the final event of the day, the 200 metres, Lewis recorded a time of 24.34 sec. Sabine Braun's time placed her in sixth position. A strong run by Natalya Roshchupkina moved her from sixth position to second, pushing Lewis into third place. At the end of the first day, the points scored were: Natallia Sazanovich, BLR: 3903 Natalya Roshchupkina, RUS: 3872 Denise Lewis, GBR: 3852 Urszula Włodarczyk, POL: 3805 Yelena Prokhorova, RUS: 3771 Sabine Braun, GER: 3770 Eunice Barber, FRA: 3707 Karin Specht-Ertl, GER: 3697The first event on the second day was the long jump.
Lewis's best jump was 6.48 m, marginally behind Yelena Sazanovich. Eunice Barber, struggling with injury, withdrew after this event. In event six, the javelin, Lewis achieved a throw of 50.19 m. With her closest rivals some way further back she moved into first place, with Sazanovich 63 points behind in second place and Prokhorova in third a further 83 points behind. In the final event, the 800 metres, Lewis ran with the lower part of her left leg bandaged due to a calf and Achilles tendon injury, aiming to stay close enough to the race leaders to maintain her points advantage. Prokhorova won the race convincingly and when Lewis crossed the line behind Sazanovich it was not, at first, clear if Lewis's time of 2:16.83 was enough to retain first place. After the individual points had been calculated, it was announced, that Lewis had won with a total of 6584 points. Prokhorova was second with 6531 and Sazanovich was third with 6527. At the 2004 Olympics, Lewis was suffering from a number of injuries and withdrew from the competition after the long jump.
Teammate and training partner Kelly Sotherton took bronze. AAA ChampionshipsLong jump: 1996, 1998AAA Indoor Championships60 m hurdles: 1997 Long jump: 1994, 1995, 1998 Shot put: 2004†† Lewis was the top placed Briton at the 2004 AAA Indoor shot put behind Sweden's Helena EngmanAAA Junior ChampionshipsHeptathlon: 1988 Long jump: 1989British Schools International MatchLong jump: 1988English Schools ChampionshipsLong jump: 1986, 1987 Décastar: 2000 In the 2001 New Year Honours, Lewis was promoted to Officer of the Order of the British Empire, having been appointed MBE in the 1999 New Year Honours. In 2000, she was presented with the Freedom of the City of Wolverhampton. In 2010, Lewis was inducted into the Wolverhampton Sporting Hall of Fame, while in 2011, she was inducted into the England Athletics Hall of Fame. In 2013, Lewis was honoured at the annual Wolverhampton Famous Daughters Awards ceremony. In 2014, she was presented with an honorary degree from the University of Wolverhampton. With Dame Kelly Holmes, Christine Ohuruogu and Paula Radcliffe, Lewis enjoys acclamation as one of the "golden girls" of British athletics and, in 1998 and 2000 has been runner up in the BBC Sports Personality of the Year.
In 2003, Lewis was put forward as a candidate in the BBC Midlands great midlander of all-time award but lost out to eventual winner Reginald Mitchell the inventor of the Supermarine Spitfire. Lewis was voted "Sportswoman of the Year" by the Sports Journalists' Association in 1997, 1998 and 2000, a joint-record three times, while being named as runner up in 1996, she was selected as "Female Athlete of the Year" by the British Athletics Writers' Association four times, in 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000. Lewis won the Sunday Times "Sportswoman of the Year" a record three times, in 1994, 1998 and 2000. At the inaugural British Ethnic Diversity Sports Awards in 2015, Lewis became the first recipient of the Lifetime Achievement Award, her British and Commonwealth record of 6831 points was set on 30 July 2000 in France. As of 2013, she ranks 15th in the Heptathlon all-time list. In 2002, Lewis' Olympic victory was ranked. In 2010, Lewis was made a Patron of the Jaguar Academy of Sport. Since 2009, Lewis has acted as a pundit for BBC Sport's athletics coverage and she has covered major live events including the 2009 World Athletics Championships, 201
Image Diffusion International is a Quebec production company founded by Anne-Marie Losique and Marc Trudeau in 1995. Based in Montreal, it specializes in producing lifestyle television magazines, its shows are sometimes Quebec-based in French and sometimes edited in two versions and English. Some of their programmes are shot in the studios of MusiquePlus, a music television station on which many IDI shows are aired. IDI's productions are broadcast on multiple networks across Canada, its show Sex-shop was sold to French television station XXL. Subject matter of their programs include cinema and nightlife. A number of their television shows feature the sex industry. Box-office Écrans du monde Gros plan sur… Il a dit, Elle a dit Colour Travel Series Blue: "the world’s most beautiful beaches" Grey: "the trendiest and most avant-garde cities" Green: "uncovering the natural beauties of our planet" Pink: "the hottest gay vacations" White: "the world’s most beautiful mountains" Yellow: "exploring the world’s deserts" Red: "the nightlife - why some cities never sleep" Culture du X Hot-parade La Vie rurale Bimbo, fantasmes et réalité La Job Culture de Stars iCulture BO2 Le Cinéjournal Des gens pas ordinaires 3,2,1… Action!
Sex-shop Extrême Sexe @... Sex-shop seXstar List of Quebec television series Television of Quebec Culture of Quebec IDI official site Anne-Marie Losique official site IDI Quebec adaptation of The Simple Life with Anne-Marie Losique at Sympatico.msn.com List of IDI productions broadcast via CHUM Television, with descriptions "Sex mogul" at The Montreal Mirror