Tennessee's 2nd congressional district
The 2nd congressional district of Tennessee is a congressional district in East Tennessee. It has been represented by Republican Tim Burchett since January 2019; the district is located in East Tennessee and borders Kentucky to the north and North Carolina to the south. It is composed of the following counties: Blount, Grainger and Loudon, it contains a small piece of Campbell County and a large piece of Jefferson County. The district is based in Knoxville, is coextensive with that city's metropolitan area; the area is known for being the home of the flagship campus for the University of Tennessee, hosting the 1982 World's Fair, for being the headquarters for the Tennessee Valley Authority, Ruby Tuesday, Pilot Flying J. The 2nd is one of the safest districts in the nation for the Republican Party. No Democrat has represented the district since 1855, Republicans have held the district continuously since 1859; this district traditionally gives its congressmen long tenures in Washington. Since 1909, six men have served at least ten years in Congress, with three of those having served at least twenty years.
Although the district has taken many forms over the years, it has included Knoxville every year since 1853. During the Civil War era, the area was represented in Congress by Horace Maynard. Maynard switched parties many times, but was pro-Union, did not resign from Congress when Tennessee seceded. Maynard entered Congress in 1857, but did not leave until 1875. For a short period in the 1870s, the area was represented by Jacob M. Thornburgh. For the 44th United States Congress, Thornburgh was the only Republican in the Tennessee delegation. Following Thornburgh's retirement, the district chose former Union colonel Leonidas C. Houk, who served until his death in 1891, upon which he was succeed by his son John. In late 1893, John faced a primary challenge from Henry R. Gibson. Gibson was chosen following this narrow and divisive primary went on to serve in Congress for ten years. Gibson did not seek re-election in 1904 and was succeeded by Nathan W. Hale, who served only two terms. Similar in character to the Houk/Gibson primary in 1893, Hale faced a divisive primary with eventual winner Richard W. Austin in 1908.
Ten years Austin himself was defeated for the Republican nomination, being edged out by former state Republican chairman J. Will Taylor. Taylor managed to serve for twenty years until his death in 1939. In a special election to fill the vacancy left by Taylor's death, the district elected former judge John Jennings, Jr.. Jennings' tenure nearly coincided with the 1940s decade. In 1950, Jennings was defeated in primary by former district attorney Howard Baker, Sr.. Baker served for thirteen years until his death in 1964, where he was succeeded by his widow Irene who did not seek re-election. In the 1964 election, the district chose Knoxville mayor John Duncan, Sr.. Duncan served for 23 years before his death in summer 1988. Following Duncan's death, the district elected Jimmy; the younger Duncan served for just over thirty years from late 1988 until his successor was sworn in early January 2019. Upon Jimmy Duncan's retirement, the district chose outgoing Knox County mayor Tim Burchett, who has served since January 2019.
Tennessee's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal Government of the United States. The legislature consists of two chambers: the House of the Senate; the Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 senators; the House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house and vote in congressional committees, introduce legislation; the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative.
Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators. There are 100 senators representing the 50 states; each senator is elected at-large in their state for a six-year term, with terms staggered, so every two years one-third of the Senate is up for election. To be eligible for election, a candidate must be aged at least 25 or 30, have been a citizen of the United States for seven or nine years, be an inhabitant of the state which they represent; the Congress was created by the Constitution of the United States and first met in 1789, replacing in its legislative function the Congress of the Confederation. Although not mandated, in practice since the 19th century, Congress members are affiliated with the Republican Party or with the Democratic Party and only with a third party or independents. Article One of the United States Constitution states, "All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."
The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers; the Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before an impeached person can be forcibly removed from office; the term Congress can refer to a particular meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years; the Congress ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators. Scholar and representative Lee H. Hamilton asserted that the "historic mission of Congress has been to maintain freedom" and insisted it was a "driving force in American government" and a "remarkably resilient institution". Congress is the "heart and soul of our democracy", according to this view though legislators achieve the prestige or name recognition of presidents or Supreme Court justices.
One analyst argues that it is not a reactive institution but has played an active role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress: Congress reflects us in all our strengths and all our weaknesses, it reflects our regional idiosyncrasies, our ethnic and racial diversity, our multitude of professions, our shadings of opinion on everything from the value of war to the war over values. Congress is the government's most representative body... Congress is charged with reconciling our many points of view on the great public policy issues of the day. Congress is changing and is in flux. In recent times, the American south and west have gained House seats according to demographic changes recorded by the census and includes more minorities and women although both groups are still underrepresented. While power balances among the different parts of government continue to change, the internal structure of Congress is important to understand along with its interactions with so-called intermediary institutions such as political parties, civic associations, interest groups, the mass media.
The Congress of the United States serves two distinct purposes that overlap: local representation to the federal government of a congressional district by representatives and a state's at-large representation to the federal government by senators. Most incumbents seek re-election, their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent; the historical records of the House of Representatives and the Senate are maintained by the Center for Legislative Archives, a part of the National Archives and Records Administration. Congress is directly responsible for the governing of the District of Columbia, the current seat of the federal government; the First Continental Congress was a gathering of representatives from twelve of the thirteen British Colonies in North America. On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, referring to the new nation as the "United States of America"; the Articles of Confederation in 1781 created the Congress of the Confederation, a
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Harrogate is a city in Claiborne County, United States. It is adjacent to Cumberland Gap National Historical Park; the community has been known as "Harrogate" since the 19th century, but did not incorporate as a city by that name until 1992. As of the 2010 census, its population was 4,389. Before incorporation, the United States Census Bureau treated Harrogate as a census-designated place called Harrogate-Shawanee. At the time of the 2000 census the CDP had a population of 2,865. Harrogate is located at 36°34′56″N 83°39′25″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.6 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,865 people, 1,032 households, 747 families residing in the Harrogate-Shawanee CDP; the population density was 688.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,091 housing units at an average density of 262.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 94.73% White, 0.94% African American, 0.42% Native American, 0.94% Asian, 0.17% from other races, 2.79% from two or more races.
Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 0.52% of the population. There were 1,032 households out of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.4% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.6% were non-families. 23.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.83. The age distribution was 20.5% under 18, 14.7% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 25.1% from 45 to 64, 15.6% who were 65 or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.2 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $34,227, the median income for a family was $44,492. Males had a median income of $36,000 versus $25,036 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $15,585. About 7.2% of families and 20.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.0% of those under age 18 and 5.5% of those age 65 or over.
When Harrogate first incorporated the city population was 2,700, but since that time the population has increased as a result of annexations. As of 2003, the United States Census Bureau estimated the city population at 3,974. In 2006 the estimated population was 4,425. Lincoln Memorial University, a private four-year co-educational liberal arts college, is located in Harrogate, its Abraham Lincoln Library and Museum houses a large collection of memorabilia relating to the school's namesake, Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War. Lincoln Memorial is the parent institution of the Debusk College of Osteopathic Medicine, the first osteopathic medical school in Tennessee. Public schools in Harrogate are Ellen Myers Elementary, H. Y. Livesay Middle School and Forge Ridge Consolidated School. Cumberland Gap High School has a Cumberland Gap address; this is were Tri-State Christian Academy is located down Arthur road. The Daniel Boone Arboretum in Harrogate contains over 50 labeled species of native trees. Harrogate, United Kingdom City of Harrogate official website
Justin P. Wilson Cumberland Trail State Park
The Justin P. Wilson Cumberland Trail State Park is a Tennessee hiking trail following a line of ridges and gorges along the eastern escarpment of the Cumberland Plateau in Tennessee; the trail begins at Cumberland Gap National Historical Park and ends at Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park and Prentice Cooper Wildlife Management Area just outside Chattanooga, Tennessee. The trail travels through two time zones; the Cumberland Trail became Tennessee's 53rd state park in the state's only linear park. The park is named for Justin P. Wilson in honor of his work to help make the vision of the Cumberland Trail a reality. Wilson served as the commissioner of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation in 1996 and deputy governor for policy for former Tennessee Governor Don Sundquist; as of 2014 he is Comptroller of the State of Tennessee, an attorney, longtime Republican Party and conservation activist who donated a considerable portion of the land involved. When completed, the Justin P. Wilson Cumberland Trail State Park is to contain a core corridor of trail stretching from Cumberland Gap National Historical Park to the Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park and Prentice Cooper Wildlife Management Area.
The Cumberland Trail is designed for hikers by hikers as a sustainable single file back country hiking trail, part of the Great Eastern Trail, through more remote areas of the Appalachian Mountains. An alternative to the crowded Appalachian Trail, it gives hikers access to areas preserved for their natural or scenic beauty that cannot be otherwise accessed. Providing a wilderness experience rare in the eastern US; the rugged trail follows numerous sparsely populated ridge lines where the trail designers have strategically routed the trail to spectacular overlooks and scarce drinking water sources. The trail dips into gorges, it is designed and built to minimize the potential environmental impact on sensitive wildlife habitat, unique aquatic or terrestrial habitats, or endangered and threatened species. Still a work-in-progress, as of November 2016, 210 mi of trail are ready for hiking and over 300 mi of trails are planned. Segments include: the Cumberland Mountain segment above La Follette and Jacksboro and in the Cumberland Gap National Historic Park.
Cumberland Trail State Park offices are located in Caryville and Signal Mountain. The State Park's professional crew for trail construction and maintenance is based in Soddy-Daisy. Volunteers from all over the US and several volunteer hiking organizations are working under direction of the Tennessee State Parks in building new sections of the trail. A number of private organizations support the Cumberland Trail financially and with volunteer efforts; the list of supporters is long. Wild Trails, the Chattanooga nonprofit that directs money to building and maintaining wilderness path projects through the region. A number of other individuals and volunteer organizations are assisting in bringing the vision of the Cumberland Trail closer to completion. Cumberland Trail Volunteers, based out of Soddy-Daisy, is an organization that concentrates on trail maintenance in the southern segments of the Cumberland Trail. Tennessee State Parks and the Tennessee Trails Association sponsor volunteer trail building programs several times a year to build new sections of trail.
The biggest of these programs is the BreakAway program. BreakAway program is an Alternative Spring Break program managed by the Cumberland Trails Conference that allows college students to engage in volunteer services such as trail building during their spring and fall college breaks. A big portion of the 235,000 hours donated to date to construct and maintain the trail have been BreakAway students. List of Tennessee state parks StumpJump 50k Official Tennessee State Park Site Cumberland Trail Conference Cumberland Trail Volunteers Friends of the Cumberland Trail BreakAway: the Alternative Break Connection CTC website