The elk or wapiti is one of the largest species within the deer family and one of the largest terrestrial mammals in North America and Northeast Asia. This animal should not be confused with the still larger moose to which the name "elk" applies in British English and in reference to populations in Eurasia. Elk range in forest and forest-edge habitat, feeding on grasses, plants and bark. Male elk have large antlers. Males engage in ritualized mating behaviors during the rut, including posturing, antler wrestling, bugling, a loud series of vocalizations that establishes dominance over other males and attracts females. Although they are native to North America and eastern Asia, they have adapted well to countries in which they have been introduced, including Argentina and New Zealand, their great adaptability may threaten endemic species and ecosystems into which they have been introduced. Elk are susceptible to a number of infectious diseases, some of which can be transmitted to livestock. Efforts to eliminate infectious diseases from elk populations by vaccination, have had mixed success.
Some cultures revere the elk as a spiritual force. In parts of Asia and their velvet are used in traditional medicines. Elk are hunted as a game species; the meat is higher in protein than beef or chicken. Elk were long believed to belong to a subspecies of the European red deer, but evidence from many mitochondrial DNA genetic studies beginning in 1998 shows that the two are distinct species. Key morphological differences that distinguish C. canadensis from C. elaphus are the former's wider rump patch and paler-hued antlers. Early European explorers in North America, who were familiar with the smaller red deer of Europe, thought that the larger North American animal resembled a moose, gave it the name elk, the common European name for moose; the word elk is related to the Latin alces, Old Norse elgr, Scandinavian elg/älg and German Elch, all of which refer to the animal known in North America as the moose. The name wapiti is from the Shawnee and Cree word waapiti, meaning "white rump"; this name is used in particular for the Asian subspecies, because in Eurasia the name elk continues to be used for the moose.
Wapiti is the preferred name for the species in New Zealand. Asian subspecies are sometimes referred to as the maral, but this name applies to the Caspian red deer, a subspecies of red deer. There is a subspecies of elk in Mongolia called the Altai wapiti known as the Altai maral. Members of the genus Cervus first appear in the fossil record 25 million years ago, during the Oligocene in Eurasia, but do not appear in the North American fossil record until the early Miocene; the extinct Irish elk was not a member of the genus Cervus, but rather the largest member of the wider deer family known from the fossil record. Until red deer and elk were considered to be one species, Cervus elaphus. However, mitochondrial DNA studies, conducted on hundreds of samples in 2004 from red deer and elk subspecies as well as other species of the Cervus deer family indicate that elk, or wapiti, should be a distinct species, namely Cervus canadensis; the previous classification had over a dozen subspecies under the C. elaphus species designation.
Elk and red deer produce fertile offspring in captivity, the two species have inter-bred in New Zealand's Fiordland National Park, where the cross-bred animals have all but removed the pure elk blood from the area. There are numerous subspecies of elk described, with six from North America and four from Asia, although some taxonomists consider them different ecotypes or races of the same species. Populations vary as to antler shape and size, body size and mating behavior. DNA investigations of the Eurasian subspecies revealed that phenotypic variation in antlers and rump patch development are based on "climatic-related lifestyle factors". Of the six subspecies of elk known to have inhabited North America in historical times, four remain, including the Roosevelt, Tule and Rocky Mountain; the Eastern elk and Merriam's elk subspecies have been extinct for at least a century. Four subspecies described in Asia include the Tianshan wapiti. Two distinct subspecies found in China and Korea are the Alashan wapitis.
The Manchurian wapiti is more reddish in coloration than the other populations. The Alashan wapiti of north central China is the smallest of all subspecies, has the lightest coloration and is the least studied. Biologist Valerius Geist, who has written on the world's various deer species, holds that there are only three subspecies of elk. Geist recognizes the Manchurian and Alashan wapiti but places all other elk into C. canadensis canadensis, claiming that classification of the four surviving North American groups as subspecies is driven, at least for political purposes to secure individualized conservation and protective measures for each of the surviving populations. Recent DNA studies suggest
Marengo is a town in Ashland County in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. The population was 390 at the 2010 census. Marengo is located in northwest Ashland County, south of the town of White River, west of the towns of Ashland and Morse, north of the town of Gordon. To the west are the towns of Grandview and Lincoln in Bayfield County; the Brunsweiler River, a tributary of the Marengo River and thence the Bad River, flows south to north through the town, passing through several small lakes. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 72.4 square miles, of which 71.5 square miles is land and 0.93 square miles, or 1.26%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 362 people, 132 households, 99 families residing in the town; the population density was 5.1 people per square mile. There were 191 housing units at an average density of 2.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.96% White, 2.49% Native American, 0.28% Asian and 0.28% Pacific Islander. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.28% of the population.
32.5% were of Finnish, 23.8% German, 6.5% Swedish, 5.9% United States or American, 5.6% Norwegian ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 132 households out of which 40.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.1% were married couples living together, 8.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.0% were non-families. 21.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.19. In the town, the population was spread out with 32.0% under the age of 18, 5.8% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, 11.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $33,036, the median income for a family was $34,861. Males had a median income of $31,250 versus $17,188 for females.
The per capita income for the town was $16,487. About 10.7% of families and 14.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.8% of those under age 18 and 16.7% of those age 65 or over
Odanah is a census-designated place in Ashland County, Wisconsin, in the town of Sanborn, United States. The population was 13 at the 2010 census. Odanah is the administrative center of the Bad River Chippewa Band of the Chippewa. A post office called Odanah has been in operation since 1855. Odanah is a name derived from the Chippewa language meaning "village." Odanah is located at 46°36′9″N 90°40′57″W, along the Bad River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of.52 square miles, of which.5 square miles of it is land and 0.02 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 254 people, 94 households, 64 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 165.2 people per square mile. There were 104 housing units at an average density of 67.6/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 4.72% White, 92.52% Native American, 2.76% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.36% of the population. There were 94 households out of which 37.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 18.1% were married couples living together, 39.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.9% were non-families.
26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.23. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 36.6% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 20.5% from 45 to 64, 7.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 64.3 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $25,156, the median income for a family was $24,125. Males had a median income of $25,000 versus $19,063 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $9,950. About 23.9% of families and 29.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 45.6% of those under the age of eighteen and none of those sixty five or over. Justus Smith Stearns, prominent businessman in this community
Marengo (CDP), Wisconsin
Marengo is an unincorporated census-designated place located in the town of White River, Ashland County, United States. Marengo is located on Wisconsin Highway 13 10 miles northwest of Mellen. Marengo had a post office, which closed on June 27, 2009. At the 2010 census, its population was 111
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Mellen is a city in Ashland County in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. The population was 731 at the 2010 census. Copper Falls State Park is located just north of Mellen. Mellen is located at 46°19′27″N 90°39′33″W, along the Bad River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.87 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 731 people, 337 households, 182 families residing in the city; the population density was 390.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 428 housing units at an average density of 228.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.1% White, 0.3% African American, 1.2% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.6% of the population. There were 337 households of which 24.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.6% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 46.0% were non-families.
40.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.08 and the average family size was 2.77. The median age in the city was 46.5 years. 20.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.6 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 845 people, 378 households, 215 families residing in the city; the population density was 456.5 people per square mile. There were 436 housing units at an average density of 235.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.57% White, 0.24% African American, 1.66% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 0.36% from other races, 0.95% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.95% of the population. There were 378 households out of which 23.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.3% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 43.1% were non-families.
39.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 22.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.89. In the city, the population was spread out with 20.6% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 26.2% from 25 to 44, 21.8% from 45 to 64, 24.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,917, the median income for a family was $41,111. Males had a median income of $30,804 versus $21,042 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,297. About 1.4% of families and 5.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.6% of those under age 18 and 10.2% of those age 65 or over. Robert F. Barabe, Wisconsin State Assembly D. E. Bowe, Wisconsin State Assembly Bernard E. Gehrmann, Wisconsin State Assembly Bernard J. Gehrmann, United States House of Representatives and Wisconsin Legislature Mellen, Wisconsin Chamber of Commerce Sanborn fire insurance maps: 1909 1917