Clan Keith is a Scottish clan, whose chief historically held the hereditary title of Great Marischal of Scotland. The placename Keith comes from a Cumbric form of the Modern Welsh coed, a warrior of the Chatti tribe is said to have killed the Danish General, Camus, at the Battle of Barrie in 1010. For this valour Malcolm II of Scotland dipped three fingers into the blood of the dead and drew them down the warriors shield, the warrior was thereafter named Marbhachair Chamuis which meant the Camus Slayer. The chief of the Clan Keith has borne the same three lines on his ever since. It can be found as early as 1316 on the seal of Sir Robert de Keith, King Malcolms victory at the Battle of Carham in 1018 brought him into possession of Lothian, and the lands of Keith in Lothian were subsequently held by the Camus Slayer. It is from these lands that his progeny took their name, a Norman adventurer named Hervey married the native heiress of Marbhachair and in about 1150 David I of Scotland granted her a charter for the lands of Keith.
In a charter of 1176, their son was styled as Marischal of the King of Scots, the Marischal was charged with the safety of the kings person within Parliament and was custodian of the royal regalia. In 1308, Robert the Bruce granted the royal Halforest of Aberdeenshire to his friend, here the Marischal built his castle. His nephew was William Keith of Galston who returned Bruces heart to Melrose Abbey after the death of the Sir James Douglas at the Battle of Teba in Andalucia. Bruce confirmed to the family the hereditary office of marischal by a charter of 1324, the office was held upon the condition that they bore the ancient arms that they had inherited from Marbhachair Chamuis. Sir Robert Keith, the Marishchal, escorted the young David II of Scotland when he fled to France to escape the usurpation Edward Balliol. Sir William Keith the Marischal who died in 1407 married the heiress of Sir Alexander Fraser and in doing so added great estates in Buchan and Lothian to his existing patrimony. Williams brother, John Keith, married the Cheyne heiress which brought the Keiths massive estates in Inverugie as well as Inverugie Castle, which became the seat of the clan chiefs.
Three of Sir William Keiths children married children of Robert II of Scotland, while another daughter married Sir Adam Gordon, in 1458, the third Lord Keith was made Earl Marischal and was the only peer to be styled by his office of state. A branch of the Clan Keith who inhabited Caithness fought at the Battle of Tannach where they assisted the Clan Mackay against the Clan Gunn and they fought another battle against the Gunns, known as the Battle of Champions. This battle was fought between men of the Clan Gunn and twenty four men of the Clan Keith. All the Gunns, including the chief of the clan, were killed, Keith of Ackergill was soon after killed by the Gunns in a revenge attack. William Keith, 3rd Earl Marischal, along with the Earl of Glencairn invited John Knox the religious reformer back to Scotland in 1559, William Keith, 4th Earl Marischal, founded the Marischal College in Aberdeen
Jacobite rising of 1745
The Jacobite rising of 1745 was the attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for the exiled House of Stuart. The rising occurred during the War of the Austrian Succession when most of the British Army was on the European continent, the march south began with an initial victory at Prestonpans near Edinburgh. The Jacobite army, now in bold spirits, marched onwards to Carlisle, the Battle of Culloden ended with the final defeat of the Jacobite cause, and with Charles Edward Stuart fleeing with a price on his head, before finally sailing to France. The Glorious Revolution of 1688–89 resulted in the Roman Catholic Stuart king, James II of England and VII of Scotland, James daughter and her husband, who was Jamess nephew, ascended the British throne as joint sovereigns William and Mary. In 1690 Presbyterianism was established as the religion of Scotland. The Act of Settlement 1701 settled the succession of the English throne on the Protestant House of Hanover, the Scottish Act of Security 1704 required that Queen Annes successor be Protestant, and the Act of Union 1707 applied the Act of Settlement to Scotland.
With the death of Queen Anne in 1714, the Elector of Hanover, George I, James IIs son, James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender, attempted to gain the British throne in 1715 but failed to do so. The accession of George I ushered in the Whig supremacy, with the Tories deprived of all political power, George II succeeded his father in 1727. In February 1742 Sir Robert Walpole resigned as Prime Minister after nearly 21 years, the Whig Henry Pelham was Prime Minister until 1754. In 1743 war broke out between Britain and France, as part of the larger War of the Austrian Succession and it was signed by the Duke of Beaufort, Lord Barrymore, Lord Orrery, Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, Sir John Hynde Cotton and Sir Robert Abdy. Amelot replied that the French government would need proof of English support for Jacobitism before it could act. The Tory leaders had requested 10,000 French soldiers and arms for 10,000 of the officers on half pay and unemployed soldiers. The French were to land in Maldon in Essex, a section of coast not patrolled by the Royal Navy, obviating a crossing of the River Thames and counting on support from Jacobite sentiment there.
They advised that Maurice of Saxony should command the French army because he was known to most of them and was a Protestant. A parallel expeditionary force for a Scottish landing under the command of Lord Marischal was requested as well, James Butler, Louis XVs Master of Horse, toured England ostensibly for purchasing bloodstock but in reality to gauge the health of Jacobitism in England. Before he left for England the French king briefed him personally to assure the Tory leaders that all of their demands would be met and he reported back that they showed great zeal for a revolution. John Sample, a spy for Walpole, told the Duke of Newcastle that plans for a French invasion had been orchestrated by Wynn, Butler returned to France in October and had an audience with Louis XV, who said he was satisfied. The next month Amelot told Sempill officially that Louis XV was resolved to restore the House of Stuart, the Declaration of King James was signed by James Francis Edward Stuart on 23 December 1743 and was to be published in the event of a successful French landing
Robert III of Scotland
Robert III, born John Stewart, was King of Scots from 1390 to his death. He was known primarily as John, Earl of Carrick before ascending the throne at the age of 53 and he was the eldest son of Robert II and Elizabeth Mure and was legitimated with the marriage of his parents in 1347. John joined his father and other magnates in a rebellion against his grand-uncle, David II early in 1363 and he married Anabella Drummond, daughter of Sir John Drummond of Stobhall before 31 May 1367 when the Steward ceded to him the earldom of Atholl. In 1368 David created him Earl of Carrick and his father became king in 1371 after the unexpected death of the childless King David. In the succeeding years Carrick was influential in the government of the kingdom, in 1384 Carrick was appointed the kings lieutenant after having influenced the general council to remove Robert II from direct rule. Carricks administration saw a renewal of the conflict with England, in 1388 the Scots defeated the English at the Battle of Otterburn where the Scots commander, Earl of Douglas, was killed.
In 1390, Robert II died and Carrick ascended the throne as Robert III, Fife continued as lieutenant until February 1393 when power was returned to the king in conjunction with his son David. After this, Robert III withdrew to his lands in the west and he was powerless to interfere when a dispute between Albany and Rothesay arose in 1401 which led to Rothesays arrest and imprisonment at Albanys Falkland Castle where Rothesay died in March 1402. The general council absolved Albany from blame and reappointed him as lieutenant, the only impediment now remaining to an Albany Stewart monarchy was the kings only surviving son, Earl of Carrick. In February 1406 the 11-year-old James and a group of followers clashed with Albanys Douglas allies resulting in the death of the kings counsellor Sir David Fleming of Cumbernauld. James escaped to the Bass Rock in the Firth of Forth accompanied by Henry Sinclair, Earl of Orkney, the vessel was intercepted near Flamborough Head and James became the prisoner of Henry IV of England and would remain captive for the next 18 years.
Robert III died in Rothesay Castle on 4 April 1406 shortly after learning of his sons imprisonment and was buried at Paisley Abbey, John Stewart was born c. 1337/40 to Robert, Steward of Scotland and Elizabeth Mure. Following his parents marriage sometime after 22 November 1347 after Pope Clement VIs dispensation, styled Lord of Kyle, John is first recorded in the 1350s as the commander of a campaign in the lordship of Annandale to re-establish Scottish control over English occupied territory. In 1363, he joined his father along with the earls of Douglas, the reasons for the rebellion were varied. In 1362, David II supported several of his favourites in their titles to lands in the Stewart earldom of Monteith. These nobles were unhappy at the kings squandering of funds provided to him for his ransom. The dissension between the king and the Stewarts looked to have settled before the end of spring 1367. David II reinforced the position of John and Annabella by providing them with the earldom of Carrick on 22 June 1368 and the tacit approval of John as the kings probable heir
Clan Grant is a Highland Scottish clan. It is almost certain that the ancestors of the chiefs of Clan Grant came to Scotland with the Normans to England where the name is soon after the conquest of that country. Although some historians have asserted that the Grants were part of the Siol Alpin group of families who descend from Alpin, father of Kenneth MacAlpin, the first Grants to appear in Scotland are recorded in the 13th century when they acquired the lands of Stratherrick. One of the family married Mary, daughter of Sir John Bisset, one of these sons was Sir Laurence le Grand who became Sheriff of Inverness. During the Wars of Scottish Independence Clan Grant were supporters of William Wallace and John, the Clan Grant supported Robert the Bruce in competition for the Scottish Crown. The victory of Robert the Bruce confirmed the Grants in their lands of Strathspey, the taking of Castle Grant, 14th century, Originally a Comyn Clan stronghold, Clan traditions tell us that the castle was taken from the Comyns by a combined force of the Grants and MacGregors.
The next available reference is of Duncan le Grant in 1434, and later, Sir Duncan Grant of Freuchie and her family had partially owned it since 1180, when Richard I of England gave Kinveachy to Gille Brigte, Earl of Strathearn. By the 16th century the clan and its chief had become powerful enough to play a part in national politics and their main allies being the Clan Gordon, whose chief was the powerful Earl of Huntly. In 1535 James Grant, 3rd Laird of Freuchie was made responsible for the policing of Strathspey, in 1580 a Robert Grant defeated an English champion at a jousting tournament while on an embassy in the south. Towards the end of the 16th century the Grants began to quarrel with their old allies the Gordons, the Grants being Protestant and the Gordons being Catholic. In 1586 the Earl of Huntly allied with the Clan MacDonald, the Grants responded by bringing in the Clan Gregor but they came off worse in a clash at Ballindalloch. By the late 16th century, Clan Grant became an important clan in the Scottish Highlands, during this period, the clans actions resulted in the murder of the Earl of Moray and the defeat of the Earl of Argyll at the Battle of Glenlivet in 1594.
The Chief of Clan Grant ordered his men to retreat as soon as the action began and this treacherous move led to the defeat of Clan Campbell of Argyll. In 1613 King James VII of Scotland wrote to the chief of Clan Grant complaining that he was sheltering outlaws from the Clan MacGregor, the chief responded by sending the notorious Alistair MacAllister MacGregor to Edinburgh. However, the King was not satisfied and in 1615 fined Grant 16,000 merks for protecting the MacGregors, during the Civil War Captain David Grant led his forces in support of the Covenanter forces against the Royalist forces at the Battle of Tippermuir in 1644. In October 1645 the Clan Cameron raided the lands of the Clan Grant, the Grants gave chase catching the Camerons in the Braes of Strathdearn, where the Cameron men were defeated and many clansmen were slain. By 1651 the Scottish Covenantor Government was no longer in agreement with the English Parliament of Oliver Cromwell, Sir James Grant of Grant, 16th Chief, led the clan to fight for Charles I and the Royalists at the Battle of Worcester in 1651.
Also, an alliance between Sir James Grant and the Earl of Huntly led to the annihilation of the Clan Farquharson, after the Civil War the Clan Grant supported the British government
James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose
From 1644 to 1646, and again in 1650, he fought a civil war in Scotland on behalf of the King and is generally referred to in Scotland as simply the Great Montrose. His spectacular victories, which took his opponents by surprise, are remembered in history for their tactical brilliance. James Graham, chief of Clan Graham, was the youngest of six children, the exact date and place of his birth are unknown, but it was probably in mid-October. His maternal grandparents were William Ruthven, 1st Earl of Gowrie, and Dorothea and her maternal grandparents were John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Atholl and Lady Janet Campbell. Janet Campbell was a daughter of Archibald Campbell, 2nd Earl of Argyll, Elizabeth was a daughter of John Stewart, 1st Earl of Lennox and Margaret Montgomerie. Margaret was a daughter of Alexander Montgomerie, 1st Lord Montgomerie, Graham studied at age twelve at the college of Glasgow under William Forrett who tutored his sons. At Glasgow, he read Xenophon and Seneca, and Tasso in translation, in the words of biographer John Buchan, his favourite book was a splendid folio of the first edition of History of the World by Walter Raleigh.
Graham became 5th Earl of Montrose by his fathers death in 1626 and he was educated at Saint Salvators College at the University of St Andrews. At the age of seventeen, he married Magdalene Carnegie, who was the youngest of six daughters of David Carnegie and they were parents of four sons, among them James Graham, 2nd Marquess of Montrose. Montrose joined the party of resistance, and was for some one of its most energetic champions. He had nothing puritanical in his nature, but he shared in the ill-feeling aroused by the political authority King Charles had given to the bishops and he signed the National Covenant, and was sent to suppress the opposition which arose around Aberdeen and in the country of the Gordons. Three times Montrose entered Aberdeen, where he succeeded in his object, on the second occasion carrying off the head of the Gordons and he was a leader of the delegation who subsequently met at Muchalls Castle to parley regarding the 1638 confrontation with the Bishop of Aberdeen.
With the Earl Marischal he led a force of 9000 men across the Causey Mounth through the Portlethen Moss to attack Royalists at the Bridge of Dee and these events played a part in Charles Is decision to grant major concessions to the Covenanters. In July 1639, after the signing of the Treaty of Berwick and his change of mind, eventually leading to his support for the King, arose from his wish to get rid of the bishops without making Presbyterians masters of the state. His was essentially a laymans view of the situation, Montrose, on the other hand, wished to bring the Kings authority to bear upon parliament to defeat Argyll, and offered the King the support of a great number of nobles. Rather than give way, Charles prepared in 1640 to invade Scotland, Montrose was of necessity driven to play something of a double game. In August 1640 he signed the Bond of Cumbernauld as a protest against the particular and direct practising of a few, in other words, against the ambition of Argyll. But he took his place amongst the defenders of his country, on 27 May 1641 he was summoned before the Committee of Estates and charged with intrigues against Argyll, and on 11 June he was imprisoned by them in Edinburgh Castle
Battle of Culloden
The Battle of Culloden was the final confrontation of the Jacobite rising of 1745 and part of a religious civil war in Britain. On 16 April 1746, the Jacobite forces of Charles Edward Stuart were decisively defeated by loyalist troops commanded by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, queen Anne died in 1714, with no living children, she was the last monarch of the House of Stuart. The conflict was the last pitched battle fought on British soil, Charles Stuarts Jacobite army consisted largely of Catholics and Episcopalians, mainly Scots but with a small detachment of Englishmen from the Manchester Regiment. The Jacobites were supported and supplied by the Kingdom of France from Irish, between 1,500 and 2,000 Jacobites were killed or wounded in the brief battle. Government losses were lighter with 50 dead and 259 wounded although recent geophysical studies on the government burial pit suggest the figure for deaths to be nearer 300. Charles Edward Stuart, known as Bonnie Prince Charlie or the Young Pretender and he successfully raised forces, mainly of Scottish Highland clansmen, and slipped past the Hanoverian stationed in Scotland and defeated a force of militiamen at the Battle of Prestonpans.
The British government recalled forces from the war with France in Flanders to deal with the rebellion, after a lengthy wait, Charles persuaded his generals that English Jacobites would stage an uprising in support of his cause. He was convinced that France would launch an invasion of England as well and his army of around 5,000 invaded England on 8 November 1745. They advanced through Carlisle and Manchester to Derby and a position where they appeared to threaten London, the Jacobites met only token resistance. There was, little support from English Jacobites, the armies of Field Marshal George Wade and of William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, were approaching. In addition to the militia, London was defended by nearly 6,000 infantry,700 horse and 33 artillery pieces, the Jacobite general, Lord George Murray, and the Council of War insisted on returning to join their growing force in Scotland. On 6 December 1745, they withdrew, with Charles Edward Stuart leaving command to Murray, on the long march back to Scotland, the Highland Army wore out its boots and demanded all the boots and shoes of the townspeople of Dumfries as well as money and hospitality.
The Jacobites reached Glasgow on 25 December, there they reprovisioned, having threatened to sack the city, and were joined by a few thousand additional men. They defeated the forces of General Henry Hawley at the Battle of Falkirk Muir, the Duke of Cumberland arrived in Edinburgh on 30 January to take over command of the government army from General Hawley. He marched north along the coast, with the army being supplied by sea, six weeks were spent at Aberdeen training. The Kings forces continued to pressure Charles and he retired north, losing men and failing to take Stirling Castle or Fort William. But he invested Fort Augustus and Fort George in Inverness-shire in early April, Charles took command again, and insisted on fighting a defensive action. Hugh Rose of Kilravock entertained Charles Edward Stuart and the Duke of Cumberland respectively on 14 and 15 April 1746, Charles manners and deportment were described by his host as most engaging
Battle of Invernahavon
The Battle of Invernahoven was a Scottish clan battle between the Clan Cameron and the Chattan Confederation of Clan Mackintosh, Clan Macpherson and Clan Davidson. Some sources give the date as 1386, others as 1370, around 400 men of the Clan Cameron were returning from a raid on Badenoch, the area around Kingussie. Travelling southwest up the Spey valley, they were overtaken at Invernahavon by a body of Chattan Confederation led by Lachlan, invernahovon lies southwest of Newtonmore in the headwaters of the River Spey, at the point where it is joined by the River Truim. It appears that the Camerons were trying to cross the Truim to continue home towards Fort William, following the route of the modern A86 road, the Chattan Confederation forces consisted of the Mackintoshes and Macphersons. As a result of a disagreement as to whether the Davidsons or Macphersons would occupy the right wing, which was the post of honour, the combined Clan Chattan had outnumbered the Camerons but with the loss of the Macphersons the Camerons now had the greater number.
The battle resulted in a defeat for the remaining Clan Chattan forces and it is said that an ally of Cameron known as Charles MacGilony led the clan into battle, he is believed to have changed the outcome of the day with his uncanny ability as an archer. The Camerons were “put to flight” up the Truim valley towards Drumochter, turning homeward at Dalwhinnie, the Macphersons attacked the Camerons’ camp, making a dreadful slaughter of them—even killing Charles MacGilony, the Camerons top archer—at a place now called Charles’s Valley
Clifton Moor Skirmish
The Clifton Moor Skirmish took place between forces of the United Kingdom Hanoverian government and Jacobite rebels on Wednesday 18 December 1745. Charles began his retreat from Derby on 6 December 1745 and this is sometimes claimed as the last battle on English soil, but there are numerous other claimants such as the Battle of Graveney Marsh, fought in 1940. In this article, dates are given in the Julian calendar in use in England at the time, the Jacobite army stayed on the first night of retreat at the town of Ashbourne, Derbyshire. They reached the town of Leek the following day, Leek being too small to accommodate the entire army and Pitsligos horse and Ogilvys and Roy Stuarts regiments of foot, went to the town of Macclesfield where they stayed the night. The remainder of the army which had stayed at Leek came to Macclesfield the next day, on the 9th both of the Jacobite divisions met on the road to Manchester and entered the city as one body. The Jacobite army left Manchester on the 10th and reached Wigan that night, the next day they reached Preston where they stayed until the 12th.
James Drummond, the Duke of Perth, was dispatched with 100 horse to travel north, the Prince and his Jacobite army arrived in Lancaster on the evening of the 13th. Charles had decided to stay and fight at Lancaster, a survey of the surrounding ground at Lancaster was carried out by the Jacobite commanders Lord George Murray and Cameron of Lochiel. Charles changed his mind and decided to continue with their march back north, the government forces under Wade and the Duke of Cumberland had not arrived in Macclesfield until the 10th of December, the day the Jacobites had arrived in Wigan. At Macclesfield the duke received intelligence that the Jacobites had left Manchester that day, leaving Lancaster on the 15th, Charles army was scarcely out of the town when some of the government horse entered it. The Jacobite army entered Kendal that night, where they were met by the Duke of Perth, on the advice of Murray the Jacobite army marched to the village of Shap where they passed the night from the 16th-17th.
On the 17th, on orders from Charles, the Jacobite army marched to the village of Clifton, on the morning of the 18th the Jacobite rearguard left Shap. It had not proceeded far when some parties of English light horse were seen in the distance on the eminences behind the rear-guard, Lord George Murray notified the circumstances to Charles at Penrith, but it was believed that these were militia and the information was treated lightly. A body of between 200 and 300 horse of the Duke of Cumberlands forces formed on Thrimby Hill in front of the rear-guard to make a stand, the government party was observed marching two and two abreast on the top of the hill. They disappeared to form themselves in order of battle behind the eminence, at this time two of the companies of Roy Stuarts regiment, which the Duke of Perth had attached to the artillery, were at the head of the column. The guns and ammunition wagons followed, behind the two companies of the same regiment. The Clan MacDonnell of Glengarry regiment, which marched with Lord George Murray at its head, was in the rear of the column.
Believing, from the number of trumpets and kettle-drums, that the British army was at hand
Lochaber is an area in the west of the Scottish Highlands. Historically it referred to the area between Loch Linnhe and Loch Leven, around the town of Fort William, the ward management area is one of five comprising the Highland Councils Ross and Lochaber corporate management area, which is one of three Highland Council corporate management areas. Each of the wards of the corporate area is a separate ward management area. The constituency was created in 2005 with boundaries based on those of wards in use during the period 1999 to 2007, according to legend a glaistig, an evil woman-goat hybrid, once lived in the area. As statutory local government areas, the Highland region and its districts were created in 1975, under the Local Government Act 1973, the 1973 legislation abolished local government counties and burghs throughout Scotland and created a new system of nine two-tier regions and three islands council areas. Each region consisted of a number of districts and the areas were created as unitary council areas.
In 1996 the new Highland Council adopted the areas of the districts as council management areas. The Lochaber management area consisted of eight out of the 72 wards of the council area. In 1999 ward boundaries were redrawn to create 80 new wards, management area boundaries were not redrawn and therefore area committees ceased to represent exactly the areas for which they were named and made decisions. The Lochaber committee continued to have eight members, the area manager throughout this period was John Hutchison. Various ward management areas, including the Lochaber area, cover more than one ward, Lochaber is mentioned by Adomnan of Iona in his biography of St Columba on two occasions. Both stories related to Columba using his saintly blessing to raise people out of poverty, in the first story, Columba met a poor man named Nesán in Lochaber who had five cows. Columba blessed the poor mans cows and his own descendants, in the second story, Columba met a beggar in Lochaber who had a wife and children.
Columba asked the beggar to fetch him a stick from the forest, Columba sharpened the stick into a stake and gave it to the man, telling him that it would catch game for him, but it would never harm person or cattle. The poor man took the stake and put it into the forest, and every day that passed by some new animal fell on it and got killed on it. The poor man sold the meat and skins to others and got much out of it. However, his wife urged him to get rid of it, the man reluctantly listened to his wife and put the stake next to the wall of his house. But one day, a dog fell on it and got killed and he took the stake to the river Lochy and put it underwater, and returning he saw a large salmon had gotten impaled on it
A clan badge, sometimes called a plant badge, is a badge or emblem, usually a sprig of a specific plant, that is used to identify a member of a particular Scottish clan. They are usually worn in a bonnet behind the Scottish crest badge, according to popular lore clan badges were used by Scottish clans as a means of identification in battle. An authentic example of plants being used in way were the sprigs of oats used by troops under the command of Montrose during the sack of Aberdeen. Similar items are known to have used by military forces in Scotland, like paper. Despite popular lore, many clan badges attributed to Scottish clans would be impractical for use as a means of identification. Many would be unsuitable, even for a modern clan gathering, also, a number of the plants attributed as clan badges are only available during certain times of year. There is much confusion as to why some clans have been attributed more than one clan badge, several 19th century writers variously attributed plants to clans, many times contradicting each other.
It has been claimed by one writer that if a clan gained new lands it may have acquired that districts badge. It is clear however, that there are large groups of clans which share badges. The Clan Donald group and clans/septs which have associated with Clan Donald all have common heath attributed as their badge. Another large group is the Clan Chattan group which have been attributed red whortleberry, or bearberry, the leaves of these three plants are very similar, and at least one writer has claimed that whatever plant which happened to be available was used. One group, the Siol Alpin group, of clans are said to have claimed or are thought to share a common descent, the Siol Alpin clans are all attributed the clan badge of pine. In some cases, clan badges are derived from the heraldry of clan chiefs, for example, the Farquharsons have pine attributed as a clan badge of theirs. Pine was actually used in the Invercauld Arms as a mark of cadencing to the basic Shaw-Mackintosh Arms, Scottish crest badge Flora of Scotland Language of flowers
Clan Cameron is a West Highland Scottish clan, with one main branch Lochiel, and numerous cadet branches. The Clan Cameron lands are in Lochaber and within their lands lies Ben Nevis which is the highest mountain in the British Isles, the Chief of the clan is customarily referred to as simply Lochiel. The origins of Clan Cameron are uncertain and there are several theories, another possible origin is that Donal Dubh, the first chief of Clan Cameron was descended either from the Macgillonies or, the mediaeval family of Cameron of Ballegarno in Fife. According to John Mair, the Clan Cameron and the Chattan Confederation shared a common origin and together followed one chief, sometime around the beginning of the 15th century the Camerons established themselves as a Highland clan in the western end of the Great Glen in Lochaber. It is likely they did so through the marriage of an heiress of the Mael-anfhaidh kindred. The Collins Scottish Clan Encyclopedia states that the heiress was from the MacMartin of Letterfinlay family, in consequence, the early chiefs of the Highland Camerons were sometimes styled MacGillonay.
Since the 15th century though, Clan Cameron chiefs have been more commonly styled Mac Dhomnuill Dubh and it was in the time of chief Alan Macdonald Dubh Cameron, 12th chief of Clan Cameron that a feud began with the Clan Mackintosh that continued sporadically for about 300 years. One of the first battles was the Battle of Drumlui in 1337 in which a dispute arose between the Clan Mackintosh and Clan Cameron over land at Glenlui and Loch Arkaig. The Battle of Invernahoven was fought in 1370 between the Clan Cameron and the Chattan Confederation of Clan Mackintosh, Clan Macpherson and Clan Davidson. The Battle of the North Inch was fought in 1396 between the Clan Cameron and Chattan Confederation, and it is one of the most well known battles between two clans. In 1411 the Clan Cameron fought at the Battle of Harlaw near Inverurie in Aberdeenshire in support of Domhnall of Islay, Lord of the Isles and their enemy was Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany. The Camerons fought at the Battle of Lochaber in 1429, between forces led by Alexander of Islay, Earl of Ross, 3rd Lord of the Isles, another battle with Clan Mackintosh and their Chattan Confederation was the Battle of Palm Sunday in 1429.
In 1431 the Clan Cameron fought at the Battle of Inverlochy against the Clan Donald whose chief Alexander of Islay, the MacDonalds were led by Alexanders nephew, Donald Balloch MacDonald who defeated the royalist army led by the Earl of Mar. In 1439 the Clan Cameron fought against the Clan Maclean at the Battle of Corpach, in 1441 another battle with the Mackintoshes, the Battle of Craig Cailloc, was fought. In 1472 Alan MacDonald Dubh, 12th Chief of the Clan Cameron was made constable of Strome Castle on behalf of the Clan MacDonald of Lochalsh and he was killed in battle in 1480 fighting the Mackintoshes and MacDonalds of Keppoch. In 1491 the Clan Cameron took part in the Raid on Ross, in 1544, Clan Cameron provided archers who sided with Clan MacDonald of Clan Ranald at the Battle of the Shirts in 1544, against Clan Fraser. Legend has it only five Frasers and eight MacDonalds survived. The Camerons subsequently carried out successful raids upon the Clan Grant and Clan Fraser lands, owing to his role in this conflict Ewen Cameron fell into disfavour with the Earl of Huntly, Chief of Clan Gordon and Lieutenant of the North