Shiplap is a type of wooden board used as exterior siding in the construction of residences, barns and outbuildings. Shiplap is either rough-sawn 25 millimetres or milled 19 mm pine or inexpensive wood between 76 and 254 mm wide with a 9.5–12.7 mm rabbet on opposite sides of each edge. The rabbet allows the boards to overlap in this area; the profile of each board overlaps that of the board next to it creating a channel that gives shadow line effects, provides excellent weather protection and allows for dimensional movement. Useful for its strength as a supporting member, its ability to form a tight seal when lapped, shiplap is used as a type of siding for buildings that do not require extensive maintenance and must withstand cold and aggressive climates. Rough-sawn shiplap is attached vertically in post and beam construction with 6d-8d common nails, while milled versions, providing a tighter seal, are more placed horizontally, more suited to two-by-four frame construction. Small doors and shutters such as those found in barns and sheds are constructed of shiplap cut directly from the walls, with only thin members framing or crossing the back for support.
Shiplap is used indoors for the rough or rustic look that it creates when used as paneling or a covering for a wall or ceiling. Shiplap is used to describe any rabbeted siding material that overlaps in a similar fashion. In interior design, shiplap is a style of wooden wall siding characterized by long planks painted white, that are mounted horizontally with a slight gap between them in a manner that evokes exterior shiplap walls. A disadvantage of the style is. Installing shiplap horizontally in a room can help carry the eye around the space, making it feel larger. Installing it vertically helps emphasize the height of the room, making it feel larger, it can be installed on the ceiling, to draw the eye upwards. Clapboard Siding § Wood siding Tongue and groove Fixer Upper
Fiber cement siding
Fiber cement siding is a building material used to cover the exterior of a building in both commercial and domestic applications. Fiber cement is a composite material made of cement reinforced with cellulose fibers. Asbestos was used as the reinforcing material but, due to safety concerns, replaced by cellulose in the 1980s. Fiber cement board can be done so after its installation. Fiber cement siding has several benefits since it is resistant to termites, does not rot, is impact resistant, has fireproof properties. In appearance fiber cement siding most consists of overlapping horizontal boards, imitating wooden siding and imitation shingles. Fiber cement siding is manufactured in a sheet form and is used not only as cladding but is commonly used as a soffit / eave lining and as a tile underlays on decks and in bathrooms. Fiber cement siding is not only used as an exterior siding, it can be utilized as a substitute for timber fascias and bargeboards in high fire areas. Sheet sizes vary from manufacturer to manufacturer but they range between 2400 – 3000 mm in length and 900 –1200mm in width.
This manufactured size minimizes on-site wastage as residential floor and roof structures lay structural members at 450 or 600mm centres. When used as siding boards, widths between 130mm and 300mm are available. Fiber cement thicknesses vary between 4.5-18mm and vary in density – the lower density resulting in a fibrous rough edge when cut and the higher density having a cleaner smoother edge when cut. Thermal resistance and sound transmission can vary between fiber cement products. Fiber cement sheet products rate poorly in thermal resistance and sound transmission and separate wall insulation is recommended; the thicker and denser the product the better resistance it will have to temperature and sound transmission. Fiber cement cladding is a heavy product and requires two people to carry the uncut sheets. Thin fiber cement cladding is fragile before installation and must be handled because it is prone to chipping and breakage if improperly handled. Once the product is cut it may again require two people to install – one to hold the sheet flush against studwork and the other to nail the product in place.
Cutting fiber cement sheeting: Sheeting can be cut to size in three ways. Thinner sheets can be scored with a heavy duty cutting blade and snapped Using a hand- or electric-powered "fibro cutter" A mechanical saw using a diamond blade is needed to cut thicker and denser sheetsWhen hanging fiber cement sheets, an 5-millimetre gap is required between end-joints to be filled with caulking made for fiber cement siding. Metal 150 mm × 150 mm step flashing is required behind overlapping seams to prevent sheathing damage from water. Hot-dipped galvanized roofing nails are used to secure the sheets; some caution must be exercised to properly ventilate areas. Fiber cement cladding can be stained before or after installation. For areas of exposure, weatherproof paint must be used. Once the product is fixed the joints are covered with timber battens and the entire wall surface is painted. Early fiber cement panels used asbestos fibers to add strength. Ludwig Hatschek patented asbestos-reinforced fiber cement in Austria in 1901 and named it "Eternit", based on the Latin term "aeternitas", meaning everlasting.
In 1903, Schweizerische Eternit-Werke AG began fabricating the material in the city of Niederurnen in Switzerland. Cellulose-reinforced fiber cement products were introduced 1980s as a safe replacement for the widely-used asbestos cement products manufactured before that time; the external cladding products require little maintenance once installed and painted. The thicker/denser fiber cement products have excellent impact resistance but the thinner less dense products need to be protected from impact. Compared to wooden siding, fiber cement is not susceptible to termites or rot. Fiber cement siding using baseboard materials that have been classified, by accredited laboratories, as Category A according to BS EN 12467: 2004 Fiber-cement flat sheets - Product specification and test methods are sidings which are intended for applications where they may be subject to heat, high moisture and severe frost. Fiber cement cladding is a non-combustible material, used in high bushfire prone areas throughout Australia.
While the best possible reaction to Fire Classifications are A1 and A1Fl both of which mean "non-combustible" according to European standard EN 13501-1: 2007, as classified by a notified laboratory in Europe, some fiber cement boards only come with Fire Classification of A2 or lower classifications, if they are tested at all. As mentioned long-term exposure to silica dust generated by cutting fiber cement siding during installation can lead to silicosis and other lung diseases among workers. Researchers at the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health confirmed these findings, showing that many of the silica dust particles are in the respirable fraction, able to penetrate the deepest parts of the lung. Laboratory tests performed by cutting fiber cement siding within an isolated chamber showed that by connecting a regular shop vacuum to a circular saw, exposures to silica dust produced by the cutting can be reduced by 80-90
Wood flooring is any product manufactured from timber, designed for use as flooring, either structural or aesthetic. Wood is a common choice as a flooring material and can come in various styles, colors and species. Bamboo flooring is considered a form of wood flooring, although it is made from a grass rather than a timber. Solid hardwood floors are made of planks milled from a single piece of timber. Solid hardwood floors were used for structural purposes, being installed perpendicular to the wooden support beams of a building known as joists or bearers. With the increased use of concrete as a subfloor in some parts of the world, engineered wood flooring has gained some popularity. However, solid wood floors are still popular. Solid wood floors have a thicker wear surface and can be sanded and finished more times than an engineered wood floor, it is not uncommon for homes in New England, Eastern Canada, USA, Europe to have the original solid wood floor still in use today. Solid wood flooring is milled from a single piece of timber, kiln or air dried before sawing.
Depending on the desired look of the floor, the timber can be cut in three ways: flat-sawn, quarter-sawn, rift-sawn. The timber is cut to the desired dimensions and either packed unfinished for a site-finished installation or finished at the factory; the moisture content at time of manufacturing is controlled to ensure the product does not warp during transport and storage. A number of proprietary features for solid wood floors are available. Many solid woods come with grooves cut into the back of the wood that run the length of each plank called'absorption strips,' that are intended to reduce cupping. Solid wood floors are manufactured.75 inches thick with a tongue-and-groove for installation. This process involves treating the wood by boiling the log in water. After preparation, the wood is peeled by a blade starting from the outside of the log and working toward the center, thus creating a wood veneer; the veneer is pressed flat with high pressure. This style of manufacturing tends to have problems with the wood cupping or curling back to its original shape.
Rotary-peeled engineered hardwoods tend to have a plywood appearance in the grain. This process begins with the same treatment process. However, instead of being sliced in a rotary fashion, with this technique the wood is sliced from the log in much the same manner that lumber is sawn from a log – straight through; the veneers do not go through the same manufacturing process as rotary peeled veneers. Engineered hardwood produced this way tends to have fewer problems with "face checking", does not have the same plywood appearance in the grain. However, the planks can tend to have edge splintering and cracking because the veneers have been submerged in water and pressed flat. Instead of boiling the hardwood logs, in this process they are kept at a low humidity level and dried to draw moisture from the inside of the wood cells; the logs are sawed in the same manner as for solid hardwood planks. This style of engineered hardwood has the same look as solid hardwood, does not have any of the potential problems of "face checking" that rotary-peel and slice-peel products have, because the product is not exposed to added moisture.
Engineered wood flooring consists of two or more layers of wood adhered together to form a plank. Engineered wood flooring uses a thin layer of a more expensive wood bonded to a core constructed from cheaper wood; the increased stability of engineered wood is achieved by running each layer at a 90° angle to the layer above. This stability makes it a universal product that can be installed over all types of subfloors above, below or on grade. Engineered wood is the most common type of wood flooring in Europe and has been growing in popularity in North America. Laminate and vinyl floors are confused with engineered wood floors, but are not. Laminate flooring uses an image of wood on its surface, while vinyl flooring is plastic formed to look like wood; the several different categories of engineered wood flooring include: All-timber-wood floors made from multiple layers of sawn wood. Most engineered wood flooring is in this category, does not use rotary-peeled veneer, composite wood, or plastic in their construction.
Veneer floors use a thin layer of wood over a core, a composite wood product. Acrylic-impregnated wood flooring uses a layer of wood, impregnated with liquid acrylic hardened using a proprietary process, it is difficult to compare solid wood flooring to engineered wood flooring due to the wide range of quality in both product categories engineered. Solid wood has some limitations. Recommended maximum widths and lengths are 5" / 127mm wide and 7' / 2100mm long. Solid hardwood is more prone to "gapping", "crowning" and "cupping" with increased plank size. Solid wood cannot be used with underfloor radiant heating; however extra care is necessary with the planning and installation of the heating system and the wood flooring, such as limiting the temperature to 85 °F, avoid sharp temperature fluctuations, utilizing an outdoor thermostat to anticipate heating demands, monitoring the moisture content for the subfloor before installation. There are some characteristics that are common to each category: solid wood is more site-finished, is always in a plank format, is thicker than engineered wood, is installed by nailing.
In architecture, structural engineering or building, a purlin is any longitudinal, structural member in a roof except a type of framing with what is called a crown plate. In traditional timber framing there are three basic types of purlin: purlin plate, principal purlin and common purlin. A purlin plate in wooden construction is called an "arcade plate" in European English, "under purlin", "principal purlin"; the term plate means a major, supporting timber. Purlin plates are beams which are supported by posts. By supporting the rafters they allow longer spans than the rafters alone could span thus allowing a wider building. Purlin plates are commonly found in large, old barns in North America. A crown plate has similarities to a purlin plate but supports collar beams in the middle of a timber framed building. Principal purlins in wood construction called "major purlin", "side purlin". Principal purlins are supported by principal rafters and support common rafters in what is known as a "double roof".
Principal purlins are further classified by how they connect to the principal rafters: "Through purlins" pass over the top. S. example is known,) are captured by a collar beam. Through purlins are further categorized as trenched, back, or clasped. Common purlins in wood construction called a "major-rafter minor-purlin system". Common purlins are "trenched through" the top sides of principal rafters and carry vertical roof sheathing. Common purlin roofs in North America are found in areas settled by Englishmen and may have been a new invention in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. No examples of framed buildings with common purlin roofs have been reported in England, however some stone barns in England have vertically boarded, common purlin roofs; these roofs are found in New England, the highest concentration in Maine, isolated parts of New York and along the St. Lawrence River in Canada. One of the oldest extant examples is in the Coffin House in Newbury, Massachusetts from 1678; the purpose of a common purlin roof may be they allow a board roof, a roof of nothing but vertically laid boards with seams covered with battens or another layer of boards.
In steel construction, the term purlin refers to roof framing members that span parallel to the building eave, support the roof decking or sheeting. The purlins are in turn supported by walls. Purlins are most used in Metal Building Systems, where Z-shapes are utilized in a manner that allows flexural continuity between spans, it is the practice in the steel industry that structural shapes are assigned representative designations for convenient shorthand description on drawings and documentation: Channel sections, with or without flange stiffeners, are referenced as C shapes. Section designations can be regional and specific to a manufacturer. In steel building construction, secondary members such as purlins and girts are cold-formed steel C, Z or U sections, C sections. Cold formed members can be efficient on a weight basis relative to mill rolled sections for secondary member applications. Additionally, Z sections can be nested for transportation bundling and, on the building, lapped at the supports to develop a structurally efficient continuous beam across multiple supports.
Information on the origin of the term "purlin" is scant. The Oxford Dictionary suggests a French origin, with the earliest quote using a variation of purlin in 1447. Note: The sketches in this section reference terminology used in the UK and Australia. Girt Joist Roof construction Timber roof trusses This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Purlin". Encyclopædia Britannica. 22. Cambridge University Press. P. 665. An Illustrated glossary of roofs and roofing terms.⟨⟩
Panelling is a millwork wall covering constructed from rigid or semi-rigid components. These could be plastic or other materials. Panelling was developed in antiquity to make rooms in stone buildings more comfortable; the panels served to insulate the room from the cold stone. In more modern buildings, such panelling is installed for decorative purposes. Panelling, such as wainscoting and boiserie in particular, may be ornate and is associated with seventeenth and eighteenth century interior design, Victorian architecture in Britain, its international contemporaries; the term wainscot applied to high quality riven oak boards. Wainscot oak came from large, slow-grown forest trees, produced boards that were knot-free, low in tannin, light in weight, easy to work with, it was preferred to home-grown oak in Holland and Great Britain, because it was a far superior product and dimensionally stable. The Oxford English Dictionary states that it derives from the medieval German wagenschot as well as wageschot or'wall-board'.
Johnson's Dictionary defined it thus: Wainscot, the inner wooden covering of a wall. To wainscot, to line the walls with boards A'wainscot' was therefore a board of riven oak, wainscoting was the panelling made from it. During the 18th century, oak wainscot was entirely superseded for panelling in Europe by softwoods, but the name stuck: "The term wainscoting, as applied to the lining of walls, originated in a species of foreign oak of the same name, used for that purpose. In the 18th century, the style of panelling changed from a floor-to-ceiling covering to one in which only the lower part of the wall was covered. Hence wainscot or wainscoting became a panelling style applied to the lower 90 to 150 cm of an interior wall, below the dado rail or chair rail, above the baseboard or skirting board, it is traditionally constructed from tongue-and-groove boards, though bead-board or decorative panels, such as a wooden door might have, are common. New manufacturing techniques are capable of milling large panels from one sheet, reducing seams and expansion/contraction cracks that have plagued traditional construction.
Wainscoting may refer to other materials used in a similar fashion. The original purpose of wainscoting was to cover the lower part of walls, which, in houses constructed with poor or non-existent damp-proof courses, are affected by rising dampness, its purpose is now decorative. Frame and Panel – Wainscoting A frame and panel can suit a large variety of homes as you have the choice as to what moulding profile is best for the look you are trying to achieve; these mouldings are constructed into a series of raised square or rectangular sections which sit above the skirting boards and below the chair rail. Some wall panelling extends higher than the chair rail height in a smaller room where you are trying to achieve a sense of height and space to a smaller room. Boiserie is the French term used to define intricately carved wood panelling. Boiseries became popular in the latter part of the 17th century in French interior design, becoming a de rigueur feature of fashionable French interiors throughout the 18th century.
Such panels were most painted in two shades of a chosen color or in contrasting colors, with gilding reserved for the main reception rooms. The Palace of Versailles contains many fine examples of white painted boiseries with gilded mouldings installed in the reigns of Louis XV and Louis XVI; the panels were not confined to just the walls of a room but were used to decorate doors, frames and shelves also. It was standard for mirrors to be installed and framed by the carved boiseries above the mantelpiece of a fireplace. Paintings were installed within boiseries, above doorways or set into central panels. Moulding Ornament Panel edge staining Structural insulated panel Vacuum insulated panel "Wainscot". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
A log house, or log building, is a structure built with horizontal logs interlocked at the corners by notching. Logs may be round, squared or hewn to other shapes, either milled; the term "log cabin" refers to a smaller, more rustic log house, such as a hunting cabin in the woods, that may or may not have electricity or plumbing. Log construction was the most common building technique in large regions of Sweden, Norway, the Baltic states and Russia, where straight and tall coniferous trees, such as pine and spruce, are available, it was widely used for vernacular buildings in Eastern Central Europe, the Alps, the Balkans and parts of Asia, where similar climatic conditions prevail. In warmer and more westerly regions of Europe, where deciduous trees predominate, timber framing was favoured instead. Sawn logs, logs sawn to a standard width, but with their original heights Milled, made with a log house moulder: Constructed of logs that have run through a manufacturing process which convert them into timbers which are consistent in size and appearanceHandcrafted log houses have been built for centuries in Scandinavia and Eastern Europe, were built using only an axe and knife.
The Scandinavian settlers of New Sweden brought the craft to North America in the early 17th century, where it was adopted by other colonists and Native Americans. The oldest surviving log house in the United States is the C. A. Nothnagle Log House in New Jersey. Pre-fabricated log houses for export were manufactured in Norway from the 1880s until around 1920 by three large companies: Jacob Digre in Trondheim, M. Thams & Co. in Orkanger, Strømmen Trævarefabrik at Strømmen. They were factory built from sawn or milled logs and dismantled for transportation, reassembled on the buyer's site. Buyers could order standard models from catalogs, custom-made houses designed by architects employed by the companies, or houses of their own design. Log houses from Thams were exhibited at the Exposition Universelle in Paris. During the 1920s the first American milled log houses appeared on the market, using logs which were pre-cut and shaped rather than hand-hewn. Many log houses today are of the milled variety because they require less labor-intensive field work than handcrafted houses.
There are about 500 companies in North America which build the handcrafted, scribe-fit type of log house. The logs in log houses have a varying degree of moisture content. In the case of handcrafted logs moisture will leave the timber, drying it out until it stabilizes with its climate; this drying-out causes movement and shrinking of the log's diameter. As logs and timbers dry, the differential shrinkage causes small cracks to open over time. Checking is a natural process in both air- and kiln-dried logs; this occurs in all log houses regardless of construction method or how the timber is allowed to dry, is considered normal. Milled logs are processed in a different manner from handcrafted logs. Logs destined to become milled logs may become one of several types, depending on the desired quality and results. Logs that are cut from the butt forest, brought to a mill or to a log-house construction yard, have their bark removed and are used to build a log-house shell, or sent through profiling machines are referred to as "green" logs if they have not been air- or kiln-dried.
"Green" does not refer to moisture content. The actual moisture content of "green" logs varies with tree species, the season in which it was cut, whether sapwood or heartwood is being measured. Green logs may have a moisture content ranging from about 20% to 90%. One type of air-dried log is "dead standing," which refers to trees which have died from natural causes and cut down after they died. Standing dead trees may be cut one month or several decades after they died, so the term "dead standing" does not mean the logs have dried down to equilibrium moisture content. Dead standing logs can be more-or-less dry. After construction, green logs dry in service in the log building. Within about four years, green logs which are part of a completed log house reach equilibrium with local conditions and have an equilibrium moisture content of between 6% and 12%; the actual EMC varies with local climate and location. Some log; the timbers may be stacked with spacers between them. This process allows the moisture content of the logs to fall as the timber dries.
In areas of high humidity, it may require as much as one year per inch of log thickness to dry. Arid climates may require less. A log with a diameter of 8 inches will reach equilibrium in about 18 months in the Rocky Mountains of North America. Air circulation is critical or the logs may begin to rot before properly drying in humid regions. If the logs are to be dried to equilibrium with the local climate the process may take several years, depending on the location and size of the timbers. In some environments, the logs must be kept under some type of roof or cover to reduce the impact of rain storms on the drying process. Once the logs have dried for the desired length of time, they are profiled prior to shipping. Profiling does not take place until shortly before shipment, to ensure that the logs stay as uniform as possible, it is uncertain.