Major Walter Reed, M. D. U. S. Army, was a U. S. Army physician who in 1901 led the team that postulated and confirmed the theory that yellow fever is transmitted by a particular mosquito species, rather than by direct contact; this insight gave impetus to the new fields of epidemiology and biomedicine, most allowed the resumption and completion of work on the Panama Canal by the United States. Reed followed work started by Carlos Finlay and directed by George Miller Sternberg, called the "first U. S. bacteriologist". Walter Reed was born in Virginia, to Lemuel Sutton Reed and his first wife, Pharaba White. During his youth, the family resided at Murfreesboro, North Carolina with his mother's family during his father's preaching tours. Two of his elder brothers achieved distinction: J. C. became a minister in Virginia like their father, Christopher a judge in Wichita, Kansas and St. Louis, Their childhood home is included in the Murfreesboro Historic District. After the American Civil War, Rev. Reed remarried, to Mrs. Mary C. Byrd Kyle of Harrisonburg, with whom he would have a daughter.
Young Walter enrolled at the University of Virginia. After two years, Reed completed the M. D. degree in 1869, two months before he turned 18. He was the youngest-ever recipient of an M. D. from the university. Reed enrolled at the New York University's Bellevue Hospital Medical College in Manhattan, New York, where he obtained a second M. D. in 1870, as his brother Christopher attempted to set up a legal practice. After interning at several New York City hospitals, Walter Reed worked for the New York Board of Health until 1875, he took her West with him. Emily would give birth to a son, Walter Lawrence Reed and a daughter, Emily Lawrence Reed, the couple adopted an aboriginal American girl while posted at frontier camps. Finding his youth limited his influence, dissatisfied with urban life, Reed joined the U. S. Army Medical Corps; this allowed him both professional opportunities and modest financial security to establish and support a family. After Reed passed a grueling thirty-hour examination in 1875, the army medical corps enlisted him as an assistant surgeon.
By this time, two of his brothers were working in Kansas, Walter soon was assigned postings in the American West. Over the next sixteen years, the Army assigned the career officer to different outposts, where he was responsible not only for American military and their dependents, but various aboriginal American tribes, at one point looking after several hundred Apaches, including Geronimo. Reed noticed the devastation epidemics could wreak and maintained his concerns about sanitary conditions. During one of his last tours, he completed advanced coursework in pathology and bacteriology in the Johns Hopkins University Hospital Pathology Laboratory. In 1893, Reed joined the faculty of the George Washington University School of Medicine and the newly opened Army Medical School in Washington, D. C. where he held the professorship of Clinical Microscopy. In addition to his teaching responsibilities, he pursued medical research projects and served as the curator of the Army Medical Museum, which became the National Museum of Health and Medicine.
These positions allowed Reed to break free from the fringes of the medical world. In 1896, Reed first distinguished himself as a medical investigator, he proved that yellow fever among enlisted men stationed near the Potomac River was not a result of drinking the river water. He showed officials that the enlisted men who got yellow fever had a habit of taking trails through the local swampy woods at night, their yellow fever-free fellow officers did not do so. Reed proved that the local civilians drinking from the Potomac River had no relation to the incidence of the disease. Reed traveled to Cuba to study diseases in U. S. Army encampments there during the Spanish–American War. Appointed chairman of a panel formed in 1898 to investigate an epidemic of typhoid fever and his colleagues showed that contact with fecal matter and food or drink contaminated by flies caused that epidemic. Yellow fever became a problem for the Army during this time, felling thousands of soldiers in Cuba. In May 1900, Major Reed returned to Cuba when he was appointed head of the Army board charged by Surgeon General George Miller Sternberg to examine tropical diseases, including yellow fever.
Sternberg was one of the founders of bacteriology during this time of great advances in medicine due to widespread acceptance of Louis Pasteur's germ theory of disease, as well as the methods of studying bacteria developed by Robert Koch. During Reed's tenure with the U. S. Army Yellow Fever Commission in Cuba, the board both confirmed the transmission by mosquitoes and disproved the common belief that yellow fever could be transmitted by clothing and bedding soiled by the body fluids and excrement of yellow fever sufferers – articles known as fomites; the board conducted many of its dramatic series of experiments at Camp Lazear, named in November 1900 for Reed's assistant and friend Jesse William Lazear, who had died two months earlier of yellow fever while on this assignment. The risky but fruitful research work was done with human volunteers, including some of the medical personnel, such as Clara Maass, who allowed themselves to be deliberately infected; the research work with the disease under Reed's leadership was responsible for stemming the mortality rates from yellow fever during the building of the Panama Canal, something that had confounded the French attempts in that region only 20 y
Clara Maass Medical Center
Clara Maass Medical Center is a hospital in Belleville, Essex County, New Jersey, United States, part of the Barnabas Health. It was founded in 1868 as the Newark German Hospital, was renamed in 1952 in honor of Clara Maass, a former nurse who trained there at the hospital's Christina Trefz Training School for Nurses, become the hospital's head nurse. Maass' 1901 death during yellow fever experiments attracted national attention. In 1956 a new building was completed in Belleville, sometimes referred to as "The Hospital in the Park" due to its location opposite Branch Brook Park. In 2009, the hospital was staffed by over 550 physicians with 1,600 total employees. Official website
Newark, New Jersey
Newark is the most populous city in the U. S. state of New Jersey and the seat of Essex County. As one of the nation's major air and rail hubs, the city had a population of 285,154 in 2017, making it the nation's 70th-most populous municipality, after being ranked 63rd in the nation in 2000. Settled in 1666 by Puritans from New Haven Colony, Newark is one of the oldest cities in the United States, its location at the mouth of the Passaic River has made the city's waterfront an integral part of the Port of New York and New Jersey. Today, Port Newark–Elizabeth is the primary container shipping terminal of the busiest seaport on the American East Coast. In addition, Newark Liberty International Airport was the first municipal commercial airport in the United States, today is one of its busiest. Several leading companies have their headquarters in Newark, including Prudential, PSEG, Panasonic Corporation of North America, Audible.com, IDT Corporation, Manischewitz. A number of important higher education institutions are in the city, including the Newark campus of Rutgers University.
The U. S. District Court for the District of New Jersey sits in the city as well. Local cultural venues include the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, Newark Symphony Hall, the Prudential Center and the Newark Museum. Newark is divided into five political wards and contains neighborhoods ranging in character from bustling urban districts to quiet suburban enclaves. Newark's Branch Brook Park is the oldest county park in the United States and is home to the nation's largest collection of cherry blossom trees, numbering over 5,000. Newark was settled in 1666 by Connecticut Puritans led by Robert Treat from the New Haven Colony, it was conceived as a theocratic assembly of the faithful, though this did not last for long as new settlers came with different ideas. On October 31, 1693, it was organized as a New Jersey township based on the Newark Tract, first purchased on July 11, 1667. Newark was granted a Royal charter on April 27, 1713, it was incorporated on February 21, 1798 by the New Jersey Legislature's Township Act of 1798, as one of New Jersey's initial group of 104 townships.
During its time as a township, portions were taken to form Springfield Township, Caldwell Township, Orange Township, Bloomfield Township and Clinton Township. Newark was reincorporated as a city on April 11, 1836, replacing Newark Township, based on the results of a referendum passed on March 18, 1836; the independent Vailsburg borough was annexed by Newark on January 1, 1905. In 1926, South Orange Township changed its name to Maplewood; as a result of this, a portion of Maplewood known. The name of the city is thought to derive from Newark-on-Trent, because of the influence of the original pastor, Abraham Pierson, who came from Yorkshire but may have ministered in Newark, Nottinghamshire, but Pierson is supposed to have said that the community reflecting the new task at hand should be named "New Ark" for "New Ark of the Covenant and some of the colonists saw it as "New-Work", the settlers' new work with God. Whatever the origins, the name was shortened to Newark, although references to the name "New Ark" are found in preserved letters written by historical figures such as David Ogden in his claim for compensation, James McHenry, as late as 1787.
During the American Revolutionary War, British troops made several raids into the town. The city saw tremendous industrial and population growth during the 19th century and early 20th century, experienced racial tension and urban decline in the second half of the 20th century, culminating in the 1967 Newark riots; the city has experienced revitalization since the 1990s. In 2018 the city passed legislation to protect residents from displacement brought about by gentrification. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 26.107 square miles, including 24.187 square miles of land and 1.920 square miles of water. It has the third-smallest land area among the 100 most populous cities in the U. S. behind neighboring Jersey City and Hialeah, Florida. The city's altitude ranges from 0 in the east to 230 feet above sea level in the western section of the city. Newark is a large basin sloping towards the Passaic River, with a few valleys formed by meandering streams. Newark's high places have been its wealthier neighborhoods.
In the 19th century and early 20th century, the wealthy congregated on the ridges of Forest Hill, High Street, Weequahic. Until the 20th century, the marshes on Newark Bay were difficult to develop, as the marshes were wilderness, with a few dumps and cemeteries on their edges. During the 20th century, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was able to reclaim 68 acres of the marshland for the further expansion of Newark Airport, as well as the growth of the port lands. Newark is surrounded by residential suburbs to the west, the Passaic River and Newark Bay to the east, dense urban areas to the south and southwest, middle-class residential suburbs and industrial areas to the north; the city is the largest in New Jersey's Gateway Region, said to have received its name from Newark's nickname as the "Gateway City"
Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, is a mosquito that can spread dengue fever, Zika fever and yellow fever viruses, other disease agents. The mosquito can be recognized by white markings on its legs and a marking in the form of a lyre on the upper surface of its thorax; this mosquito originated in Africa, but is now found in tropical and temperate regions throughout the world. Aedes aegypti is a vector for transmitting several tropical fevers. Only the female bites for blood. To find a host, these mosquitoes are attracted to chemical compounds emitted by mammals, including ammonia, carbon dioxide, lactic acid, octenol. Scientists at The United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service have studied the specific chemical structure of octenol to better understand why this chemical attracts the mosquito to its host, they found. The yellow fever mosquito can contribute to the spread of reticular cell sarcoma among Syrian hamsters; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention traveler's page on preventing dengue fever suggests using mosquito repellents that contain DEET.
It suggests: Although Aedes aegypti mosquitoes most feed at dusk and dawn, indoors, in shady areas, or when the weather is cloudy, "they can bite and spread infection all year long and at any time of day." Once a week, scrub off eggs sticking to wet containers, seal and/or discard them. The mosquitoes prefer to breed in areas of stagnant water, such as flower vases, uncovered barrels and discarded tires, but the most dangerous areas are wet shower floors and toilet tanks, as they allow the mosquitos to breed in the residence. Research has shown that certain chemicals emanating from bacteria in water containers stimulate the female mosquitoes to lay their eggs, they are motivated to lay eggs in water containers that have the correct amounts of specific fatty acids associated with bacteria involved in the degradation of leaves and other organic matter in water. The chemicals associated with the microbial stew are far more stimulating to discerning female mosquitoes than plain or filtered water in which the bacteria once lived.
Wear long-sleeved clothing and long trousers when outdoors during the day and evening. Use mosquito netting over the bed if the bedroom is not air conditioned or screened, for additional protection, treat the mosquito netting with the insecticide permethrin. Insect repellants containing DEET or p-menthane-3,8-diol were effective in repelling Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, while others were less effective or ineffective in a scientific study. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention article on "Protection against Mosquitoes, Ticks, & Other Arthropods" notes that "Studies suggest that concentrations of DEET above 50% do not offer a marked increase in protection time against mosquitoes. Mosquito control is the best method for disease prevention; this includes source reduction, pesticide spraying for larval control and "fogging" for adult control, or the use of mosquito traps like the lethal ovitrap. Although the lifespan of an adult Ae. aegypti is two to four weeks depending on conditions, the eggs can be viable for over a year in a dry state, which allows the mosquito to re-emerge after a cold winter or dry spell.
The preference for biting humans is dependent on expression of the odorant receptor AeegOr4. New research is looking into the use of a bacterium called Wolbachia as a method of biocontrol. Studies show that invasion of Ae. aegypti by the endosymbiotic bacteria allows mosquitos to be resistant to the certain arboviruses such as dengue fever and Zika virus strains circulating. The yellow fever mosquito's distribution has increased in the past two to three decades worldwide, it is considered to be among the most widespread mosquito species. Signs of Zika virus-capable mosquito populations have been found adapting for persistence in warm temperate climates; such a population has been identified to exist in parts of Washington, DC, genetic evidence suggests they survived at least the last four winters in the region. One of the study researchers noted, "...some mosquito species are finding ways to survive in restrictive environments by taking advantage of underground refugia". As the world's climate becomes predictably warmer, the range of Aedes aegypti and a hardier species originating in Asia, the tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, which can expand its range to cooler climates, will inexorably spread north and south.
Sadie Ryan of the University of Florida was the lead author in a 2019 study published in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases that estimated the vulnerability of naïve populations in geographic regions that do not harbor vectors i.e. for Zika in the Old World. Ryan's co-author, Georgetown University's Colin Carlson remarked,"Plain and simple, climate change is going to kill a lot of people."New research has attempted to estimate the basic reproduction number, or R0 value, for Zika virus in several locations. Research looking at the Yap Island epidemic estimated an R0 of 4.3–5.8. R0 value estimates for the Colombia epidemic ranged from 3.0–6.6. Values for both locations were seen to be similar to those found for Chikungunya virus. Determining these values could help determine transmissibility, as well as how large an area would need to be vaccinated if/when a vaccine is developed, to acquire herd immunity. Ae. aegypti has been genetically modified to suppress its own species in an approach simil
The Boston Globe
The Boston Globe is an American daily newspaper founded and based in Boston, since its creation by Charles H. Taylor in 1872; the newspaper has won a total of 26 Pulitzer Prizes as of 2016, with a total paid circulation of 245,824 from September 2015 to August 2016, it is the 25th most read newspaper in the United States. The Boston Globe is the largest daily newspaper in Boston. Founded in the late 19th century, the paper was controlled by Irish Catholic interests before being sold to Charles H. Taylor and his family. After being held until 1973, it was sold to The New York Times in 1993 for $1.1 billion, making it one of the most expensive print purchases in U. S. history. The newspaper was purchased in 2013 by Boston Red Sox and Liverpool F. C. owner John W. Henry for $70 million from The New York Times Company, having lost 93.64% of its value in twenty years. The newspaper has been noted as "one of the nation’s most prestigious papers." The paper's coverage of the 2001–2003 Roman Catholic Church sex abuse scandal received international media attention and served as the basis of the 2015 American drama, Spotlight.
In 1967, The Globe became the first major paper in the United States to come out against the Vietnam War. The chief print rival of The Boston Globe is the Boston Herald; as of 2013, The Globe circulates the entire press run of its rival. The editor-in-chief, otherwise known as the editor, of the paper is Brian McGrory who took the helm in December 2012; the Boston Globe was founded in 1872 by six Boston businessmen, including Charles H. Taylor and Eben Jordan, who jointly invested $150,000; the first issue was published on March 4, 1872, cost four cents. A morning daily, it began a Sunday edition in 1877, which absorbed the rival Boston Weekly Globe in 1892. In 1878, The Boston Globe started an afternoon edition called The Boston Evening Globe, which ceased publication in 1979. By the 1890s, The Boston Globe had become a stronghold, with an editorial staff dominated by Irish American Catholics. In 1912, the Globe was one of a cooperative of four newspapers, including the Chicago Daily News, The New York Globe, the Philadelphia Bulletin, to form the Associated Newspapers syndicate.
In 1965, Thomas Winship succeeded Larry Winship, as editor. The younger Winship transformed The Globe from a mediocre local paper into a regional paper of national distinction, he served as editor until 1984, during which time the paper won a dozen Pulitzer Prizes, the first in the paper's history. The Boston Globe was a private company until 1973 when it went public under the name Affiliated Publications, it continued to be managed by the descendants of Charles H. Taylor. In 1993, The New York Times Company purchased Affiliated Publications for US$1.1 billion, making The Boston Globe a wholly owned subsidiary of The New York Times' parent. The Jordan and Taylor families received substantial New York Times Company stock, but the last Taylor family members have since left management. Boston.com, the online edition of The Boston Globe, was launched on the World Wide Web in 1995. Ranked among the top ten newspaper websites in America, it has won numerous national awards and took two regional Emmy Awards in 2009 for its video work.
Under the helm of editor Martin Baron and Brian McGrory, The Globe shifted away from coverage of international news in favor of Boston-area news. Globe reporters Michael Rezendes, Matt Carroll, Sacha Pfeiffer and Walter Robinson and editor Ben Bradlee Jr. were an instrumental part of uncovering the Roman Catholic Church sex abuse scandal in 2001–2003 in relation to Massachusetts churches. They were awarded the Pulitzer Prize for their work, one of several the paper has received for its investigative journalism, their work was dramatized in the 2015 Academy Award-winning film Spotlight, named after the paper's in-depth investigative division; the Boston Globe is credited with allowing Peter Gammons to start his Notes section on baseball, which has become a mainstay in all major newspapers nationwide. In 2004, Gammons was selected as the 56th recipient of the J. G. Taylor Spink Award for outstanding baseball writing, given by the BBWAA, was honored at the Baseball Hall of Fame on July 31, 2005.
In 2007, Charlie Savage, whose reports on President Bush's use of signing statements made national news, won the Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting. The Boston Globe has been ranked in the forefront of American journalism. Time magazine listed it as one of the ten best US daily newspapers in 1974 and 1984, the Globe tied for sixth in a national survey of top editors who chose "America's Best Newspapers" in the Columbia Journalism Review in 1999; the Boston Globe hosts 28 blogs covering a variety of topics including Boston sports, local politics and a blog made up of posts from the paper's opinion writers. On April 2, 2009, The New York Times Company threatened to close the paper if its unions did not agree to $20,000,000 of cost savings; some of the cost savings include reducing union employees' pay by 5%, ending pension contributions, ending certain employees' tenures. The Boston Globe eliminated the equivalent of fifty full-time jobs. However, early on the morning of May 5, 2009, The New York Times Company announced it had reached a tentative deal with the Boston Newspaper Guild, which represents most of the Globe's editorial staff, that allowed it to get the concessions it demanded.
The paper's other three major unions had agreed to concessions on May 3, 2009, after The New York Times Company threatened to give
William C. Gorgas
William Crawford Gorgas KCMG was a United States Army physician and 22nd Surgeon General of the U. S. Army, he is best known for his work in Florida, Havana and at the Panama Canal in abating the transmission of yellow fever and malaria by controlling the mosquitoes that carry these diseases. At the time, his strategy was greeted with considerable skepticism and opposition to such hygiene measures. However, the measures he put into practice as the head of the Panama Canal Zone Sanitation Commission saved thousands of lives and contributed to the success of the Canal's construction, he was a Georgist and argued that adopting Henry George's popular'Single Tax' would be a way to bring about sanitary living conditions for the poor. Born in Toulminville, Gorgas was the first of six children of Josiah Gorgas and Amelia Gayle Gorgas. After studying at The University of the South and Bellevue Hospital Medical College, Dr. Gorgas was appointed to the US Army Medical Corps in June 1880, he was assigned to three posts—Fort Clark, Fort Duncan, Fort Brown—in Texas.
While at Fort Brown, Gorgas survived an episode of yellow fever. He met Marie Cook Doughty, whom he married in 1885. In 1898, after the end of the Spanish–American War, Gorgas was appointed Chief Sanitary Officer in Havana, where he worked to eradicate yellow fever and malaria. Gorgas capitalized on the momentous work of another Army doctor, Major Walter Reed, who had built much of his work on the insights of Cuban doctor, Carlos Finlay, to prove the mosquito transmission of yellow fever, he won international fame battling the illness, the scourge of tropical and sub-tropical climates. He worked in Florida in Havana, Cuba and in 1904, at the site of the construction of the Panama Canal; as chief sanitary officer on the canal project, Gorgas implemented far-reaching sanitary programs, including the draining of ponds and swamps, use of mosquito netting, construction of public water systems. These measures were instrumental in permitting the construction of the Panama Canal, as they prevented illness due to yellow fever and malaria among the thousands of workers involved in the building project.
Gorgas served as president of the American Medical Association in 1909–10. He was appointed as Surgeon General of the Army in 1914; that same year and George Washington Goethals were awarded the inaugural Public Welfare Medal from the National Academy of Sciences. Gorgas retired from the Army in 1918, having reached the mandatory retirement age of 64, he was married to Marie Cook Doughty of Cincinnati. He received an honorary knighthood from King George V at the Queen Alexandra Military Hospital in the United Kingdom shortly before his death there on July 3, 1920, he was given a special funeral in St. Paul's Cathedral. Gorgas' name features on the Frieze of the London School of Tropical Medicine. Twenty-three names of public health and tropical medicine pioneers were chosen to feature on the School building in Keppel Street when it was constructed in 1926. Distinguished Service Medal Spanish Campaign Medal Army of Cuban Occupation Medal Victory Medal Public Welfare Medal – National Academy of Sciences Honorary Knight Commander of Michael and George The Gorgas Memorial Institute of Tropical and Preventive Medicine, which operated the Gorgas Laboratories in Panama, was founded in 1921 and was named after Dr. Gorgas.
With the loss of congressional funding in 1990, the GMITP was closed. The Institute was moved to the University of Alabama in 1992 and carries on the tradition of research and training in tropical medicine; the Gorgas Course in Clinical Tropical Medicine is sponsored by the University of Alabama School of Medicine in conjunction with Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru. Gorgas Hospital was a U. S. Army hospital in Panama known as Ancon Hospital and named for Dr. Gorgas in 1928. Now held and operated by Panama, it is home to the Instituto Oncologico Nacional, Panama's Ministry of Health and its Supreme Court. In 1947 the Gorgas Science Foundation was founded at Texas Southmost College; the foundation supports ecological science research projects worldwide. The Gorgas Medal is awarded by the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States In 1953 William C. Gorgas was inducted into the Alabama Hall of Fame. Amelia Gayle Gorgas Library and Gorgas' parents' final home, the Gorgas House, located on the campus of The University of Alabama, are named in honor of the Gorgas family.
Texas Southmost College has a Gorgas Hall named in his honor. The college's campus is located on the grounds of the former Fort Brown; the Alabama Power Company renamed its Warrior Reserve Steam Plant on the Black Warrior River near Parrish in honor of Gorgas in the 1920s. Gorgas had testified on behalf of the utility during the previous decade in lawsuits over mosquito-borne illnesses in the vicinity of its Lay Dam hydroelectric reservoir; the coal-fired steam plant was closed in April 2019. The German commercial passenger ship-cargo ship SS Prinz Sigismund, after being seized by the United States after it entered World War I on the side of the Allies, had a long American career under the name General W. C. Gorgas, it was owned by the Panama Railroad Company and used for commercial service as SS General W. C. Gorgas from 1917 to 1919 and from 1919 to 1941, it was used as the U. S. Navy troop transport USS General W. C. Gorgas in 1919 after World War I, as the U. S. Army Transport USAT General W. C.
Gorgas from 1941 to 1945 during World War II. Gorgas's Rice R
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S