The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that has six strings. It is played with both hands by strumming or plucking the strings with either a guitar pick or the finger/fingernails of one hand, while fretting with the fingers of the other hand; the sound of the vibrating strings is projected either acoustically, by means of the hollow chamber of the guitar, or through an electrical amplifier and a speaker. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning; the modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument. There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, the archtop guitar, sometimes called a "jazz guitar"; the tone of an acoustic guitar is produced by the strings' vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber.
The classical guitar is played as a solo instrument using a comprehensive finger-picking technique where each string is plucked individually by the player's fingers, as opposed to being strummed. The term "finger-picking" can refer to a specific tradition of folk, blues and country guitar playing in the United States; the acoustic bass guitar is a low-pitched instrument, one octave below a regular guitar. Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, use an amplifier and a loudspeaker that both makes the sound of the instrument loud enough for the performers and audience to hear, given that it produces an electric signal when played, that can electronically manipulate and shape the tone using an equalizer and a huge variety of electronic effects units, the most used ones being distortion and reverb. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but solid wood guitars began to dominate during the 1960s and 1970s, as they are less prone to unwanted acoustic feedback "howls"; as with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of electric guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars, which are used in rock music.
The loud, amplified sound and sonic power of the electric guitar played through a guitar amp has played a key role in the development of blues and rock music, both as an accompaniment instrument and performing guitar solos, in many rock subgenres, notably heavy metal music and punk rock. The electric guitar has had a major influence on popular culture; the guitar is used in a wide variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as a primary instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, rock and many forms of pop. Before the development of the electric guitar and the use of synthetic materials, a guitar was defined as being an instrument having "a long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, a flat back, most with incurved sides." The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and in the Americas. A 3,300-year-old stone carving of a Hittite bard playing a stringed instrument is the oldest iconographic representation of a chordophone and clay plaques from Babylonia show people playing an instrument that has a strong resemblance to the guitar, indicating a possible Babylonian origin for the guitar.
The modern word guitar, its antecedents, has been applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times and as such causes confusion. The English word guitar, the German Gitarre, the French guitare were all adopted from the Spanish guitarra, which comes from the Andalusian Arabic قيثارة and the Latin cithara, which in turn came from the Ancient Greek κιθάρα. Which comes from the Persian word "sihtar"; this pattern of naming is visible in setar and sitar. The word "tar" at the end of all of these words is a Persian word that means "string". Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar. Although the development of the earliest "guitars" is lost in the history of medieval Spain, two instruments are cited as their most influential predecessors, the European lute and its cousin, the four-string oud. At least two instruments called "guitars" were in use in Spain by 1200: the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca; the guitarra morisca had a rounded back, wide fingerboard, several sound holes.
The guitarra Latina had a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers "moresca" or "morisca" and "latina" had been dropped, these two cordophones were referred to as guitars; the Spanish vihuela, called in Italian the "viola da mano", a guitar-like instrument of the 15th and 16th centuries, is considered to have been the single most important influence in the development of the baroque guitar. It had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a cut waist, it was larger than the contemporary four-course guitars. By the 16th century, the vihuela's construction had more in common with the modern guitar, with its curved one-piece ribs, than with the viols, more like a larger version of the contemporary four-course guita
Clare Bowditch is an Australian musician, radio presenter and business entrepreneur. Bowditch won an ARIA Award in 2006 and was nominated for a Logie Award for her work on the TV series Offspring in 2012, she has had Top Ten albums, been named Rolling Stone's Woman of the Year, YEN Young Woman of the Year, toured with Gotye and Leonard Cohen, written for Harpers Bazaar, Rolling Stone and the Drum She hosts an Australian Music Show on Qantas airlines in-flight audio channel. Bowditch has released seven albums in total and has been recording her eighth album, with a release date yet to be determined, her last, The Winter I Chose Happiness, was released on 14 September 2012. In May 2012, Bowditch released the single, "You Make Me Happy", her first Top 40 song, featured in the TV series Offspring. Bowditch is an ambassador for the Australasian Performing Right Association, PPCA and Smiling Mind, she is a member of the Victorian State Government's Live Music Round Table Panel. She was the secretary of the Music Victoria Board until 2012.
In May 2015, Bowditch joined forces with Joost Bakker to put on one of the largest food-waste-free business conferences in the world, in Melbourne, Australia. Bowditch graduated from Melbourne University's School of Creative Arts with a Bachelor of Creative Arts, a now-defunct degree. Bowditch began writing songs at the age of three, continued writing them in private until 1998, when she met John Hedigan and, on the same night, formed a band, they called themselves "Red Raku" and recorded two albums along with producer/drummer Marty Brown, now her husband and music manager. Bowditch and Brown had their first daughter, Asha, in 2002 around the same time Bowditch received her first recording grant from Arts Victoria's Music for the Future program. Autumn Bone was recorded in the front room of their house in Melbourne, with Libby Chow and Warren Bloomer, they are the parents of identical twin boys, born in 2007. Having performed on the Melbourne pub circuit since she was seventeen years old, first with Quarter Acre Dream and with Red Raku, Bowditch first came to prominence in 2005 with the release of her second album What Was Left, which received positive critical reviews, high rotation airplay on national radio stations such as Triple J, local independent radio stations throughout Australia.
Bowditch and her husband Marty toured extensively in Australia and Europe with Marty's band Art of Fighting. Much of this touring Bowditch has been accompanied by her band the Feeding Set. In 2005, Bowditch was invited by Deborah Conway to take part in the Broad Festival project, with three other Australian female artists, they performed their own and each other's songs. With Bowditch and Conway were Sara Storer, Katie Noonan and Ruby Hunter. In October and The Feeding Set licensed their second album, What Was Left to EMI; the album was publicly and critically recognised, with two songs being included in Triple J's Hottest 100. Bowditch and the Feeding Set released their third album, The Moon Looked On, on 13 October 2007. In 2009, Bowditch and her family temporarily relocated to Berlin, where she wrote the album Modern Day Addiction; the album was recorded with producer Mocky at the legendary Hansa studios in Berlin, completed in Australia with Clare's newly expanded eight-piece band the New Slang.
This album marked a change in direction for Bowditch, having been written on a Casio keyboard and piano. In October 2009, she released The Start of War, from Modern Day Addiction; the song features Bowditch's partner, Marty Brown, Mick Harvey of Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds. The album became both 3RRR's Album of ABC Radio National's Album of the Week. Modern Day Addiction is the first Bowditch album to enter the Australian Top Ten chart; the fifth album from Bowditch, The Winter I Chose Happiness, was released on 14 September 2012, with the lead single, You Make Me Happy. A music video for the song One Little River was published in early May 2013 and was directed by French independent directors Hélène Authevelle and Christophe Thiebaut. In 2008 Bowditch temporarily moved to Berlin, Germany for three months to pursue opportunities to release her albums in Europe; this move was precipitated by a sold out twenty-five date solo tour through major and regional venues in Australia, during which time she was supported by Australian band Hot Little Hands.
Bowditch supported Leonard Cohen on his 2010 Australian tour after being handpicked by the Canadian singer-songwriter. Bowditch was joined by fellow Australian musician Deborah Conway, the support act for the second show of the Melbourne stop of the tour. Bowditch revealed in a 2012 interview that she received a marriage proposal from Cohen during the tour, which involved a shared journey in Cohen's private tour jet—Bowditch turned down the proposal and explained, "I got to spend all that time with him. Most of the time I just sat there being amazed at the theatre of it all, he was charming."The Winter Secrets Tour is an annual live event that Bowditch initiated in 2009. The tour is notable as Bowditch invites the audience to become involved as performers and artists from all Australian states are invited to record a cover version of one of her songs to compete for an A$1,000 cash prize—in 2013 the song One Little River was the nominated song for the Winter Secrets competition; the event has sold out every year since its inception.
On 1 July 2011, Bowditch released the EP, Are You Ready Yet, which includes the single, Now You're Home (feat
Leslie Feist, known professionally as Feist, is a Canadian indie pop singer-songwriter and guitarist, performing both as a solo artist and as a member of the indie rock group Broken Social Scene. Feist launched her solo music career in 1999 with the release of Monarch, her subsequent studio albums, Let It Die, released in 2004, The Reminder, released in 2007, were critically acclaimed and commercially successful, selling over 2.5 million copies. The Reminder earned Feist four Grammy nominations, including a nomination for Best New Artist, she has received 11 Juno Awards, including two Artist of the Year. Her fourth studio album, was released in 2011. In 2012, Feist collaborated on a split EP with metal group Mastodon, releasing an interactive music video in the process. Feist received three Juno awards at the 2012 ceremony: Artist of the Year, Adult Alternative Album of the Year for Metals, Music DVD of the Year for her documentary Look at What the Light Did Now. Leslie Feist was born on 13 February 1976 in Nova Scotia, Canada.
Her parents are both artists. Her father, Harold Feist, is an American-Canadian abstract expressionist painter who taught at both the Alberta College of Art and Design and Mount Allison University in Sackville, New Brunswick, her mother, Lyn Feist, was a student of ceramics from Saskatchewan. After their first child, was born, the family moved to Sackville. Feist's parents divorced soon after she was born and Ben and their mother moved to Regina, where they lived with her grandparents, they moved to Calgary, where she attended Bishop Carroll High School as well as Alternative High School. She aspired to be a writer, spent much of her youth singing in choirs. At the age of twelve, Feist performed as one of 1,000 dancers in the opening ceremonies of the Calgary Winter Olympics, which she cites as inspiration for the video "1234." Because her father is American, Feist has dual Canadian-U. S. Citizenship, joking that she was given U. S. citizenship as part of a deal with Apple. In 1991, at age 15, Feist got her start in music when she founded and was the lead vocalist for a Calgary punk band called Placebo.
She and her bandmates won a local Battle of the Bands competition and were awarded the opening slot at the festival Infest 1993, featuring the Ramones. At this concert she met Brendan Canning, whose band hHead performed before hers, with whom she joined in Broken Social Scene ten years later. In 1995, Feist was forced to take time off from music to recover from vocal cord damage, she moved from Calgary to Toronto in 1996. That year she was asked by Noah Mintz of hHead to play bass in his solo project Noah's Arkweld, she played the bass guitar in Noah's Arkweld for a year despite never having played bass before. In 1998, she became the rhythm guitarist for the band By Divine Right and toured with them throughout 1998, 1999, 2000, she played guitar for some live performances by Bodega, but was never an official member of the band. In 1999, Feist moved into a Queen West apartment above Come As You Are with a friend of a friend, Merrill Nisker, who began to perform as electro-punk musician Peaches.
Feist worked the back of the stage at Peaches' shows, using a sock puppet and calling herself "Bitch Lap Lap". The two toured together in England from 2000–2001, staying with Justine Frischmann of Elastica and MIA Feist appeared as a guest vocalist on The Teaches of Peaches. Feist appears in Peaches' video for the song "Lovertits", suggestively licking a bike. Feist covered this song with Gonzales on her album Open Season. In 2006, Feist contributed backup vocals on a track entitled "Give'Er", which appeared on Peaches' album Impeach My Bush. Feist's solo debut album, was released in 1999, it is composed of ten songs, including "Monarch" and "That's What I Say, It's Not What I Mean." The album was produced by Dan Kurtz, who would form Dragonette. In the summer of 2001, Feist self-produced seven songs at home which she called The Red Demos, which have never been released commercially, she spent more than two years touring throughout Europe with Gonzales. In that same year she joined a group of old friends in forming a new version of Toronto indie rock group Broken Social Scene, adding vocals to many tracks after being forbidden to play guitar by de facto bandleader Kevin Drew.
She subsequently recorded You Forgot It in People with the band. While on tour in Europe with Gonzales, they began recording new versions of her home recorded Red Demos, which would become her major label debut Let It Die. Let It Die featured both original compositions and covers, Feist has been noted both as a songwriter and as an innovative interpreter of other artists' songs. After the recording of Let It Die, Feist moved to Paris. While in Europe, she collaborated with Norwegian duo Kings of Convenience as co-writer and guest vocalist on their album Riot on an Empty Street, singing on "Know How," and "The Build Up." She co-wrote and sang "The Simple Story" as a duet with Jane Birkin on her album Rendezvous. Feist toured during 2004, 2005 and 2006 through North America, Europe and Australia supporting Let It Die, she won two Canadian Juno Awards for "Best New Artist" and "Best Alternative Rock Album" in 2004. Sales of Let It Die totaled 500,000 internationally, she was awarded a platinum record in Canada, as well as a gold album in France.
Fellow Canadian Buck 65 appeared in the Feist-directed music video for "One Evening,", nominated for Video of the Year at the 2004 Juno Awards. In 2005, Feist contributed to the UNICEF benefit song "Do They Know It's Hallowe'en?" The track "Mushaboom" was used in an adv
Wouter "Wally" De Backer, known professionally as Gotye, is a Belgian-born Australian multi-instrumentalist and singer-songwriter. The name "Gotye" is a pronunciation respelling of "Gauthier", the French cognate of Gotye's given Dutch name "Wouter". Gotye has released three studio albums independently and one album featuring remixes of tracks from his first two albums, he is a founding member of the Melbourne indie-pop trio The Basics, who have independently released four studio albums and numerous other titles since 2002. His voice has been compared to those of Peter Sting. Gotye's 2011 single "Somebody That I Used to Know" reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100, making him the fifth Australian-based artist to do so and the second born in Belgium, he received a nomination for an MTV EMA for Best Asia and Pacific Act. On 10 February 2013, he won three Grammy Awards at the 55th Annual Grammy Awards Show: Record of the Year and Best Pop Duo/Group Performance for "Somebody That I Used to Know" and Best Alternative Music Album for Making Mirrors.
Gotye has said he sometimes feels "less of a musician, more of a tinkerer." Born in 1980, in Bruges, Belgium, De Backer emigrated to Australia with his family two years later. They first resided in Sydney before settling in a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, his parents chose to use the English equivalent of his name, when enrolling him in school. As a youth, De Backer displayed a passion for music, learning various instruments, most notably piano and drums. In his teens, De Backer formed the band Downstares with three of his high school friends, including Lucas Taranto. After high school, the members of Downstares went their separate ways, leaving De Backer with no musical outlet. In 2001, his parents moved into a new home, leaving their old family house in Montmorency, so he could continue his studies at the University of Melbourne where he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts. Two friends moved in with him and the house became affectionately known as The Frat House, where friends would drop by and hang out.
The first seeds of Gotye were planted. An elderly neighbour, having heard Downstares rehearsing over the years, gave his then-recently deceased wife's LP record collection to De Backer. In 2001, De Backer recorded his first tracks using samples, he put together a four-track CD which included the song "Out Here in the Cold". He made 50 copies of this first collection, handwriting the track list and colouring in the cover sleeve in pencil, he drew on his cultural history for inspiration. He named the project Gotye, he sent the CDs out to every radio station and recording industry contact he could find in the phonebook followed each up with phone calls to ensure they were delivered. Feedback on the first release was positive with Melbourne street press and Australian alternative, youth orientated radio station Triple J taking notice, giving him confidence to continue with further sample-based recordings. Around this time, Gotye met fellow singer-songwriter Kris Schroeder at a party in Mt Eliza, the two began performing together under the name The Basics.
They formed an enduring songwriting and performing partnership and became regulars on the live music scene, giving De Backer an outlet for his passion for live performance. The Basics have continued to tour and record alongside Gotye, releasing four albums between 2004 and 2010. De Backer went on to produce two more four-track Gotye collections which were met with positive reviews, with several tracks getting onto the rotation at youth radio station Triple J; the CDs were made in the same style as the first, with De Backer hand crafting each one and tenaciously chasing up every opportunity to get an audience for his work. Interest in the Gotye project was growing, De Backer was offered a distribution deal by the label company Creative Vibes for an album, which would be a collection of the tracks from his three earlier releases; the album art is a painting of De Backer's father, salvaged from his home garden where it was discarded. His album was released as Boardface in late 2003. In 2004, De Backer's parents opted to sell The Frat House and De Backer moved into a shared house in the South East of Melbourne.
He took up work at a local library, while continuing to perform with The Basics and record his own Gotye tracks. Over the next few years, De Backer moved several times, each time shifting his home recording studio to a new location with new acoustic qualities; the culmination of this was the second Gotye album, Like Drawing Blood—named in reference to the difficulties De Backer experienced in recording his music in ever-changing environments. The album marked the beginning of his working relationship with long term manager Danny Rogers – manager of Australian indie band The Temper Trap – whom he had first approached via email. Like Drawing Blood was featured by Triple J in May 2006 and was voted No. 1 in the listener poll of the Best Album of 2006. The album was nominated for a J Award that year. Two tracks from that album, "Learnalilgivinanlovin" and "Hearts a Mess", were ranked No. 94 and No. 8 in Triple J's Hottest 100 for 2006. Like Drawing Blood has been certified Platinum in Australia for sales of over 70,000 copies.
His first single, "Learnalilgivinanlovin", was released in August 2006. In September 200
Deborah Ann Conway, is an Australian rock singer-songwriter and guitarist, had a career as a model and actress. She was a founding member of the 1980s rock band Do-Ré-Mi with their top 5 hit "Man Overboard". Conway performs solo and has a top 20 hit single with "It's Only the Beginning"; the associated album, String of Pearls peaked in the top 20. She won the 1992 Australian Recording Industry Association Music Award for'Best Female Artist', her next album, Bitch Epic, reached the top 20 in November 1993. Conway organised and performed on the Broad Festivals from 2005 to 2008 – show-casing contemporary Australian female artists. Deborah Ann Conway was born on 8 August 1959 and grew up in Melbourne, Australia, her father was a lawyer in Toorak and Conway attended Lauriston Girls' School – photos of her as a schoolgirl were displayed at the Sydney Jewish Museum. She went to University of Melbourne – modelling and singing her way through. A billboard campaign for Bluegrass jeans featured Conway's nude backside and the phrase "Get yours into Bluegrass".
Other ads with Conway as a model include, Big Crunchie. At the age of 18, Conway started playing guitar, in 1980 she joined The Benders as a vocalist whilst still at university, her father was so concerned. Other members of The Benders included, Neville Aresca, Les Barker, Dorland Bray, John Campbell, Daniel Solowiej and Greg Thomas, they performed in Melbourne pubs playing original material – written by Conway and Thomas – and Blondie and Devo covers. Conway wrote songs with Bray. In 1981, Deborah Conway and Bray relocated to Sydney and formed pop rockers Do-Ré-Mi with Helen Carter on bass guitar and Stephen Philip on guitar, they recorded two albums, Domestic Harmony and The Happiest Place in Town, eight singles. Their best performed hit, "Man Overboard", peaked at No. 5 on the Australia Kent Music Report Singles Chart and became the 8th highest positioned Australian song on the 1985 End of Year Chart. In the early 1980s, Conway was the domestic partner of Paul Hester – drummer for Deckchairs Overboard and Split Enz – before he left for Los Angeles in 1985 and formed Crowded House there.
In late 1983, Conway supplied vocals for actor Tracy Mann's singing in the Australian Broadcasting Corporation TV series Sweet and Sour including the hit title song, "Sweet and Sour". Two soundtrack albums and three singles from the series were credited to The Takeaways. Conway sang lead vocals on half the songs and backing vocals on all the rest. In 1986 Conway performed with The Rock Party, a charity project initiated by The National Campaign Against Drug Abuse, which included many Australasian musicians: Neil Finn, Eddie Rayner, Tim Finn, Nick Seymour and Hester; the Rock Party released a 12" single "Everything to Live For", produced by Joe Wissert, Phil Rigger and Phil Beazley. Do-Ré-Mi disbanded in 1988 not long after their second album was released. Rolling Stone named Conway'Best Australian Female Singer' for that year. In 1990, Conway formed Drawcards as a semi-acoustic band with Vika and Linda, Stephen Cummings, Dror Erez, Tim Finn, Ross Hannaford, Peter Jones, Shane O'Mara and Chris Wilson.
It split with half its members – Conway, Erez and Wilson – forming Rose Amongst Thorns as a pub rock band from 1990 to 1991. Deborah Conway played the lead role of "Julie" in an Australian teenage road movie called Running on Empty, released in 1982. Conway had minor roles in Mallacoota Stampede, Hard Knocks and The Coca-Cola Kid, appeared as herself in Diana & Me. While Do-Ré-Mi were working in England in 1988, Conway became involved in Pete Townshend's project The Iron Man: The Musical by Pete Townshend. Shortly afterwards she recorded an album of dance music in Los Angeles, not released except for a solo single, a cover of Bad Company’s "Feel Like Makin' Love", produced by Scott Cutler. In 1991, Conway played Juno in Peter Greenaway's Prospero's Books, singing a setting of William Shakespeare's masque from The Tempest to music by Michael Nyman. In 1996, a portrait of Conway as Medusa, painted by Rosemary Valadon, was a finalist in the Archibald Prize; the prize is awarded for the "best portrait painting preferentially of some man or woman distinguished in Art, Science or Politics".
Conway performed Dreaming Transportation: Voice Portraits of the First Women of White Settlement at Port Jackson, scripted and directed by Andrée Greenwell. The performance premiered at the Sydney Festival in 2003 and a year was staged again, at the Sydney Opera House. Performing with Conway were Susan Prior, Christine Douglas, Amie McKenna and Jeannie Van de Velde and musicians, Hope Csuturos, James Nightingale, Jane Williams, Kim Poole, Denise Papaluca, Mardi Chillingworth and Jared Underwood; the work was inspired by a series of poems by Jordie Albiston. Deborah Conway's solo output has included touring following an album's release with some of her session musicians. In October 1991, Conway released her first solo album
What Was Left
What Was Left is the second studio album by Clare Bowditch and the Feeding Set. It was released in October 2005 through Capitol, received a nomination for the 2005 J Award, as well as being placed in the top five Australian albums of the year by Rolling Stone. Two tracks, "Divorcee By 23" and "On This Side", received national airplay. What Was Left peaked at No. 35 on the ARIA Albums Chart. "Starry Picking Night" "Lips Like Orange" "I Thought You Were God" "Winding Up" "Divorcee by 23" "Which Way to Go" "The Thing About Grief" "Strange Questions" "When I Was Five" "Little Self Centred Queen" "Just Might Do" "On This Side" "Yes I Miss You Like the Rain" Clare Bowditch – vocals Marty Brown – drums J Walker – guitar Libby Chow – French horn, vocals Warren Bloomer – bass guitar Australian music online - album review Triple J - album review FasterLouder.com - album review
The Age is a daily newspaper, published in Melbourne, since 1854. Owned and published by Nine, The Age serves Victoria but is available for purchase in Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and border regions of South Australia and southern New South Wales, it is delivered in both hardcopy and online formats. The newspaper shares many articles with other Fairfax Media metropolitan daily newspapers, such as The Sydney Morning Herald; as at February 2017, The Age had an average weekday circulation of 88,000, increasing to 152,000 on Saturdays. The Sunday Age had a circulation of 123,000; these represented year-on-year declines of somewhere from 8% to 9%. The Age's website, according to third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb, is the 44th and 58th most visited website in Australia as of July 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the seventh most visited news website in Australia, attracting more than 7 million visitors per month; the Age was founded by three Melbourne businessmen, the brothers John and Henry Cooke, who had arrived from New Zealand in the 1840s, Walter Powell.
The first edition appeared on 17 October 1854. The venture was not a success, in June 1856 the Cookes sold the paper to Ebenezer Syme, a Scottish-born businessman, James McEwan, an ironmonger and founder of McEwans & Co, for 2,000 pounds at auction; the first edition under the new owners was on 17 June 1856. From its foundation the paper was self-consciously liberal in its politics: "aiming at a wide extension of the rights of free citizenship and a full development of representative institutions," and supporting "the removal of all restrictions upon freedom of commerce, freedom of religion and—to the utmost extent, compatible with public morality—upon freedom of personal action."Ebenezer Syme was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly shortly after buying The Age, his brother David Syme soon came to dominate the paper and managerially. When Ebenezer died in 1860, David became editor-in-chief, a position he retained until his death in 1908, although a succession of editors did the day-to-day editorial work.
In 1891, Syme bought out Ebenezer's heirs and McEwan's and became sole proprietor. He built up The Age into Victoria's leading newspaper. In circulation, it soon overtook its rivals The Herald and The Argus, by 1890 it was selling 100,000 copies a day, making it one of the world's most successful newspapers. Under Syme's control The Age exercised enormous political power in Victoria, it supported liberal politicians such as Graham Berry, George Higinbotham and George Turner, other leading liberals such as Alfred Deakin and Charles Pearson furthered their careers as The Age journalists. Syme was a free trader, but converted to protectionism through his belief that Victoria needed to develop its manufacturing industries behind tariff barriers. In the 1890s, The Age was a leading supporter of Australian federation and of the White Australia policy. After Syme's death the paper remained in the hands of his three sons, with his eldest son Herbert Syme becoming general manager until his death in 1939.
Syme's will prevented the sale of any equity in the paper during his sons' lifetimes, an arrangement designed to protect family control but which had the effect of starving the paper of investment capital for 40 years. Under the management of Sir Geoffrey Syme, his chosen editors Gottlieb Schuler and Harold Campbell, The Age failed to modernise, lost market share to The Argus and to the tabloid The Sun News-Pictorial, although its classified advertisement sections kept the paper profitable. By the 1940s, the paper's circulation was smaller than it had been in 1900, its political influence declined. Although it remained more liberal than the conservative Argus, it lost much of its distinct political identity; the historian Sybil Nolan writes: "Accounts of The Age in these years suggest that the paper was second-rate, outdated in both its outlook and appearance. Walker described a newspaper which had fallen asleep in the embrace of the Liberal Party, it is criticised not only for its increasing conservatism, but for its failure to keep pace with innovations in layout and editorial technique so demonstrated in papers like The Sun News-Pictorial and The Herald."
In 1942, David Syme's last surviving son, Oswald Syme, took over the paper. He modernised the paper's appearance and standards of news coverage. In 1948, convinced the paper needed outside capital, he persuaded the courts to overturn his father's will and floated David Syme and Co. as a public company, selling 400,000 pounds worth of shares, enabling a badly needed technical modernisation of the newspaper's production. A takeover attempt by the Warwick Fairfax family, publishers of The Sydney Morning Herald, was beaten off; this new lease on life allowed The Age to recover commercially, in 1957 it received a great boost when The Argus ceased publication. Oswald Syme retired in 1964, his grandson Ranald Macdonald became chairman of the company, he was the first chairman to hand over full control of the paper to a professional editor from outside the Syme family. This was Graham Perkin, appointed in 1966, who radically changed the paper's format and shifted its editorial line from the rather conservative liberalism of the Symes to a new "left liberalism" characterised by attention to issues such as race and the environment, opposition to White Australia and the death penalty.
It became more s