Suffolk is an East Anglian county of historic origin in England. It has borders with Cambridgeshire to the west and Essex to the south; the North Sea lies to the east. The county town is Ipswich; the county is low-lying with few hills, is arable land with the wetlands of the Broads in the north. The Suffolk Coast and Heaths are an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. By the fifth century, the Angles had established control of the region; the Angles became the "north folk" and the "south folk", from which developed the names "Norfolk" and "Suffolk". Suffolk and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, which merged with Mercia and Wessex. Suffolk was divided into four separate Quarter Sessions divisions. In 1860, the number of divisions was reduced to two; the eastern division was administered from the western from Bury St Edmunds. Under the Local Government Act 1888, the two divisions were made the separate administrative counties of East Suffolk and West Suffolk. A few Essex parishes were added to Suffolk: Ballingdon-with-Brundon and parts of Haverhill and Kedington.
On 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, East Suffolk, West Suffolk, Ipswich were merged to form the unified county of Suffolk. The county was divided into several local government districts: Babergh, Forest Heath, Mid Suffolk, St Edmundsbury, Suffolk Coastal, Waveney; this act transferred some land near Great Yarmouth to Norfolk. As introduced in Parliament, the Local Government Act would have transferred Newmarket and Haverhill to Cambridgeshire and Colchester from Essex. In 2007, the Department for Communities and Local Government referred Ipswich Borough Council's bid to become a new unitary authority to the Boundary Committee; the Boundary Committee reported in favour of the proposal. It was not, approved by the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government. Beginning in February 2008, the Boundary Committee again reviewed local government in the county, with two possible options emerging. One was that of splitting Suffolk into two unitary authorities – Ipswich and Felixstowe and Rural Suffolk.
In February 2010, the then-Minister Rosie Winterton announced that no changes would be imposed on the structure of local government in the county as a result of the review, but that the government would be: "asking Suffolk councils and MPs to reach a consensus on what unitary solution they want through a countywide constitutional convention". Following the May 2010 general election, all further moves towards any of the suggested unitary solutions ceased on the instructions of the incoming Coalition government. In 2018 it was determined that Forest Heath and St Edmundsbury would be merged to form a new West Suffolk district, while Waveney and Suffolk Coastal would form a new East Suffolk district; these changes took effect on 1 April 2019. West Suffolk, like nearby East Cambridgeshire, is renowned for archaeological finds from the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, the Iron Age. Bronze Age artefacts have been found in the area between Mildenhall and West Row, in Eriswell and in Lakenheath. Many bronze objects, such as swords, arrows, palstaves, daggers, armour, decorative equipment, fragments of sheet bronze, are entrusted to St. Edmundsbury heritage service, housed at West Stow just outside Bury St. Edmunds.
Other finds include traces of barrows. In the east of the county is Sutton Hoo, the site of one of England's most significant Anglo-Saxon archaeological finds, a ship burial containing a collection of treasures including a Sword of State and silver bowls, jewellery and a lyre; the majority of agriculture in Suffolk is either mixed. Farm sizes vary from anything around 80 acres to over 8,000. Soil types vary from heavy clays to light sands. Crops grown include:winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, oilseed rape and spring beans and linseed, although smaller areas of rye and oats can be found growing in areas with lighter soils along with a variety of vegetables; the continuing importance of agriculture in the county is reflected in the Suffolk Show, held annually in May at Ipswich. Although latterly somewhat changed in nature, this remains an agricultural show. Below is a chart of regional gross value added of Suffolk at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
Well-known companies in Suffolk include Greene Branston Pickle in Bury St Edmunds. Birds Eye has its largest UK factory in Lowestoft, where all its meat products and frozen vegetables are processed. Huntley & Palmers biscuit company has a base in Sudbury; the UK horse racing industry is based in Newmarket. There are two USAF bases in the west of the county close to the A11. Sizewell B nuclear power station is at Sizewell on the coast near Leiston. Bernard Matthews Farms have some processing units in the county Holton. Southwold is the home of Adnams Brewery; the Port of Felixstowe is the largest container port in the United Kingdom. Other ports are at Ipswich, run by Associated British Ports. BT has its main development facility at Martlesham Heath. There are several towns in the county with Ipswich being most populous. At the time
Sir Terence David John Pratchett was an English author of fantasy novels comical works. He is best known for his Discworld series of 41 novels. Pratchett's first novel, The Carpet People, was published in 1971; the first Discworld novel, The Colour of Magic, was published in 1983, after which Pratchett wrote an average of two books a year. His 2011 Discworld novel Snuff became the third-fastest-selling hardback adult-readership novel since records began in the UK, selling 55,000 copies in the first three days; the final Discworld novel, The Shepherd's Crown, was published in August 2015, five months after his death. Pratchett, with more than 85 million books sold worldwide in 37 languages, was the UK's best-selling author of the 1990s, he was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire in 1998 and was knighted for services to literature in the 2009 New Year Honours. In 2001 he won the annual Carnegie Medal for The Amazing Maurice and his Educated Rodents, the first Discworld book marketed for children.
He received the World Fantasy Award for Life Achievement in 2010. In December 2007, Pratchett announced that he had been diagnosed with early-onset Alzheimer's disease, he made a substantial public donation to the Alzheimer's Research Trust, filmed a television programme chronicling his experiences with the condition for the BBC, became a patron for Alzheimer's Research UK. Pratchett died on 12 March 2015 aged 66. Pratchett was born on 28 April 1948 in Beaconsfield in Buckinghamshire, the only child of David and Eileen Pratchett, of Hay-on-Wye, his family moved to Bridgwater, Somerset in 1957, following which he passed his eleven plus exam in 1959, earning a place in High Wycombe Technical High School where he was a key member of the debating society and wrote stories for the school magazine. Pratchett described himself as a "non-descript student" and, in his Who's Who entry, credits his education to the Beaconsfield Public Library, his maternal grandparents came from Ireland. His early interests included astronomy.
He collected Brooke Bond tea cards about space, owned a telescope and wanted to be an astronomer but lacked the necessary mathematical skills. He developed an interest in reading science fiction and began attending science fiction conventions from about 1963–1964, but stopped when he got his first job a few years later, his early reading included the works of H. G. Wells, Arthur Conan Doyle, "every book you ought to read", which he regarded as "getting an education". Pratchett published his first short story entitled "Business Rivals" in the High Wycombe Technical School magazine in 1962, it is the tale of a man named Crucible who finds the Devil in his flat in a cloud of sulphurous smoke. "The Hades Business", published in the school magazine when he was 13, was published commercially when he was 15. Pratchett earned five O-levels and started A-level courses in Art and History, his initial career choice was journalism and he left school at 17, in 1965, to start an apprenticeship with Arthur Church, the editor of the Bucks Free Press, where he wrote, amongst other things, over eighty stories for the Children's Circle section under the name Uncle Jim.
Two of these episodic stories contain. While on day release from his apprenticeship he finished his A-Level in English and took the National Council for the Training of Journalists proficiency course where he received the highest marks of his group. Pratchett had his writing breakthrough in 1968 when he interviewed Peter Bander van Duren, co-director of a small publishing company, Colin Smythe Ltd. During the meeting, Pratchett mentioned he had written The Carpet People. Colin Smythe Ltd published the book with illustrations by the author; the book received strong, if few and was followed by the science fiction novels The Dark Side of the Sun and Strata. After various positions in journalism, in 1980 Pratchett became Press Officer for the Central Electricity Generating Board in an area which covered four nuclear power stations, he joked that he had demonstrated "impeccable timing" by making this career change so soon after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident in Pennsylvania, US, said he would "write a book about my experiences, if I thought anyone would believe it".
The first Discworld novel, The Colour of Magic, was published in hardback by Colin Smythe Ltd in 1983. The paperback edition was published by Corgi, an imprint of Transworld, in 1985. Pratchett's popularity increased when the BBC's Woman's Hour broadcast The Colour of Magic as a serial in six parts, Equal Rites. Subsequently, the hardback rights were taken by the publishing house Victor Gollancz Ltd, which remained Pratchett's publisher until 1997, Colin Smythe having become Pratchett's agent. Pratchett was the first fantasy author published by Gollancz. Pratchett gave up working for the CEGB to make his living through writing in 1987, after finishing the fourth Discworld novel, Mort, his sales increased and many of his books occupied top places on the best-seller list. According to The Times, Pratchett was the top-selling and highest earning UK author in 1996; some of his books have been published by another Transworld imprint. In the US, Pratchett is published by HarperCollins. According to the Bookseller's Pocket Yearbook, in 2003 Pratchett's UK sales amounted to 3.4% of the fiction market by hardback sales and 3.8% by value, putting him in second place behind J. K. Rowling, whil
Figurines is an indie rock band from Denmark, formed in the mid-1990s. The band released their first EP, The Detour, in 2001 and their first full-length album, Shake a Mountain, in 2004; the band began to receive national attention in Denmark around the time of the full-length release, began touring Germany in 2003. Their second full-length, was released in 2005 on Danish label Morningside Records and German label Pop-U-Loud, on US label The Control Group in 2006; the band began a North American tour after being nominated for a Canadian Music Week Indie award and has since performed at the Indies ceremony, SXSW, KEXP, in cities in the US, Europe. The band has received positive press from Pitchfork Media, The New York Times, Spin, among others. Figurines's sound has been most compared to that of Pavement, Modest Mouse, Built to Spill; the band released their third record When the Deer Wore Blue in 2007 with Chicago-based co-producer/engineer Jeremy Lemos, who has worked with Smog, Jim O'Rourke, Loose Fur, many other Windy City acts in the past.
The new material is more psychedelic than previous efforts, but remains faithful to the melodic-pop sounds of Skeleton and Shake a Mountain on several tracks, including "Hey, Girl", the first single from the record. In 2010 they released their 4th record titled "Figurines". 2004: Shake a Mountain 2005: Skeleton 2007: When the Deer Wore Blue 2010: Figurines 2001: The Detour 2007: Hey Girl 2010: Lucky to Love 2006: "Silver Ponds" 2007: "Hey Girl" The band started as a quintet, but on has functioned as a trio. Current membersChristian Hjelm – vocals and guitar Claus Salling Johansen – guitar, backing vocals also drums Jens Ramon - guitar, synthsPast membersAndreas Toft - bass Kristian Volden – drums, percussion Mads Kjærgaard – bass Mathe FischerThe Figurines were formed in the mid-1990s when Christian Hjelm, Claus Salling Johansen and Andreas Toft all began to "jam" together. All the Figurines guitarists. Toft switched over to bass and Claus swapped to drums until Kristian Volden joined the band.
In May 2006, Andreas left the band and Mads Kjærgaard and Mathe Fischer joined. In 2007 Mathe Fischer left the band after a one-year stay, Jens Ramon joined, they went to Sweden in "Silence studios", where they were living separated from normal life, while they were working on their next release When the Deer Wore Blue produced by Jeremy Lemos. After touring they began making songs for their new album. Kristian Volden and Mads Kjærgaard left the Figurines, band turned into a trio; the trio released Figurines in 2010. The song "The Air We Breathe" was featured on season 1 episode 13 of the TV-show Gossip Girl. Official website
A toy is an item, used in play one designed for such use. Playing with toys can be an enjoyable means of training young children for life in society. Different materials like wood, clay and plastic are used to make toys. Many items are designed to serve as toys, but goods produced for other purposes can be used. For instance, a small child may fold an ordinary piece of paper into an airplane shape and "fly it". Newer forms of toys include interactive digital entertainment; some toys are produced as collectors' items and are intended for display only. The origin of toys is prehistoric; the origin of the word "toy" is unknown, but it is believed that it was first used in the 14th century. Toys are made for children; the oldest known doll toy is thought to be 4,000 years old. Playing with toys is considered to be important when it comes to growing up and learning about the world around us. Younger children use toys to discover their identity, help their bodies grow strong, learn cause and effect, explore relationships, practice skills they will need as adults.
Adults on occasion use toys to form and strengthen social bonds, help in therapy, to remember and reinforce lessons from their youth. Most children have been said to play such as sticks and rocks. Toys and games have been unearthed from the sites of ancient civilizations, they have been written about in some of the oldest literature. Toys excavated from the Indus valley civilization include small carts, whistles shaped like birds, toy monkeys which could slide down a string; the earliest toys are made from materials found in nature, such as rocks and clay. Thousands of years ago, Egyptian children played with dolls that had wigs and movable limbs which were made from stone and wood. In Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, children played with dolls made of wax or terracotta, sticks and arrows, yo-yos; when Greek children girls, came of age it was customary for them to sacrifice the toys of their childhood to the gods. On the eve of their wedding, young girls around fourteen would offer their dolls in a temple as a rite of passage into adulthood.
The oldest known mechanical puzzle comes from Greece and appeared in the 3rd century BCE. The game consisted of a square divided into 14 parts, the aim was to create different shapes from these pieces. In Iran "puzzle-locks" were made as early as the 17th century. Toys became more widespread with the changing attitudes towards children engendered by the Enlightenment. Children began to be seen as people in and of themselves, as opposed to extensions of their household and that they had a right to flourish and enjoy their childhood; the variety and number of toys that were manufactured during the 18th century rose. He created puzzles on eight themes – the World, Asia, America and Wales, Ireland and Scotland; the rocking horse was developed at the same time in England with the wealthy as it was thought to develop children's balance for riding real horses. Blowing bubbles from leftover washing up soap became a popular pastime, as shown in the painting The Soap Bubble by Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin.
Other popular toys included hoops, toy wagons, spinning wheels and puppets. The first board games were produced by John Jefferys in the 1750s, including A Journey Through Europe; the game was similar to modern board games. In the nineteenth century, the emphasis was put on toys that had an educational purpose to them, such as puzzles, books and board games. Religiously themed toys were popular, including a model Noah's Ark with miniature animals and objects from other Bible scenes. With growing prosperity among the middle class, children had more leisure time on their hands, which led to the application of industrial methods to the manufacture of toys. More complex mechanical and optics-based toys were invented. Carpenter and Westley began to mass-produce the kaleidoscope, invented by Sir David Brewster in 1817, had sold over 200,000 items within three months in London and Paris; the company was able to mass-produce magic lanterns for use in phantasmagoria and galanty shows, by developing a method of mass production using a copper plate printing process.
Popular imagery on the lanterns included royalty and fauna, geographical/man-made structures from around the world. The modern zoetrope was invented in 1833 by British mathematician William George Horner and was popularized in the 1860s. Wood and porcelain dolls in miniature doll houses were popular with middle class girls, while boys played with marbles and toy trains; the golden age of toy development was at the turn of the 20th century. Real wages were rising in the Western world, allowing working-class families to afford toys for their children, industrial techniques of precision engineering and mass production was able to provide the supply to meet this rising demand. Intellectual emphasis was increasingly being placed on the importance of a wholesome and happy childhood for the future development of children. William Harbutt, an English painter, invented plasticine in 1897, in 1900 commercial production of the material as a children's toy began. Frank Hornby was a visionary in toy development and manufacture and was responsible for the invention and production of
A tsunami or tidal wave known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water in an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami. Unlike normal ocean waves, which are generated by wind, or tides, which are generated by the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun, a tsunami is generated by the displacement of water. Tsunami waves do not resemble normal undersea currents or sea waves because their wavelength is far longer. Rather than appearing as a breaking wave, a tsunami may instead resemble a rising tide. For this reason, it is referred to as a "tidal wave", although this usage is not favoured by the scientific community because it might give the false impression of a causal relationship between tides and tsunamis. Tsunamis consist of a series of waves, with periods ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in a so-called "internal wave train".
Wave heights of tens of metres can be generated by large events. Although the impact of tsunamis is limited to coastal areas, their destructive power can be enormous, they can affect entire ocean basins; the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was among the deadliest natural disasters in human history, with at least 230,000 people killed or missing in 14 countries bordering the Indian Ocean. The Ancient Greek historian Thucydides suggested in his 5th century BC History of the Peloponnesian War that tsunamis were related to submarine earthquakes, but the understanding of tsunamis remained slim until the 20th century and much remains unknown. Major areas of current research include determining why some large earthquakes do not generate tsunamis while other smaller ones do; the term "tsunami" is a borrowing from the Japanese tsunami 津波, meaning "harbour wave". For the plural, one can either follow ordinary English practice and add an s, or use an invariable plural as in the Japanese; some English speakers alter the word's initial /ts/ to an /s/ by dropping the "t", since English does not natively permit /ts/ at the beginning of words, though the original Japanese pronunciation is /ts/.
Tsunamis are sometimes referred to as tidal waves. This once-popular term derives from the most common appearance of a tsunami, that of an extraordinarily high tidal bore. Tsunamis and tides both produce waves of water that move inland, but in the case of a tsunami, the inland movement of water may be much greater, giving the impression of an high and forceful tide. In recent years, the term "tidal wave" has fallen out of favour in the scientific community, because the causes of tsunamis have nothing to do with those of tides, which are produced by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun rather than the displacement of water. Although the meanings of "tidal" include "resembling" or "having the form or character of" the tides, use of the term tidal wave is discouraged by geologists and oceanographers. A 1969 episode of Hawaii Five-O entitled "Forty Feet High And It Kills!" used the terms "tsunami" and "tidal wave" interchangeably. The term seismic sea wave is used to refer to the phenomenon, because the waves most are generated by seismic activity such as earthquakes.
Prior to the rise of the use of the term tsunami in English, scientists encouraged the use of the term seismic sea wave rather than tidal wave. However, like tsunami, seismic sea wave is not a accurate term, as forces other than earthquakes – including underwater landslides, volcanic eruptions, underwater explosions, land or ice slumping into the ocean, meteorite impacts, the weather when the atmospheric pressure changes rapidly – can generate such waves by displacing water. While Japan may have the longest recorded history of tsunamis, the sheer destruction caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami event mark it as the most devastating of its kind in modern times, killing around 230,000 people; the Sumatran region is accustomed to tsunamis, with earthquakes of varying magnitudes occurring off the coast of the island. Tsunamis are an underestimated hazard in the Mediterranean Sea and parts of Europe. Of historical and current importance are the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami, the 1783 Calabrian earthquakes, each causing several tens of thousands of deaths and the 1908 Messina earthquake and tsunami.
The tsunami claimed more than 123,000 lives in Sicily and Calabria and is among the most deadly natural disasters in modern Europe. The Storegga Slide in the Norwegian Sea and some examples of tsunamis affecting the British Isles refer to landslide and meteotsunamis predominantly and less to earthquake-induced waves; as early as 426 BC the Greek historian Thucydides inquired in his book History of the Peloponnesian War about the causes of tsunami, was the first to argue that ocean earthquakes must be the cause. The cause, in my opinion, of this phenomenon must be sought in the earthquake. At the point where its shock has been the most violent the sea is driven back, recoiling with redoubled force, causes the inundation. Without an earthquake I do not see; the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus described the typical sequence of a tsunami, including an incipient earthquake, the sudden retreat of the sea and a followin
EBay Inc. is an American multinational e-commerce corporation based in San Jose, California that facilitates consumer-to-consumer and business-to-consumer sales through its website. EBay was founded by Pierre Omidyar in the autumn of 1995, became a notable success story of the dot-com bubble. EBay is a multibillion-dollar business with operations in about 30 countries, as of 2011; the company manages the eBay website, an online auction and shopping website in which people and businesses buy and sell a wide variety of goods and services worldwide. The website is free to use for buyers, but sellers are charged fees for listing items after a limited number of free listings, again when those items are sold. In addition to eBay's original auction-style sales, the website has evolved and expanded to include: instant "Buy It Now" shopping. EBay offered online money transfers as part of its services; the AuctionWeb was founded in California on September 3, 1995, by French-born Iranian-American computer programmer Pierre Omidyar as part of a larger personal site.
One of the first items sold on AuctionWeb was a broken laser pointer for $14.83. Astonished, Omidyar contacted the winning bidder to ask if he understood that the laser pointer was broken. In his responding email, the buyer explained: "I'm a collector of broken laser pointers."Reportedly, eBay was a side hobby for Omidyar until his Internet service provider informed him he would need to upgrade to a business account due to the high volume of traffic to his website. The resulting price increase forced him to start charging those who used eBay, was not met with any animosity, it resulted in the hiring of Chris Agarpao as eBay's first additional employee to process mailed checks coming in for fees. Jeffrey Skoll was hired as the first new president of the company in early 1996. In November 1996, eBay entered into its first third-party licensing deal, with a company called Electronic Travel Auction, to use SmartMarket Technology to sell plane tickets and other travel products. Growth was phenomenal.
The company changed the name of its service from AuctionWeb to eBay in September 1997. The site belonged to Echo Bay Technology Group, Omidyar's consulting firm. Omidyar had tried to register the domain name echobay.com, but found it taken by the Echo Bay Mines, a gold mining company, so he shortened it to his second choice, eBay.com. In 1997 the company received $6.7 million in funding from the venture capital firm Benchmark Capital. Meg Whitman was hired by the board as eBay president and CEO in March 1998. At the time, the company had 30 employees, half a million users and revenues of $4.7 million in the United States. The repeated story that eBay was founded to help Omidyar's fiancée trade Pez candy dispensers was fabricated by a public relations manager, Mary Lou Song, in 1997 to interest the media, which were not interested in the company's previous explanation about wanting to create a "perfect market"; this was revealed in Adam Cohen's book, The Perfect Store, confirmed by eBay. After eBay went public, both Omidyar and Skoll became instant billionaires.
EBay's target share price of $18 was all but ignored as the price went to $53.50 on the first day of trading. The Pez dispenser myth generated enormous amounts of publicity and led to some of eBay's most explosive early growth among toy collectors; however at the time, Beanie Babies were the leader in the toy category and was the most difficult brand to find in retail stores. Beanie Babies became the dominant product on eBay accounting for 10% of all eBay listings in 1997. While still a held company, eBay's growing market share was contributed by two major factors: The growing collectibility of Beanie Babies in the mid-1990s – collectors internationally were trying to complete their collection of Beanie Babies Ty producing the first business-to-consumer Web site - the original Ty Web site contained an online trading post where people could trade their Beanie Babies, however the trading post was overwhelmed with unsortable listings creating a legitimate demand for a more efficient online system to buy and trade Beanie Babies in the secondary marketAs a result, eBay provided a user-friendly interface to search for specific Beanie Babies that collectors were searching for.
On September 21, 1998, eBay went public. In the risk factors section of the annual report filed with the US Securities and Exchange Commission in 1998, Omidyar notes eBay's dependence on the continued strength of the Beanie Babies market; as the company expanded product categories beyond collectibles into any saleable item, business grew quickly. In 2000, eBay had 12 million registered users and a cyberinventory of more than 4.5 million items on sale on any given day. In February 2002 the company purchased iBazar, a similar European auction web site founded in 1998, bought PayPal on October 3, 2002. By early 2008 the company had expanded worldwide, counting hundreds of millions of registered users as well as 15,000 employees and revenues of $7.7 billion. After nearly ten years at eBay, Whitman decided to enter politics. On January 23, 2008, the company announced that Whitman would step down on March 31, 2008, John Donahoe was selected to become president and CEO. Whitman remained on the board of directors and continued to advise
Discworld is a comic fantasy book series written by the English author Terry Pratchett, set on the Discworld, a flat planet balanced on the backs of four elephants which in turn stand on the back of a giant turtle. The books parody or take inspiration from J. R. R. Tolkien, Robert E. Howard, H. P. Lovecraft, Charles Dickens and William Shakespeare, as well as mythology and fairy tales using them for satirical parallels with cultural and scientific issues. Forty-one Discworld novels have been published; the original British editions of the first 26 novels, up to Thief of Time, had cover art by Josh Kirby. The American editions, published by Harper Collins, used their own cover art. Since Kirby's death in 2001, the covers have been designed by Paul Kidby. Companion publications include eleven short stories, four popular science books, a number of supplementary books and reference guides; the series has been adapted for graphic novels, theatre and board games, television. Newly released Discworld books topped The Sunday Times best-sellers list, making Pratchett the UK's best-selling author in the 1990s.
Discworld novels have won awards such as the Prometheus Award and the Carnegie Medal. In the BBC's Big Read, four Discworld novels were in the top 100, a total of fourteen in the top 200. More than 80 million Discworld books have been sold in 37 languages. Few of the Discworld novels have chapter divisions. Instead they feature interweaving storylines. Pratchett was quoted as saying that he "just never got into the habit of chapters" adding that "I have to shove them in the putative YA books because my editor screams until I do". However, the first Discworld novel The Colour of Magic was divided into "books". Additionally, Going Postal and Making Money both have chapters, a prologue, an epilogue, brief teasers of what is to come in each chapter, in the style of A. A. Milne, Jules Verne, Jerome K. Jerome; the Discworld novels contain common motifs that run through the series. Fantasy clichés are parodied in many of the novels, as are various subgenres of fantasy, such as fairy tales and vampire stories and so on.
Analogies of real-world issues, such as religion and inner city tension and politics, racial prejudice and exploitation are recurring themes, as are aspects of culture and entertainment, such as opera, rock music and football. Parodies of non-Discworld fiction occur including Shakespeare, Beatrix Potter, several movies. Major historical events battles, are sometimes used as the basis for both trivial and key events in Discworld stories, as are trends in science, pop culture and modern art. There are humanist themes in many of the Discworld novels, a focus on critical thinking skills in the Witches and Tiffany Aching series; the Discworld novels and stories are, in principle, stand-alone works. However, a number of novels and stories form novel sequences with distinct story arcs: Rincewind was the first protagonist of Discworld, he is the archetypal coward but is thrust into dangerous adventures. In The Last Hero, he flatly states that he does not wish to join an expedition to explore over the edge of the Disc—but, being geared for the expedition at the time, clarifies by saying that any amount of protesting on his part is futile, as something will occur that will bring him into the expedition anyway.
As such, he not only succeeds in staying alive, but saves Discworld on several occasions, has an instrumental role in the emergence of life on Roundworld. Other characters in the Rincewind story arc include: Cohen the Barbarian, an aging hero of the old fantasy tradition, out of touch with the modern world and still fighting despite his advanced age. Rincewind appeared in eight Discworld novels as well as the four Science of Discworld supplementary books. Death appears in every novel except The Wee Free Men and Snuff, although sometimes with only a few lines; as dictated by tradition, he is a seven-foot-tall skeleton in a black robe who sits astride a pale horse. His dialogue is always depicted in small caps, without quotation marks, as several characters state that Death's voice seems to arrive in their heads without passing through their ears as sound; as the anthropomorphic personification of death, Death has the job of guiding souls onward from this world into the next. Over millennia in the role, he has developed a fascination with humanity going so far as to create a house for himself in his personal dimension.
Characters that appear with Death include his butler Albert. Death or Susan appear as the main characters in five Discworld novels, he appears in the short stories Death and What Comes Next, Theatre o