80th United States Congress
The Eightieth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from January 3, 1947, to January 3, 1949, during the third and fourth years of Harry Truman's presidency; the apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Sixteenth Census of the United States in 1940. Republicans gained a majority in both chambers for this Congress having gained thirteen Senate seats and fifty-seven House seats. Although the 80th Congress passed a total of 906 public bills, President Truman nicknamed it the "Do Nothing Congress" and, during the 1948 election, campaigned as much against it as against his formal opponent, Thomas Dewey; the 80th Congress passed several significant pro-business bills, most famously the Marshall Plan and the Taft–Hartley Act, but it opposed most of Truman's Fair Deal bills. Truman's campaign strategy worked, the Republicans lost nine Senate seats and seventy-three seats in the House, allowing the Democrats to begin the 81st Congress with twenty-one more seats than they had at the end of the 79th Congress.
It allowed Truman to win a term of his own right as President, having become President after the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1945. January 3, 1947: Proceedings of Congress were televised for the first time. March 12, 1947: In a Joint Session of Congress, President Truman proclaimed the Truman Doctrine. July 18, 1947: The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands entered into a trusteeship with the United Nations and administered by the United States. July 20, 1947: President Truman issued the second peacetime military draft in the United States amid increasing tensions with the Soviet Union. November 24, 1947: The House of Representatives approved citations of contempt of Congress against the so-called Hollywood 10. July 26, 1948: President Truman signed Executive Order 9981, ending racial segregation in the United States Armed Forces. August 25, 1948: House Un-American Activities Committee held the first-ever televised congressional hearing: "Confrontation Day" between Whittaker Chambers and Alger Hiss.
November 2, 1948: United States general elections, 1948: Presidential election: Harry Truman defeated Thomas Dewey, Henry A. Wallace, Strom Thurmond. 1, ch. 81, Pub. L. 80–75, 61 Stat. 103 June 23, 1947: Taft–Hartley Act, Sess. 1, ch. 120, Pub. L. 80–101, 61 Stat. 136 July 18, 1947: Presidential Succession Act of 1947, Sess. 1, ch. 264, Pub. L. 80–199, 61 Stat. 380 July 26, 1947: National Security Act of 1947, Sess. 1, ch. 343, Pub. L. 80–253, 61 Stat. 495 August 7, 1947: Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands, Sess. 1, ch. 513, Pub. L. 80–382, 61 Stat. 913 January 27, 1948: United States Information and Educational Exchange Act, Sess. 2, ch. 36, Pub. L. 80–402, 62 Stat. 6 April 3, 1948: Foreign Assistance Act, Pub. L. 80–472, Sess. 2, ch. 169, 62 Stat. 137 April 3, 1948: Greek-Turkish Assistance Act of 1948, Sess. 2, ch. 169, Pub. L. 80–472, Title III, 62 Stat. 157 May 26, 1948: Civil Air Patrol Act, Sess. 2, ch. 349, Pub. L. 80–557, 62 Stat. 274 June 12, 1948: Women's Armed Services Integration Act, Sess. 2, ch. 449, Pub.
L. 80–625, 62 Stat. 356 June 17, 1948: Reed-Bulwinkle Act, Sess. 2, ch. 491, Pub. L. 80–662, 62 Stat. 472 June 25, 1948: Codify and enact into law Title 3 of the United States Code – The President, Sess. 2, ch. 644, Pub. L. 80–771, 62 Stat. 672 June 28, 1948: Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act of 1948, Pub. L. 80–806, 62 Stat. 1070 June 30, 1948: Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Sess. 2, ch. 758, Pub. L. 80–845, 62 Stat. 1155 July 3, 1948: War Claims Act of 1948, Sess. 2, ch. 826, Pub. L. 80–896, 62 Stat. 1240 July 3, 1948: Agricultural Act of 1948, Sess. 2, ch. 827, Pub. L. 80–897, 62 Stat. 1247 March 21, 1947: Approved an amendment to the United States Constitution setting a term limit for election and overall time of service to the office of President of the United States, submitted it to the state legislatures for ratification Amendment was ratified on February 27, 1951, becoming the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution From the beginning to the end of this Congress, there was no net change in party power.
The Democrats lost one seat. Section contents: Senate: Majority, Minority • House: Majority, Minority President: Vacant President pro tempore: Arthur Vandenberg Majority leader: Wallace White Majority whip: Kenneth Wherry Conference Chairman: Eugene Millikin Republican Conference Secretary: Milton Young Policy Committee Chairman: Robert A. Taft Minority leader: Alben Barkley Minority whip: Scott Lucas Caucus Secretary: Brien McMahon Speaker: Joseph Martin Majority Leader: Charles Halleck Republican Whip: Leslie Arends Republican Conference Chairman: Roy O. Woodruff Minority Leader: Sam Rayburn Democratic Whip: John McCormack Democratic Caucus Chairman: Aime Forand Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: Michael J. Kirwan House Democratic Caucus Senate Democratic Caucus Senators are popularly elected statewide every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election, In this Congress, Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1948.
The names of members of the House of Representatives elected statewide at-large, are preceded by an "At-Large," and the na
House Un-American Activities Committee
The House Un-American Activities Committee was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. The HUAC was created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, those organizations suspected of having Fascist or Communist ties. In 1969, the House changed the committee's name to "House Committee on Internal Security"; when the House abolished the committee in 1975, its functions were transferred to the House Judiciary Committee. The committee's anti-communist investigations are compared with those of Joseph McCarthy who, as a U. S. Senator, had no direct involvement with this House committee. McCarthy was the chairman of the Government Operations Committee and its Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the U. S. Senate, not the House; the Overman Committee was a subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary chaired by North Carolina Democratic Senator Lee Slater Overman that operated from September 1918 to June 1919.
The subcommittee investigated German as well as Bolshevik elements in the United States. This committee was concerned with investigating pro-German sentiments in the American liquor industry. After World War I ended in November 1918, the German threat lessened, the committee began investigating Bolshevism, which had appeared as a threat during the First Red Scare after the Russian Revolution in 1917; the committee's hearing into Bolshevik propaganda, conducted February 11 to March 10, 1919, had a decisive role in constructing an image of a radical threat to the United States during the first Red Scare. Congressman Hamilton Fish III, a fervent anti-communist, introduced, on May 5, 1930, House Resolution 180, which proposed to establish a committee to investigate communist activities in the United States; the resulting committee known as the Fish Committee, undertook extensive investigations of people and organizations suspected of being involved with or supporting communist activities in the United States.
Among the committee's targets were the American Civil Liberties Union and communist presidential candidate William Z. Foster; the committee recommended granting the United States Department of Justice more authority to investigate communists, strengthening of immigration and deportation laws to keep communists out of the United States. From 1934 to 1937, the Special Committee on Un-American Activities Authorized to Investigate Nazi Propaganda and Certain Other Propaganda Activities, chaired by John William McCormack and Samuel Dickstein, held public and private hearings and collected testimony filling 4,300 pages; the committee was known as the McCormack–Dickstein committee. Its mandate was to get "information on how foreign subversive propaganda entered the U. S. and the organizations that were spreading it", it was replaced with a similar committee that focused on pursuing communists. Its records are held by the National Archives and Records Administration as records related to HUAC; the committee investigated allegations of a fascist plot to seize the White House, known as the "business plot".
Although the plot was reported as a hoax, the committee confirmed some details of the accusations. It has been reported that while Dickstein served on this committee and the subsequent Special investigation Committee, he was paid $1,250 a month by the Soviet NKVD, which hoped to get secret congressional information on anti-communists and pro-fascists, it is unclear whether he passed on any information. On May 26, 1938, the House Committee on Un-American Activities was established as a special investigating committee, reorganized from its previous incarnations as the Fish Committee and the McCormack-Dickstein Committee, to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, those organizations suspected of having communist or fascist ties, it was therefore known as the Dies Committee. Its records are held by the National Archives and Records Administration as records related to HUAC. In 1938, Hallie Flanagan, the head of the Federal Theatre Project, was subpoenaed to appear before the committee to answer the charge the project was overrun with communists.
Flanagan was called to testify for only a part of one day, while a clerk from the project was called in for two entire days. It was during this investigation that one of the committee members, Joe Starnes, famously asked Flanagan whether the Elizabethan era playwright Christopher Marlowe was a member of the Communist Party, mused "Mr. Euripides" preached class warfare. In 1939, the committee investigated leaders of the American Youth Congress, a Communist International affiliate organization; the committee put together an argument for the internment of Japanese Americans known as the "Yellow Report". Organized in response to rumors of Japanese Americans being coddled by the War Relocation Authority and news that some former inmates would be allowed to leave camp and Nisei soldiers to return to the West Coast, the committee investigated charges of fifth column activity in the camps. A number of anti-WRA arguments were presented in subsequent hearings, but Director Dillon Myer debunked the more inflammatory claims.
The investigation was presented to the 77th Congress, alleged that certain cultural traits – Japanese loyalty to the Emperor, the number of Japanese fishermen in the US, the Buddhist faith – were evidence for Japanese espionage. With the exception of Rep. Herman Eberharter, the members of the committee seemed to support internment, its recommendations to expedite the impending se
New York University Tandon School of Engineering
The New York University Tandon School of Engineering is the engineering and applied sciences school of New York University. Tandon is the second oldest private technology school in the United States; the school dates back to 1854 when its predecessor institutions, the University of the City of New York School of Civil Engineering and Architecture and the Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute, were founded. The school was renamed in 2015 in honor of NYU Trustees Chandrika and Ranjan Tandon following their donation of $100 million to the school; the school's main campus is in Brooklyn's MetroTech Center, an urban academic-industrial research park. It is one of several engineering schools that were founded based on a European polytechnic university model in the 1800s, in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, it has been a key center of research in the development of microwave, radar, electronics in general, industrial engineering and operations research and the US space program.
On May 17, 1853, a group of Brooklyn businessmen wrote a charter to establish a school for young men. Named Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute, the school moved into its first home at 99 Livingston Street in Brooklyn; the first class, admitted in 1855, consisted of 265 young men ages nine to 17. The school conferred its first bachelor's degrees in 1871. Graduate programs began in 1901 and the school awarded its first doctoral degree in 1921. From 1889 to 1973 the school became known as Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. In 1917, the preparatory program separated from the Institute and became the Polytechnic Preparatory Country Day School. Poly Prep is now located in the Dyker Heights section of Brooklyn. Polytechnic Institute moved to its present location in 1957, the former site of the American Safety Razor Company factory, where it became a co-educational institution. In 1854, the University of the City of New York, now New York University, founded the School of Civil Engineering and Architecture at a time when specialized schools of engineering were uncommon in America.
Classes began in 1855 and the school awarded its first undergraduate degree in 1857. As the industrial revolution took shape, the school formalized its engineering curriculum and the school's first dean, Charles H. Snow, changed the name of the school to the School of Applied Science. During this time the engineering school separated from the university's arts and science school called University College. In 1894 the University of the City of New York moved its engineering school to a new campus in the Bronx; the new campus gave the university space to build larger science laboratories that could not be constructed at its Washington Square site. With the addition of the new campus, under the leadership of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken, the University of the City of New York renamed itself New York University; the neighborhood surrounding the Bronx campus became known as University Heights. By 1920 separate electrical and chemical engineering departments were created and the school changed its name to the College of Engineering.
Enrollment at New York University expanded from the early 1900s into the postwar decades. However, by the early 1970s this growth ceased due to rising crime and financial troubles in New York City. New York University faced financial hardships leading it to sell its University Heights campus that housed its engineering school to City University of New York, which in turn renamed the campus Bronx Community College. During that period from 1969 to 1975, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn was forced to rely on subsidies provided by New York state to keep the school afloat; the state supported Polytechnic on the basis that closing the school would create economic hardship locally. With both Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn and New York University facing financial difficulties, the state brokered a merger with New York University's engineering school. Polytechnic Institute acquired the faculty and students of New York University's engineering school to form Polytechnic Institute of New York. Polytechnic Institute of New York gained university status in 1985 and changed its name to Polytechnic University.
By 1986 Polytechnic University in Brooklyn was the largest technological university in the New York metropolitan area and the second-largest in graduate enrollment in the nation after the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Of the 300 engineering schools in the United States, Polytechnic had the second-largest graduate enrollment and was among the most successful institutions in the country as a producer of science and engineering graduates who went on to doctoral studies. An average of 7.2 percent of Polytechnic graduates went on to achieve a Ph. D. compared with two other schools with large engineering programs: Carnegie Mellon, with an average of 6 percent, Princeton, with 4.5 percent. Polytechnic University became well known for its research centers in electrophysics and polymer blends. Discussions about a merger with Polytechnic University and New York University began in 2004. Four years Polytechnic University and New York University agreed to take steps toward a merger beginning with a formal affiliation between the two schools.
This affiliation resulted in the school changing its name to Polytechnic Institute of New York University. The schools merged in 2014 when the New York State Regents approved the change of charter making NYU the sole member of Polytechnic University. Since the merger, applications to the school and incoming SAT scores have increased substantially; the school has experienced an influx of students coming from outside of New York state. Fundraising and faculty research awards have increased since
University of Wisconsin–Madison
The University of Wisconsin–Madison is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin. Founded when Wisconsin achieved statehood in 1848, UW–Madison is the official state university of Wisconsin, the flagship campus of the University of Wisconsin System, it was the first public university established in Wisconsin and remains the oldest and largest public university in the state. It became a land-grant institution in 1866; the 933-acre main campus, located on the shores of Lake Mendota, includes four National Historic Landmarks. The University owns and operates a historic 1,200-acre arboretum established in 1932, located 4 miles south of the main campus. UW–Madison is organized into 20 schools and colleges, which enrolled 30,361 undergraduate and 14,052 graduate students in 2018, its comprehensive academic program offers 136 undergraduate majors, along with 148 master's degree programs and 120 doctoral programs. A major contributor to Wisconsin's economy, the University is the largest employer in the state, with over 21,600 faculty and staff.
The UW is one of America's Public Ivy universities, which refers to top public universities in the United States capable of providing a collegiate experience comparable with the Ivy League. UW–Madison is categorized as a Doctoral University with the Highest Research Activity in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. In 2012, it had research expenditures of more than $1.1 billion, the third highest among universities in the country. Wisconsin is a founding member of the Association of American Universities; as of October 2018, 25 Nobel laureates and 2 Fields medalists have been associated with UW–Madison as alumni, faculty, or researchers. Additionally, as of November 2018, the current CEOs of 14 Fortune 500 companies have attended UW–Madison, the most of any university in the United States. Among the scientific advances made at UW–Madison are the single-grain experiment, the discovery of vitamins A and B by Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis, the development of the anticoagulant medication warfarin by Karl Paul Link, the first chemical synthesis of a gene by Har Gobind Khorana, the discovery of the retroviral enzyme reverse transcriptase by Howard Temin, the first synthesis of human embryonic stem cells by James Thomson.
UW–Madison was the home of both the prominent "Wisconsin School" of economics and of diplomatic history, while UW–Madison professor Aldo Leopold played an important role in the development of modern environmental science and conservationism, articulating his philosophy of a "land ethic" in his influential book A Sand County Almanac. The Wisconsin Badgers compete in 25 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference and have won 28 national championships. Wisconsin students and alumni have won 50 Olympic medals; the university had its official beginnings when the Wisconsin Territorial Legislature in its 1838 session passed a law incorporating a "University of the Territory of Wisconsin", a high-ranking Board of Visitors was appointed. However, this body never accomplished anything before Wisconsin was incorporated as a state in 1848; the Wisconsin Constitution provided for "the establishment of a state university, at or near the seat of state government..." and directed by the state legislature to be governed by a board of regents and administered by a Chancellor.
On July 26, 1848, Nelson Dewey, Wisconsin's first governor, signed the act that formally created the University of Wisconsin. John H. Lathrop became the university's first chancellor, in the fall of 1849. With John W. Sterling as the university's first professor, the first class of 17 students met at Madison Female Academy on February 5, 1849. A permanent campus site was soon selected: an area of 50 acres "bounded north by Fourth lake, east by a street to be opened at right angles with King street", "south by Mineral Point Road, west by a carriage-way from said road to the lake." The regents' building plans called for a "main edifice fronting towards the Capitol, three stories high, surmounted by an observatory for astronomical observations." This building, University Hall, now known as Bascom Hall, was completed in 1859. On October 10, 1916, a fire destroyed the building's dome, never replaced. North Hall, constructed in 1851, was the first building on campus. In 1854, Levi Booth and Charles T. Wakeley became the first graduates of the university, in 1892 the university awarded its first PhD to future university president Charles R. Van Hise.
Research and service at the UW is influenced by a tradition known as "the Wisconsin Idea", first articulated by UW–Madison President Charles Van Hise in 1904, when he declared "I shall never be content until the beneficent influence of the University reaches every home in the state." The Wisconsin Idea holds that the boundaries of the university should be the boundaries of the state, that the research conducted at UW–Madison should be applied to solve problems and improve health, quality of life, the environment, agriculture for all citizens of the state. The Wisconsin Idea permeates the university's work and helps forge close working relationships among university faculty and students, the state's industries and government. Based in Wisconsin's populist history, the Wisconsin Idea continues to inspire the work of the faculty and students who aim to solve real-world problems by working together across disciplines and demographics. During World War II, University
Joseph Raymond McCarthy was an American politician who served as a Republican U. S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957. Beginning in 1950, McCarthy became the most visible public face of a period in the United States in which Cold War tensions fueled fears of widespread Communist subversion, he is known for alleging that numerous Communists and Soviet spies and sympathizers had infiltrated the United States federal government, film industry, elsewhere. The smear tactics that he used led him to be censured by the U. S. Senate; the term "McCarthyism", coined in 1950 in reference to McCarthy's practices, was soon applied to similar anti-communist activities. Today, the term is used more broadly to mean demagogic and unsubstantiated accusations, as well as public attacks on the character or patriotism of political opponents. Born in Grand Chute, Wisconsin, McCarthy commissioned in to the Marine Corps in 1942, where he served as an intelligence briefing officer for a dive bomber squadron.
Following the end of World War II, he attained the rank of major. He volunteered to fly twelve combat missions as a gunner-observer, acquiring the nickname "Tail-Gunner Joe"; some of his claims of heroism were shown to be exaggerated or falsified, leading many of his critics to use "Tail-Gunner Joe" as a term of mockery. McCarthy ran for the U. S. Senate in 1946, defeating Robert M. La Follette Jr. After three undistinguished years in the Senate, McCarthy rose to national fame in February 1950 when he asserted in a speech that he had a list of "members of the Communist Party and members of a spy ring" who were employed in the State Department. In succeeding years after his 1950 speech, McCarthy made additional accusations of Communist infiltration into the State Department, the administration of President Harry S. Truman, the Voice of America, the U. S. Army, he used various charges of communism, communist sympathies, disloyalty, or sex crimes to attack a number of politicians and other individuals inside and outside of government.
This included a concurrent "Lavender Scare" against suspected homosexuals. Former U. S. Senator Alan K. Simpson has written: "The so-called'Red Scare' has been the main focus of most historians of that period of time. A lesser-known element... and one that harmed far more people was the witch-hunt McCarthy and others conducted against homosexuals". With the publicized Army–McCarthy hearings of 1954, following the suicide of Wyoming Senator Lester C. Hunt that same year, McCarthy's support and popularity faded. On December 2, 1954, the Senate voted to censure Senator McCarthy by a vote of 67–22, making him one of the few senators to be disciplined in this fashion, he continued to speak against communism and socialism until his death at the age of 48 at Bethesda Naval Hospital in Bethesda, Maryland, on May 2, 1957. His death certificate listed the cause of death as "Hepatitis, cause unknown". Doctors had not reported him to be in critical condition; some biographers say this was exacerbated by alcoholism.
McCarthy was born in 1908 on a farm in the town of Grand Chute in Outagamie County, the fifth of seven children. His mother, was from County Tipperary, Ireland, his father, Timothy McCarthy, was born in the United States, the son of an Irish father and a German mother. McCarthy dropped out of junior high school at age 14 to help his parents manage their farm, he entered Little Wolf High School, in Manawa, when he was 20 and graduated in one year. He attended Marquette University from 1930 to 1935. McCarthy worked his way through college, studying first electrical engineering for two years law, receiving an LL. B. degree in 1935 from Marquette University Law School in Milwaukee. McCarthy was admitted to the bar in 1935. While working at a law firm in Shawano, Wisconsin, he launched an unsuccessful campaign for district attorney as a Democrat in 1936. During his years as an attorney, McCarthy made money on the side by gambling. In 1939, McCarthy had better success when he ran for the nonpartisan elected post of 10th District circuit judge.
McCarthy became the youngest circuit judge in the state's history by defeating incumbent Edgar V. Werner, a judge for 24 years. In the campaign, McCarthy exaggerated Werner's age of 66, claiming that he was 73, so too old and infirm to handle the duties of his office. Writing of Werner in Reds: McCarthyism In Twentieth-Century America, Ted Morgan wrote: "Pompous and condescending, he was disliked by lawyers, he had been reversed by the Wisconsin Supreme Court, he was so inefficient that he had piled up a huge backlog of cases."McCarthy's judicial career attracted some controversy because of the speed with which he dispatched many of his cases as he worked to clear the backlogged docket he had inherited from Werner. Wisconsin had strict divorce laws, but when McCarthy heard divorce cases, he expedited them whenever possible, he made the needs of children involved in contested divorces a priority; when it came to other cases argued before him, McCarthy compensated for his lack of experience as a jurist by demanding and relying upon precise briefs from the contesting attorneys.
The Wisconsin Supreme Court reversed a low percentage of the cases he heard, but he was censured in 1941 for having lost evidence in a price fixing case. In 1942, shortly after the U. S. entered World War II, McCarthy joined the United States Marine Corps, despite the fact that his judicial office exempted him from military service. His college education qua
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Los Alamos National Laboratory is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project. It is located a short distance northwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico in the southwestern United States. Los Alamos was selected as the top secret location for bomb design in late 1942, commissioned the next year. At the time it was known as Project Y, one of a series of laboratories located across the United States given letter names to maintain their secrecy. Los Alamos was the center for design and overall coordination, while the other labs, today known as Oak Ridge and Hanford, concentrated on the production of uranium and plutonium bomb fuels. Los Alamos was the heart of the project, collecting together some of the world's most famous scientists, among them numerous Nobel Prize winners; the site was known variously as Project Y, Los Alamos Laboratory, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory through this period. The lab's existence was announced to the world in the post-WWII era, when it became known universally as Los Alamos.
In 1952, the Department of Energy formed a second design lab under the direction of the University of California, becoming the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Since that date the two labs have competed on a wide variety of bomb designs. With the ending of the Cold War, both labs turned their focus to civilian missions. Today, Los Alamos is one of the largest technology institutions in the world, it conducts multidisciplinary research in fields such as national security, space exploration, nuclear fusion, renewable energy, medicine and supercomputing. The town of Los Alamos, New Mexico, directly north of the lab, grew extensively through this period. After several reorganizations, the LANL is managed and operated by Triad National Security, LLC; the laboratory was founded during World War II as a secret, centralized facility to coordinate the scientific research of the Manhattan Project, the Allied project to develop the first nuclear weapons. In September 1942, the difficulties encountered in conducting preliminary studies on nuclear weapons at universities scattered across the country indicated the need for a laboratory dedicated to that purpose.
General Leslie Groves wanted a central laboratory at an isolated location for safety, to keep the scientists away from the populace. It should be west of the Mississippi. Major John Dudley suggested Oak City, Utah or Jemez Springs, New Mexico but both were rejected. Jemez Springs was only a short distance from the current site. Manhattan Project scientific director J. Robert Oppenheimer had spent much time in his youth in the New Mexico area, suggested the Los Alamos Ranch School on the mesa. Dudley had rejected the school as not meeting Groves’ criteria, but as soon as Groves saw it he said in effect "This is the place". Oppenheimer became the laboratory's first director. During the Manhattan Project, Los Alamos hosted thousands of employees, including many Nobel Prize-winning scientists; the location was a total secret. Its only mailing address was number 1663, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Two other post office boxes were used, 180 and 1539 in Santa Fe. Though its contract with the University of California was intended to be temporary, the relationship was maintained long after the war.
Until the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, University of California president Robert Sproul did not know what the purpose of the laboratory was and thought it might be producing a "death ray". The only member of the UC administration who knew its true purpose—indeed, the only one who knew its exact physical location—was the Secretary-Treasurer Robert Underhill, in charge of wartime contracts and liabilities; the work of the laboratory culminated in the creation of several atomic devices, one of, used in the first nuclear test near Alamogordo, New Mexico, codenamed "Trinity", on July 16, 1945. The other two were weapons, "Little Boy" and "Fat Man", which were used in the attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the Laboratory received the Army-Navy ‘E’ Award for Excellence in production on October 16, 1945. After the war, Oppenheimer retired from the directorship, it was taken over by Norris Bradbury, whose initial mission was to make the hand-assembled atomic bombs "G. I. proof" so that they could be mass-produced and used without the assistance of trained scientists.
Many of the original Los Alamos "luminaries" chose to leave the laboratory, some became outspoken opponents to the further development of nuclear weapons. The name changed to the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on January 1, 1947. By this time, Argonne had been made the first National Laboratory the previous year. Los Alamos would not become a National Laboratory in name until 1981. In the years since the 1940s, Los Alamos was responsible for the development of the hydrogen bomb, many other variants of nuclear weapons. In 1952, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was founded to act as Los Alamos' "competitor", with the hope that two laboratories for the design of nuclear weapons would spur innovation. Los Alamos and Livermore served as the primary classified laboratories in the U. S. national laboratory system, designing all the country's nuclear arsenal. Additional work included basic scientific research, particle accelerator development, health physics, fusion power research as part of Project Sherwood.
Many nuclear tests were undertaken at the Nevada Test Site. During the late-1950s, a number of scientists including Dr. J. Robert "Bob" B
Allen Weinstein was an American historian and federal official who served in several different offices. He was, under the Reagan administration, cofounder of the National Endowment for Democracy in 1983, he served as the Archivist of the United States from February 16, 2005, until his resignation on December 19, 2008. After his resignation, he returned to the International Foundation for Electoral Systems as a senior strategist and was a visiting faculty member at the University of Maryland; the son of Russian Jewish immigrants, Weinstein was born in New York City in 1937, the youngest of three children. His parents owned several delis in the Queens, he graduated from DeWitt Clinton High School and City College of New York received a Ph. D. in American studies from Yale University. He taught at Smith College from 1966 to 1981. In 1981, he served on the editorial staff for The Washington Post and was an Executive editor of The Washington Quarterly from 1981 to 1983. In 1981, he moved to Georgetown University, where he was a professor until 1984.
In 1982, he was a member of the U. S. delegation to the UNESCO World Conference on Cultural Policies, in 1983 he served on the U. S. delegation to the UNESCO-sponsored International Program for the Development of Communication. He was a Professor of History at Boston University from 1985 to 1989. In 2009, after he resigned from the position of Archivist of the United States, he taught history at the University of Maryland. During his career in education, Weinstein received two Senior Fulbright Lectureships, a fellowship at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and a fellowship at the American Council for Learned Societies. In 1985 Weinstein founded The Center for Democracy, where he served as president until the organization merged with the International Foundation for Electoral Systems in 2003. At the request of Senators Lugar and Pell of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, the Center for Democracy organized a bipartisan group of election lawyers to oversee the preparations for the February 1986 elections in the Philippines.
At Ronald Reagan's request, Weinstein returned to the Philippines to continue to monitor the election procedures. The Center drafted the official report of the U. S. Observer Delegation, went on to work with President Aquino's government on matters of electoral procedure. While president he chaired the organization's observation missions to El Salvador, Nicaragua and Russia. After the organizations merged, Weinstein remained on staff at IFES as their senior adviser until he was selected as the Archivist of the United States, he returned to IFES in 2009. For his work in international elections work, Weinstein received the United Nations Peace Medal and the Council of Europe's Silver Medal. Weinstein was a founding member in 1985 of the Board of Directors of the United States Institute of Peace and chairman of its education and training committee, remaining a director until 2001, now serves on the chairman’s advisory council, he was a founding officer of the Strasbourg-based International Institute for Democracy from 1989 to 2001.
He chaired the judging panel for the annual International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award from 1995 to 2003. He serves on the advisory council of the LBJ School of Public Affairs, he was chairman of the Woodrow Wilson Presidential Library's advisory council. He chaired the annual "Global Panel" in the Netherlands from 1993 to 1998. From 1982 to 1991 he was a member of the Foreign Policy Association's editorial advisory board. Weinstein died of pneumonia on June 18, 2015, aged 77, in a nursing home in Gaithersburg, after suffering from Parkinson's disease. In 1970, Weinstein began researching the Alger Hiss case for a book. Reviewing the case, John Ehrman wrote at the official CIA website that Weinstein "believed that Hiss had not been a Communist or a spy." Weinstein's extensive research included interviews with former Soviet intelligence officers who had worked with Chambers and a Freedom of Information request that yielded 30,000 pages of FBI and CIA files. Ehrman continues "Hiss cooperated with Weinstein, granting him six interviews and access to the defense's legal files.
After plowing through the data, Weinstein did what no previous Hiss defender had done: he changed his mind."Controversy resulted when Weinstein indicated in a 1976 book review that he now believed that Hiss was guilty, grew with the publication in 1978 of Weinstein's book, Perjury: The Hiss–Chambers Case. The book and the conclusions expressed. In 1997, editor Victor Navasky published what he claimed as evidence that Weinstein had misquoted, misrepresented, or misconstrued several of his interview subjects for Perjury. One of these subjects, Samuel Krieger, sued Weinstein for libel in 1979 for misquoting him and incorrectly identifying him as a fugitive murder suspect, leading Weinstein to settle out of court by issuing a public apology and paying Krieger $17,500. In 2004, Jon Wiener accused Weinstein in The Nation of breaching professional ethics by paying for exclusive access to Soviet archives for his 1999 book The Haunted Wood, of refusing to allow other researchers access to his personal archives.
Other sources, including Harvard professor Daniel Aaron, Sidney Hook, Irving Howe, Alfred Kazin and Garry Wills, support Weinstein's scholarship. Ellen Schrecker has "explicitly acknowledge that the 1999 publication of Allen Weinstein's The Haunted Wood convinced me of the guilt of the major communist spies." In 2009, historian Eduard Mark wrote