Parkside, South Australia
Parkside is an inner southern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It is located in the City of Unley; the suburb was once home to the mental health campus of the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Known as'The Parkside Asylum', it was the primary mental health facility in the state, occupied one-third of the suburb's area. Parkside Post Office opened on 10 December 1859 and was renamed Eastwood in 1967. Parkside lies on the southern boundary of the southern park lands, it is bounded, among others, by Glen Osmond, Greenhill and Fullarton roads. The 2011 Census by the Australian Bureau of Statistics counted 4,634 persons in Parkside on census night. Of these, 46.9% were male and 53.1% were female. The majority of residents are of Australian birth, with other common census responses being England and Italy; the age distribution of Parkside residents is comparable to that of the greater Australian population. 71.7% of residents were over 25 years in 2006, compared to the Australian average of 66.5%. The local newspaper is the Eastern Courier Messenger.
Other regional and national newspapers such as The Advertiser and The Australian are available. Parkside Primary School is located on Robsart Street. St Raphael's School is on Glen Osmond Road; the suburb is within dining precinct. One of the largest parks in Parkside is Howard Florey Reserve, on the corner of Campbell Road and Fullarton Road. Henry Codd Reserve lies between Maud Street and Fuller Street and connects via a walking trail to the Leicester Street playground. There is Mcleay Park, lying between George Street and Jaffrey Street. Most of these parks are fenced in. All have their own playgrounds; the suburb is serviced by several main roads. Unley and Fullarton roads connect the suburb to Adelaide city centre. Glen Osmond Road passes beside Parkside, linking the inner southeast of metropolitan Adelaide to the South Eastern Freeway. Public transport in Parkside is serviced by routes 172, run by the Adelaide Metro; the Adelaide to Glenelg tram line is very close to Parkside and there was once another tram line running south from the city.
List of Adelaide suburbs "City of Unley". Official website. City of Unley. Retrieved 14 April 2011
Glandore, South Australia
Glandore is a suburb of Adelaide, South Australia in the City of Marion and in the City of West Torrens. The name is believed to come from Glandore in County Cork, whence the family of John O'Dea, one of the original property owners of the area, came. Glandore lies south-west of Adelaide, halfway between the beachside suburb of Glenelg and the central business district, it is bordered by Anzac Highway, Cross Road, South Road, Beckman Street and Winifred Avenue. Suburbs surrounding Glandore include Edwardstown, Black Forest, Everard Park, Kurralta Park and Plympton; the Adelaide-Glenelg tramline runs through the middle of the suburb with stations at South Road, Burke Street and Beckman Street. North of the tramline, Glandore is in the City of West Torrens local government area, south of the tramline, it forms part of the City of Marion. A number of parks are located within the suburb boundaries, including Glandore Oval, Jubilee Park and the shared grounds of the Glandore Community Centre, Coast FM radio station, Community Centres SA.
The City of Marion section of Glandore was named Edwardstown and this area housed the former Windana Boys Home, a correctional facility for young males. List of Adelaide suburbs Glenelg tram
Black Forest, South Australia
Black Forest is an inner southern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It is located in the City of Unley, bounded by the Glenelg Tramline, the Seaford railway line, South Road and East Avenue. "A dense area of bush known as the Black Forest once covered the Unley region of the Adelaide Plains. The woodland forest was a mix of grey-box, blue gum, red gum, native pines and sheoak trees, with grass trees, native grasses and orchids; these plants had deep roots that held the soil together and the plant debris that fell on the earth decomposed releasing nutrients into the soil."In the early years of colonial settlement, the Black Forest was "frequented by bush rangers and cattle thieves". There have been three Post Offices named Black Forest: the first opened on 1 September 1899 and was renamed Glandore in 1915, the second opened on 10 November 1947 and was renamed Clarence Park West in 1966, the third, located on South Road between Byron and Cowper Roads, opened on 8 January 1996; the 2006 Census by the Australian Bureau of Statistics counted 1,846 persons in Black Forest on census night.
Of these, 47.2% were male and 52.8% were female. The majority of residents are of Australian birth, with other common census responses being England and Greece. Black Forest Primary School opened in 1919, it is located off School Avenue, between Forest Avenue and Addison Road. The east end of the school grounds are adjacent to the "Forest Avenue Reserve"; the Forest Avenue Reserve is located on Forest Avenue near the centre of the suburb. There is the Princess Margaret Playground, at the east end of Byron Road; the Uniting Church History Centre is based in the former Church of Christ building on East Avenue. The Clarence Park Community Centre is located in the Institute Building and surrounding buildings on the corner of East Avenue and Canterbury Terrace; the centre includes a childcare facility and a men's shed. Black Forest is serviced by South Road, to a lesser degree by East Avenue. Black Forest is serviced by three tram stops, two train stations and buses on East Avenue and South Road. All services are run by the Adelaide Metro.
List of Adelaide suburbs "City of Unley". Official website. City of Unley. Retrieved 14 April 2011
Unley Park, South Australia
Unley Park is a southern suburb of Adelaide in the City of Unley. Its postcode is 5061, it is located on east of the Belair railway line. Access via public transport is from the Unley Park railway station, Millswood railway station and the Unley Road "Go Zone". A feature of the district is leafy Victoria Avenue—Adelaide's wealthiest street, containing many large and luxurious houses built between the two World Wars. Politically, the suburb is safe for the Liberals. Unley Park Post Office opened on 2 January 1946 and closed in 1999. Two historic private schools were located on Thornber Street, Unley Park: Kyre College at number 4, Mrs. Thornber's School associated with Tormore House School, at number 39. Both were dissolved early in the 20th Century. Heywood Park
Electoral district of Badcoe
Badcoe is a single-member electoral district for the South Australian House of Assembly. It was created by the redistribution conducted in 2016, was contested for the first time at the 2018 state election. Badcoe lies south-west of the Adelaide city centre and includes the suburbs of Keswick, Forestville, Everard Park, Black Forest, Clarence Park, Clarence Gardens, Kurralta Park, Edwardstown, Ascot Park, North Plympton, South Plympton and parts of Millswood and Plympton. At its creation, Badcoe was projected to be notionally held by the Labor Party with a swing of 4.2% required to lose it. Badcoe is named after Peter John Badcoe who grew up in Adelaide before joining the Australian Army in 1952, he was killed in the Vietnam War. Badcoe was created as a replacement for Ashford, abolished at the 2018 state election. In February 2017 the member for Ashford, Steph Key, announced that she did not intend to contest the 2018 election. ECSA profile for Badcoe: 2018 ABC profile for Badcoe: 2018 Poll Bludger profile for Badcoe: 2018
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful