Clarence Saunders was an American grocer who first developed the modern retail sales model of self service. His ideas have had a massive influence on the development of the modern supermarket. Saunders worked for most of his life trying to develop a automated store, developing Piggly Wiggly and Foodelectric store concepts. Born in Virginia, to Abram Warwick and Mary Gregory, Saunders mother died. In 1891, his father moved the family to Montgomery County, where his father worked as a laborer and sharecropper. Saunders had only two years of formal education, instead he became self-educated through reading. At age 11, he worked in the sawmill and limestone kiln during the summer and at Burl Owens' general store in Palmyra, during the holidays. At age 17, Saunders worked the Blossburg, coke ovens and steel mill as a night watchman. At age 19, he started working in the wholesale grocery business for John Hurst and Joseph Boillin in Clarksville, Tennessee. Saunders married Carolyn Amy Walker on 6 October 1903.
In 1904, they moved to Memphis, where Saunders worked for the wholesale grocers Shanks, Phillips & Co William Cole Early for a short period, before returning to Shanks, Phillips. In February 1913, he created United Stores, Inc. with 21 retail customers, giving Shanks, Phillips control of wholesale purchasing and advertising. A jointly owned United Store was opened in June 1914. Saunders' three children, Clarence Jr. and Amy Carolyn, were born in 1903, 1909 and 1912 respectively. On 11 Sept. 1916, Saunders launched the self-service revolution in the United States by opening the first self-service Piggly Wiggly store, at 79 Jefferson Street in Memphis, Tennessee. Saunders had renovated his United Store, removing old countertops, replacing them with characteristic turnstiles at the entrance and exit, cabinets arranged along a continuous path, which ended at a cashier stand complete with adding machine and cash register; the 1,125 sq ft store included a front lobby, the continuous-path middle salesroom, rear stockroom.
The store incorporated shopping baskets, self-service branded products, checkouts at the front. Removing unnecessary clerks, creating elaborate aisle displays, rearranging the store to force customers to view all of the merchandise in a continuous path, were just some of the characteristics of the early Piggly Wiggly stores; the store stocked four times the variety of items found in an ordinary grocery store, but did not offer fresh meat in the original store. A refrigerator separated two of the aisles, offering cheese. Bins offered fruits and vegetables, while flour and other bulk good were pre-packaged and placed near the end of the shopper's journey through the aisles; the concept of the "Self-Serving Store" patent was filed by Saunders on 21 Oct. 1916, granted on 9 Oct. 1917 as Patent #1,242,872. Three new patent applications followed, including Patent #1,357,521 for the basic store design. Patent #1,297,405 was filed on 5 Feb. 1918 and granted on 18 March 1919, which covered his means of tagging prices next to the grocery item.
He was granted a patent for his idea of giving shoppers a printed receipt from the adding machine tape. Saunders listed Piggly Wiggly shares on the New York Stock Exchange in Feb. 1922. In April 1922, the company sold 50,000 new shares on the market at $43 a share. In 1921, there were 615 stores in 40 states. By 1923, Piggly Wiggly had grown into 1,267 stores, 667 owned by the company and the rest owned by franchisees; the company employed 250 people in Memphis. Stock in Piggly Wiggly Stores, Inc. paid a dividend of 11%. The success of Piggly Wiggly encouraged a raft of imitators, including Handy Andy stores, Helpy Selfy stores, Mick-or-Mack stores and Jitney Jungle, all of which operated under patented systems. In the early 1920s Saunders began construction of a pink marble mansion in Memphis. In early 1923, a group of franchised outlets in New York failed. Merrill Lynch and other speculators on Wall Street attempted a bear raid on the price of Piggly Wiggly stock, gambling the price would fall.
With a loan of $10 million from a number of Southern bankers, plus a bit of his own money, Saunders counteracted with a corner, buying a large amount of Piggly Wiggly stock in hopes of driving up the price. He flamboyantly declared his intent in newspaper ads. Saunders bought Piggly Wiggly stock until he had orders for 196,000 of the 200,000 outstanding shares; the firm's share price went from a low of $39 in late 1922 to $124 by March 20, 1923. Pressured by the'bears', the New York Stock Exchange declared a'corner' existed, gave the'bears' five days rather than 24 hours to deliver the stock Saunders had bought; the additional time meant "a flood of stock poured from distant points and gave the shorts opportunity to deliver."In the words of John Brooks, "...in mid-August, with the September 1st deadline for repayment of two and a half million dollars on his loan staring him in the face and with nothing like that amount of cash either on hand or in prospect, he resigned as president of Piggly Wiggly Stores, Inc. and turned over his assets-his stock in the company, his Pink Palace, all the rest of his property-to his creditors."The Pink Palace mansion became Memphis' first museum in 1930.
In 1928, Saunders went on to create the Clarence Saunders, Sole Owner of My Name Stores, Inc. grocery chain. The chain, known by the public as Sole Owner stores flourished; however the chain went into bankruptcy in 1930 during the Great Depression. In the late 1920s, to promote his newest grocery venture, Saunders founded a professional football team; the full name of the team was the Clarence S
The 2015–16 European Rugby Champions Cup pool stage was the first stage of the 21st season of European club rugby union, the second under the European Rugby Champions Cup format. It involved 20 teams competing, across 5 pools of 4 teams, for 8 quarter-final places – awarded to the 5 pool winners and the 3 top-ranked pool runners-up; the pool stage began on the weekend of 13 November 2015 but several games were postponed following the November 2015 Paris attacks. It was completed on the weekend of 23–25 January 2016. Twenty teams were seeded based on their performance in the three major European domestic leagues - the Premiership, the Pro12 and the Top 14. Teams were seeded based on their performance in the regular season, where applicable, subsequent play-off to determine a league champion. Where teams were eliminated in the same round of a knock-out tournament, their league position at the end of the regular season determined which team received a higher seed. Teams were placed into 4 Tiers, each containing 5 teams, based on their seeding.
A draw determined which two second seeded teams completed Tier 1, based on this, the fourth seeded teams were allocated to either Tier 2 and Tier 3. The brackets show their league; the draw took place on 17 June 2015, in Neuchâtel, Switzerland. During the pool stage, the teams will play the 3 other teams in their pool twice, both at home and away, Based on the result of the match, teams receive competition points as follows: 4 points for a win, 2 points for a draw, 1 attacking bonus point for scoring four or more tries in a match, 1 defensive bonus point for losing a match by seven points or less. Following the pool stage, the five winners from each group progress to the quarter-finals, along with the three best pool runners-up from the competition. To seed the quarter-finals, the five pool winners will be ranked 1st to 5th and the three best-placed runners-up ranked 6th to 8th, based on who got the most competition points. In the event of a tie between two or more teams from the same pool, the following criteria would be used as tie-breakers: The club with the greater number of competition points from only matches involving tied teams.
If equal, the club with the best aggregate points difference from those matches. If equal, the club that scored the most tries in those matches. If this did not separate teams, and/or the tie related to teams that did not played each other, the following tie breakers would be used: If equal, the club with the best aggregate points difference from the pool stage; the club that scored the most tries in the pool stage. If equal, the club with the fewest players suspended in the pool stage. If equal, the drawing of lots will determine a club's ranking
Benjamin Ulenga is a Namibian politician. In the 1990s, he served under the SWAPO government as a deputy minister and as an ambassador, but he left SWAPO in 1998 and founded an opposition party, the Congress of Democrats, in 1999, he was a member of the National Assembly of Namibia from 2000 to 2015 and led the CoD until 2015. Ulenga, born in Ontanga, Oshana Region, played an influential role in the independence struggle of Namibia against South African apartheid rule, he joined the People's Liberation Army of Namibia in 1974 but was captured after being wounded in combat and sentenced to 15 years in prison, which he spent on Robben Island. He was released in 1985. At that time he met Rosa Namises, they had two children together before separating in 1988. Prior to independence, he was a SWAPO member of the Constituent Assembly, in place from November 1989 to March 1990. After independence, he was a SWAPO member of the National Assembly from 1990 to 1996, he was Deputy Minister of Wildlife and Tourism from 1991 to 1995 before becoming Deputy Minister of Regional and Local Government and Housing in 1995.
He was appointed as Namibia's High Commissioner to the United Kingdom, but in August 1998 he resigned from that post to protest plans to amend the constitution so that President Sam Nujoma could run for a third term. He said that he would remain a member of SWAPO, but he subsequently left SWAPO and founded the opposition CoD in March 1999, he was the CoD candidate in the 1999 presidential election, placing second behind Nujoma and receiving 10.5% of the vote. He was elected to the National Assembly as a CoD candidate in the 1999 parliamentary election. At a CoD congress, Ulenga was re-elected as President of the CoD on August 1, 2004. In this election, he placed second with 7.28% of the vote, far behind SWAPO candidate Hifikepunye Pohamba. In the concurrent 2004 parliamentary election, he was re-elected to the National Assembly. At an extraordinary party congress held in Keetmanshoop in May 2008, Ulenga was re-elected as CoD President. Shixwameni claimed that his CoD faction represented the majority of the party.
In July 2008, the High Court ruled in favor of the Shixwameni faction, nullifying the May 2007 congress. Ulenga accepted the decision. In the 2009 general election, Ulenga's support dropped and he received 5,812 votes, which placed him in 9th place out of 12 candidates for President; this represented more than 50,000 fewer votes than he had received when he finished second to Pohamba in the 2004 campaign. The CoD lost four of five members of the National Assembly. Ulenga, was re-elected. There are speculations that Ulenga will rejoin SWAPO in 2017, nothing official has been announced yet
Zadruga is a Serbian reality TV series broadcasting on Pink TV, as a successor of the Farm reality TV series. The first season started on September 6, 2017; some 1,500 people works in production of this show. For scenography and technicians from Hollywood were hired. Contestants are covered with 140 cameras and viewers can follow the action from different angles; the Zadruga complex have climate control unit, able to create different weather conditions, i.e. snow in May, rain in August etc. In the show, contestants called "zadrugari" live together in a specially-constructed community, isolated from the outside world; the show's title refers to the term zadruga, a type of rural community in which the institution of zadruga held people's property and money in common, with the oldest member ruling and making decisions for the family. Contestants are voted out until only one wins the cash prize. During their stay in the house, they are continuously monitored by live television cameras as well as personal audio microphones.
Each week a new leader is selected, who has responsibilities to the whole community and special benefits. He or she has to give out budgets, which are meant for everyday use; the leader is supposed to choose two helpers and a favourite person. In the end of week two contestants will face the eviction. One of them is the helper with most votes received from other contestants and the other a contestant with least public votes through out that week. On Sunday night two of them will again face public vote, but they will play a game, which if won can double the percentage the contestant's votes and save him/her from the eviction; the complex includes the'White House', where the contestants live, hotel, in which the leader a favourite person live, the'Garden of Eden', where the'Wise Tree' is placed, a supermarket, casino, beauty parlour and a farm. Across the lake are the fast food restaurant, pawn shop, jail etc
Montavilla is a neighborhood in the Northeast and Southeast sections of Portland, United States, contains an area east of Mount Tabor and west of Interstate 205, from the Banfield to SE Division. It is bordered by North Tabor, Mount Tabor, Madison South and Powellhurst-Gilbert; the neighborhood was in the 1890s, named Mount Tabor Village, was a stopping point for travelers going from Hood River into Portland. The name "Montavilla" originated from the abbreviations used on the streetcar destination signs when streetcars served the area starting in 1892; the name was first abbreviated as "Mt. Ta. Villa" later as "Monta. Villa". Residents soon adopted the latter name for the neighborhood, written as Montavilla. Streetcar service to Montavilla ended in 1948. A stone milepost marker, the P5 marker, on SE Stark Street at 78th Avenue is left over from the circa 1854 Base Line Road that extended from the Sandy River to the Willamette River; the milepost marks a distance of five miles to the downtown courthouse.
It is among the markers. In the early-mid 1950s, the Asbahr Addition was developed between SE 89th and SE 92nd Avenues to the west and east, SE Taylor and SE Harrison Streets to the north and south, it is made of ranch-style houses. Chinese Village, a longtime neighborhood landmark, was demolished in July 2018; the Monastery of the Precious Blood, a 1923 building on the National Register of Historic Places, is on 76th Avenue. Founded in 2010, the Montavilla Food Co-op is working to bring a cooperative grocery to the neighborhood, though it does not have a storefront. Montavilla is home to the community organization Pollinator Parkways, which converts parking strips to wildlife habitat. Montavilla Street Fair is held each summer, bringing community members and local businesses together on the Stark strip; the neighborhood is served by the local Mid-County Memo newspaper. The Montavilla Farmers Market is held on Sundays at Stark; the southern portion of the neighborhood includes cultural center. Montavilla is home to Montavilla Park, a 9.46 acre park established in 1921.
It includes a Portland Timbers-sponsored futsal field, dedicated in August 2014. Montavilla includes Berrydale Park, Harrison Park, Montavilla Community Center. Vestal Community Garden is located near Vestal school. Vestal K-8 is located near the center of the neighborhood west of 82nd Avenue between E Burnside Street and NE Glisan Street. Creative Science School is a K-8 west of 92nd Avenue and north of SE Hawthorne Boulevard. Harrison Park School K-8 is located near the southern end of the neighborhood on SE 87th Avenue between Harrison Park and SE Division Street in the Jade District. Montavilla includes higher education institutions. Multnomah University, a nondenominational Christian university, is located north of Glisan Street adjacent to Montavilla Park. Portland Community College Southeast campus is located at the southwest boundary of the neighborhood at 82nd Avenue and Division Street; as a neighborhood center, SE Stark Street between 75th and 82nd Avenues provides a mix of commercial and retail services to residents and visitors.
It is a place where people can socialize, run their errands, window shop, dine at local restaurants. At the center of the area is the Academy Theater, built in 1948 and restored in 2006. Three roads bounding Montavilla—Division, I-84, I-205—are major transportation arteries, giving the neighborhood easy automobile access to the city center and outlying areas. Within Montavilla, Glisan and Stark Streets run east–west and 82nd Avenue runs north–south; the Max serves one stop in Montavilla, at 82nd Avenue, another at the Gateway Transit Center, just outside the boundary. The neighborhood is the future home to the Seventies Neighborhood Greenway, which will address a gap in north-south bicycle and pedestrian facilities near NE 82nd Avenue. Current greenways run north–south on 86th Avenue and east–west along Mill Street; the state-managed highway OR 213, locally referred to as 82nd Avenue, bisects the neighborhood from north to south. It is a commercial street, directly surrounded by dense neighborhoods of single-family homes.
Because 82nd Avenue runs through the neighborhood, residents cross this five-lane road for school, work, or recreation. The intersection of 82nd and Glisan Street is among the city's identified high-crash intersections, it is ranked by the City of Portland as the most dangerous intersection within Portland for pedestrians, however no public plans have been announced to improve this intersection; the intersections with SE Division and E Burnside are identified as high-crash intersections. In an attempt to improve the quality of life around 82nd Avenue, the 82nd Avenue Improvement Coalition was formed. Media related to Montavilla, Oregon at Wikimedia Commons Guide to Montavilla Neighborhood Montavilla Neighborhood Association Montavilla East Tabor Business Association Montavilla Street Tree Inventory
Charles Hunt Porter was an American businessman and politician who served as the first mayor of Quincy, Massachusetts. Porter was born on April 1843 in Weymouth, Massachusetts; when he was six weeks old his family moved to Quincy, where he resided for the remainder of his life. He attended grammar and high school in Quincy and engaged in the insurance business until July 1, 1862, when he enlisted in the Union Army. Porter served in the 39th Massachusetts Regiment for three years during the American Civil War, he mustered out as a captain, but was given an honorary commission as a lieutenant colonel. Upon his return from the war, Porter returned to the insurance business with W. Co.. He became a partner of the firm, he served as a director of the Quincy Mutual Fire Insurance Co. a trustee of the Quincy Savings Bank, director/president of the Quincy Water Co. Porter was the president of the Boston Red Stockings of the National League from 1873 through 1874. During his tenure as president, the club made a tour of England.
In 1900, Porter was part of a group that attempted to secure a Boston franchise in the new American League. Porter negotiated a deal for the club to play in Charles River Park in Cambridge and had selected a person to manage the affairs of the team, but his group backed out after the league's backers met with a rival group. Boston would join the American League in 1901 when Cleveland businessman Charles Somers formed what would become the Boston Red Sox. Porter was a member of the Adams Academy's board of management from the school's organization in 1871 until 1888. Porter was a member of the Quincy board of selectmen from 1879 to 1880. From 1881 to 1882 he represented Weymouth in the Massachusetts House of Representatives. In 1888, Porter was elected Mayor of Quincy in the city's first mayoral election. Porter served on Quincy's school committee for seven years and was a member of the inaugural Quincy's park commission. Porter served a member of the state board of health during the governorships of Roger Wolcott and Curtis Guild Jr.
In 1899 he was appointed to the state civil service commission. In 1910 he was appointed by Governor Eben Sumner Draper to serve on a commission that investigated and reported on the care of tuberculosis patients. Porter underwent an operation in the spring of 1910, his health declined afterwards and he died on August 10, 1911 at his home in Quincy