The bugle is one of the simplest brass instruments, having no valves or other pitch-altering devices. All pitch control is done by varying the player's embouchure; the bugle is limited to notes within the harmonic series. See bugle call for scores to standard bugle calls, all consisting of only five notes; these notes are known as the bugle scale. The bugle developed from early musical or communication instruments made of animal horns, with the word "bugle" itself coming from "buculus", Latin for bullock; the earliest bugles were shaped in a coil – a double coil, but a single or triple coil – similar to the modern horn, were used to communicate during hunts and as announcing instruments for coaches. Predecessors and relatives of the bugle included the post horn, the Pless horn, the bugle horn; the ancient Roman army used the buccina. The first verifiable formal use of a brass bugle as a military signal device was the Halbmondbläser, or half-moon bugle, used in Hanover in 1758, it was comfortably carried by a shoulder strap attached at the mouthpiece and bell.
It first spread to England in 1764 where it was accepted in foot regiments. 18th-century cavalry did not use a standard bugle, but rather an early trumpet that might be mistaken for a bugle today, as it lacked keys or valves, but had a more gradual taper and a smaller bell, producing a sound more audible at close range but with less carrying power over distance. The bugle is used in the military and Boy Scouts, where the bugle call is used to indicate the daily routines of camp; the bugle was used in the cavalry to relay instructions from officers to soldiers during battle. They were used to give marching orders to the camps; the bugle is used in Boy Scout troops and in the Boys' Brigade. The Rifles, an infantry regiment in the British Army, has retained the bugle for ceremonial and symbolic purposes; the bugle has been used as a sign of peace in the case of a surrender. The cornet is sometimes erroneously considered to be the "valved version" of the bugle, although it was derived from the French cornet de poste and the cor de chasse, itself another signalling instrument.
19th century variants based on the standard bugle included both valved bugles. Keyed bugles were invented in England in the early 19th century, with a patent for one design, the Royal Kent bugle, taken out by Joseph Halliday in 1811; this bugle was popular and in use until c. 1850 – for example, in works by Richard Willis bandmaster of the United States Military Academy Band at West Point. This variant of the bugle fell out of use with the invention of the valved cornet. Modern instruments classified as bugles are valved. Soprano bugle Alto bugle Baritone bugle Contrabass bugle Ralph T. Dudgeon, The Keyed Bugle, Scarecrow Press, 2004, ISBN 0-8108-5123-7 Janet Chiefari, Introducing the Drum and Bugle Corps, Olympic Marketing Corp, 1982, ISBN 0-396-08088-X Evolution of the Bugle Bugle in C by Thomas Key and William Trayls, London, 1811 at The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española
The Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española is a dictionary of the Spanish language, written by Sebastián de Covarrubias in 1611. It was the first monolingual dictionary of the Castilian language, with its lexicon defined in Spanish; the etymological dictionary was among the first of its type published in Europe in a vernacular language. Sebastián de Covarrubias began writing what would become the Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española in the spring of 1605, he completed the work over the course of three years, writing in Cuenca. Covarrubias, sixty-six years old when he began the project, decided to reduce the number of words after the letter ⟨C⟩, fearing he may die before finishing the project. Covarrubias's stated intention was to develop an etymological dictionary to trace the origins of Castilian, modeled on the Etymologiae by Isidore of Seville, who had done the same for Latin. Covarrubias adopted Isidore's idea that the original form of a word is related to its original meaning, so that investigating etymology reveals the origin and deeper meaning of things.
The quality of Covarrubias's etymologies were prone to fanciful speculation, in line with other etymological work of the time. He was interested in connecting Spanish words to Hebrew, considered the original language of humanity before the Tower of Babel. Covarrubias was aware of contemporary work in lexicography from other countries, including Jean Pallet's Dictionnaire très ample de la langue espagnole et françoise and Jean Nicot's Trésor de la langue français, he aimed to give foreigners a sense of the propriety and elegance of the Spanish language, to the honor of the Spanish nation. The lexicon consists of about 11,000 entries. Including words that do not have their own entry but are defined in sections treating other words, the number of etymologies rises to about 17,000 according to Martí de Riquer; the lexicon features inconsistencies in alphabetic order. Spelling reflects the instability of written Spanish prior to the establishment of the Spanish Academy, so that a single word may be spelled several different ways in different sections of the book.
Covarrubias was a supporter of phonetic spelling, but his own spelling was not always consistent with the principle. The book takes a broad view of the lexicon, including regionalisms, slang and archaisms; the length of entries is uneven, ranging from a few lines to as many as eight pages. Most entries are between twenty lines; some entries are organized by lexeme, including several words with the same root, which can make searches difficult. Polysemic words – those with several related meanings – are sometimes given separate entries, but sometimes treated within a single article. Spelling or pronunciation variants are sometimes within a single entry but sometimes treated separately; the structure of each entry is inconsistent, featuring a mixture of linguistic and encyclopedic data. Linguistic information includes definitions, examples from literature, Latin equivalents, etymology. Encyclopedic information includes explanations of the object to which the word refers, issues relating to symbolism, texts that illustrate the topic, moral judgments, trivia.
Not all entries contain each sort of data. Between 1611 and 1612 Covarrubias began work on a supplement to the Treasury; the supplement included new items as well as additions to articles in the original publication. This included a total of most corresponding to proper names. Only 429 items in the supplement treated common words. Particular attention was given to technical language. In 2001 a partial transcription of Covarrubias's supplement was published from a manuscript found in the Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid; the initial print run of the Treasury produced just 1,000 copies, the volume was not reprinted until 1674. In that year Benito Remigio Noydens, a Spanish priest and author, produced a new edition. Remigio Noydens' volume added 326 new entries, consisting of encyclopedic information taken from the Glosario de voces oscuras by Alejo Venegas. Covarrubias achieved greater recognition after the founding of the Real Academia Española in 1713; the Academy relied on the Treasury as a major source for its own Diccionario de autoridades, the authoritative dictionary now known as the Diccionario de la lengua española.
In the preface to the Diccionario de autoridades the academy recognizes Covarrubias' work as a predecessor in the scholarly canon. Other dictionaries rely on content from the Treasury multilingual dictionaries and other seventeenth century dictionaries of Spanish; these include the Thresor de deux langues françoise et spagnole by César Oudin, the Ductor in linguas by John Minsheu, the Vocabolario italiano e spagnolo by Lorenzo Franciosini. Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española at Google Books Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española, digital edition at Universidad de Sevilla. Eberenz, Rolf. "Sebastián de Covarrubias y. Sobre las precisiones geolingüisticas del Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española" [Sebastián de Covarrubias and the regional varieties of Spanish
History of primitive, ancient Western and non-Western trumpets
The chromatic trumpet of Western tradition is a recent invention, but primitive trumpets of one form or another have been in existence for millennia. The earliest of these primordial trumpets were adapted from animal horns and sea shells, were common throughout Europe, India and, to a lesser extent, the Middle East. Primitive trumpets found their way to most parts of the globe, though today indigenous varieties are quite rare in the Americas, the Far East and South-East Asia; some species of primitive trumpets can still be found in remote places, where they have remained untouched by the passage of time. For the most part, these primitive instruments were "natural trumpets":, to say, they had none of those devices by which the pitch of an instrument might be altered, it is in fact quite exceptional to come across a chromatic trumpet – primitive or otherwise –, not derived from the chromatic trumpet of Western tradition. The simplest – and the earliest – type of trumpet was made from the hollowed-out horn or shell of an animal, into the end of which a hole was bored for the mouth.
This "trumpet" had neither a mouthpiece nor a bell, was not so much a musical instrument as a megaphone into which one spoke, sang, or shouted. The intention was to distort the voice and produce a harsh, unnatural sound to ward off evil spirits or disconcert one's enemies. Only was the trumpet used to invoke friendly gods or to encourage one's own warriors on the battlefield. Only one or two different pitches could be produced on such an instrument, though sometimes a small fingerhole was bored in the tip to provide the player with an extra pitch. Most of these early trumpets were end-blown, like the modern trumpet; as they were played only by men, they acquired strong phallic overtones. The tradition of playing trumpet or bugle fanfares at sunrise, at funerals evolved from these ancient rituals; the use of the trumpet as an instrument of warfare and the chase is as old. Its strident sound and animal origins must have suggested a wild or belligerent nature at a early date, while the ritualistic uses to which it was put only served to strengthen its associations with death and male-oriented activities.
Animal-horn trumpets are still employed today in Africa, though they are found in Israel and Oceania. With the exception of African varieties, most are end-blown instruments from which the tip has been removed to provide a mouthhole. In the majority of cases the player's lips are applied directly to the mouthhole. Cattle, sheep and antelopes are among the animals whose horns are – or have been – most used to make such trumpets; the following examples may be noted: The Sumerian si was the ordinary word for animal horn. Literary references show that as an instrument it was played in the streets by the herald who delivered public announcements; the Jewish shofar is the best-known animal-horn trumpet. It is made from a ram's horn, though the horn of any kosher animal other than a cow or calf may be used; the shofar, still employed in Jewish religious ceremonies today, is an ancient instrument. It can produce only two pitches; these acoustical details apply to most animal-horn trumpets. The Indian shringa, or ṣṛnga, was made from the horn of the buffalo, though the term was applied to any kind of horn or trumpet, irrespective of its origin.
In the south of the country the general name of the instrument is kombu, a Dravidian term which means "horn". The shringa is an end-blown instrument, though one particular variety – the singha of Orissa – is side-blown; the shringa and its close relations are known by various names in different parts of India: singe, reli'ki, visan and kohuk. India's national epic, the Mahābhārata, mentions the govishanika, thought to have been a cow's horn. Many species of shringa can still be found in India today; the Greek keras and the Etrusco-Roman cornu were simple animal-horn trumpets, though both were superseded by more advanced instruments to which they lent their names. The Germanic cowhorn, or Stierhorn, made from the horn of an aurochs or buffalo; the rwa-dun is a Tibetan ram's-horn trumpet similar to the Jewish shofar. It has been used for centuries in Buddhist ceremonies for the purposes of exorcism; the Latvian āžrag was made from a goat's horn, was blown by young men in the summertime to announce their intention to take a wife.
The engombe is a side-blown trumpet found in Uganda.
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
An organ stop is a component of a pipe organ that admits pressurized air to a set of organ pipes. Its name comes from the fact; the term can refer to the control that operates this mechanism called a stop tab, stop knob, or drawknob. On electric or electronic organs that imitate a pipe organ, the same terms are used, with the exception of the Hammond organ and clonewheel organs, which use the term "drawbar"; the term is sometimes used as a synonym for register, referring to rank of pipes controlled by a single stop. Registration is the art of combining stops to produce a certain sound; the phrase "pull out all the stops" has entered general usage, for deploying all available means to pursue a goal. Organ pipes are physically organized within the organ into sets according to timbre. A set of pipes producing the same timbre for each note is called a rank, while each key on a pipe organ controls a note which may be sounded by different ranks of pipes, alone or in combination; the use of stops enables the organist to selectively turn off certain ranks in order to produce different combinations of sounds, as opposed to hearing all sounds simultaneously.
A stop may be linked to a multiple ranks. While nowadays one speaks of "drawing" a stop to select a particular rank or set of ranks, the earliest organs were constructed with all ranks "on" by default; the mechanism for operating the stops varies but the principle is the same: the stop control at the console allows the organist to select which ranks of pipes will sound when a key is pressed. When the organist desires a rank to sound, they operate the corresponding control at the console, allowing wind to flow to the pipes; the organist can deny wind to the pipes by operating the same control in the opposite direction. Common stop controls include stop knobs, which move in and out of the console, stop tabs, which toggle back and forth in position; some organs smaller historical organs from England, Spain or Portugal, feature divided registers, in which there are two stop knobs for certain ranks. One stop knob will control the upper portion of the keyboard, the other will control the lower portion of the keyboard.
This arrangement allows the upper portion of the keyboard to sound a different registration than the lower portion, which lends a greater versatility to smaller organs those with only one manual. Ranks which are neither divided nor extended contain as many pipes as there are keys on the keyboard to which they are assigned: in most cases 61 pipes for a rank assigned to a manual and 32 pipes for a rank assigned to the pedal. Over the course of the history of the pipe organ, there have been several different designs by which stops are actuated. In the longest-standing design, known as the slider chest, there is a strip of material called a slider which fits underneath a given rank of pipes; the slider has small holes drilled in one for each pipe in the rank. When the stop is set such that pipes are inactive, the holes are misaligned with the pipes, preventing the air from flowing up into the pipes above; when the stop is set such that the pipes are active, the slider moves over, aligning the holes with the pipes, allowing air to reach them.
Because the slider chest was developed before the advent of electricity, it is inherently mechanical in nature. Many organs built with mechanical actuators have been retrofitted with electric actuators. Other common designs include the spring chest, the cone valve chest, the Pitman chest; the term unification refers to the practice of expanding the tonal resources of an organ without adding more pipes by allowing several different stops to control the same rank of pipes. For example, an 8′ Gedeckt may be made available as a 4′ Gedeckt, either on the same or a different manual; when both of these stops are selected and a key is pressed, two pipes of the same rank will sound: the pipe corresponding to the key played, the pipe one octave above that. Borrowing or duplexing refers to one rank being made available from multiple stop knobs on different manuals or pedal. Extension refers to the addition of extra pipes to the high and/or low ends of a rank in order to allow that rank to be borrowed by higher and/or lower stops.
Unification and borrowing is related to pipe organs with physical pipes. While unification and extension increase the tonal resources and flexibility of the organ, greater care needs to be taken by the organist in registering the organ when the composition requires many notes to sound at the same time. In a non-unified organ, voices are scaled for their intended job; as an example, the octave diapason is of a smaller scale and softer than the corresponding 8' diapason rank, whereas in unification they would be of the same strength due to using the same set of pipes. Straight reed choruses have the luxury of ranks with different timbres, whereas a unified reed chorus has voices that are identical. Playing with all stops out on a unified/duplexed organ may result in chords that sound thinner or emphasize higher harmonics on some notes more than others, due to notes in different octaves using the same pipes instead of having their own. Part of an organist's training is to detect unification and duplexing and to
The post horn is a valveless cylindrical brass instrument with a cupped mouthpiece. The instrument was used to signal the departure of a post rider or mail coach, it was used by postilions of the 18th and 19th centuries. The post horn is sometimes confused with the coach horn, though the two types of horn served the same principal purpose, they differ in their physical appearance; the post horn has a cylindrical bore and was used on a coach pulled by two horses. The coach horn, on the other hand, has a conical was used on a coach pulled by four horses; the post horn is no more than 32 inches in length, whereas the coach horn can be up to 36 inches long. The latter has more of a funnel-shaped bell. Post horns need not be straight but can be coiled – they have a smaller bore – and they are made of brass. A post horn will have a slide for tuning, it is used in South East Asia including the Philippines. John Lloyd was one of the users of post horn in the 1900s; the instrument is an example of a natural horn.
The cornet was developed from the post horn through the addition of valves. Some uses of the post horn in modern-day culture can be found in screen plays. In the late 17th century, Johann Beer composed a Concerto à 4 in B♭, which paired a post horn with a corne de chasse as the two solo instruments, accompanied by violins and basso continuo. Mozart composed his Serenade No. 9, the "Post horn Serenade", in 1779. Mahler and others incorporated the post horn into their orchestras for certain pieces. On such occasions, the orchestra's horn player performs with the instrument. One example of post horn use in modern classical music is the famous off-stage solo in Mahler's Third Symphony. Due to the scarcity of this instrument, music written for it is played on a trumpet, cornet or flugelhorn. In 1844, the German cornet player Hermann Koenig wrote Post Horn Gallop as a solo for post horn with orchestral accompaniment. In the 20th century it became a popular piece for brass bands. An imitation of the post horn's fanfare was a common device in music describing, or referring to, the post coach or travel in general.
Notable examples include Bach's Capriccio on the departure of a beloved brother, which includes an "Aria di postiglione" and a "Fuga all'imitazione della cornetta di postiglione", both containing the characteristic octave jump typical for the instrument. Handel's Belshazzar includes, in the second act, a "Sinofonia" that uses a similar motif depicting Belshazzar's messengers leaving on a mission. A similar movement is included in the third "Production" of Telemann's Tafelmusik. Beethoven's Les adieux piano sonata is centered on a horn-like motif, again signifying the departure of a loved-one. Schubert's Winterreise includes the song "Die Post", of which the piano part prominently features a horn signal motif. During World War I wooden post horns were used as a means of collecting war donations via a method called the Nail Men. People would donate and in exchange be allowed to hammer a nail into the horn, until the horn was covered. Since 1941 the post horn has been played on bugle, at the beginning of home matches of Leicester City Football Club of Association Football in Britain.
The post horn is used in the logo of national post services of many countries. The post horn is included in Unicode as U+1F4EF. Australia Post Bâlgarski poshti Belposhta Bpost – features a stylistic postal horn Česká pošta Correos CTT – features a rider on horseback carrying a straight horn Cyprus Postal Services Deutsche Post Eesti Post Hrvatska pošta Íslandspóstur Jersey Post Lietuvos paštas Magyar Posta Makedonska Pošta MaltaPost – features a horn with a Maltese cross in the middle Österreichische Post Pakistan Post P&TLuxembourg Poczta Polska Poşta Moldovei Poşta Română Posta Shqiptare Pošta Slovenije Post Danmark PostBus Switzerland Posten AB PTT Slovenská pošta Ukrposhta Until 2002, the Finnish Postal and Telegraph Administration and its successors featured a postal horn in their logos; the logo from 1987 onwards had a single symbol combining telegraph symbols. French horn Little Post Horn Squid The Crying of Lot 49, by Thomas Pynchon Postage stamps and postal history of Germany Postage stamps and postal history of Norway Serenade No.
9, the "Posthorn" serenade Video of Koenig's Post Horn Gallop performed by Steve Fletcher and Jerry Clack of The London Banqueting Ensemble. Post horn calls. Hungarian Post Co. Links to sound files; the Sound of Post Horns – Strains from a Past Era – Museumsposten – © Post & Tele Museum, Denmark