Interstate 80 in Pennsylvania
The transcontinental Interstate 80 is designated across northern Pennsylvania as the Keystone Shortway the Z. H. Confair Memorial Highway; this route was built along a new alignment, not paralleling any earlier U. S. Routes, as a shortcut to the tolled Pennsylvania Turnpike and New York State Thruway, it does not serve any major cities in Pennsylvania, serves as a cross-state route on the Ohio-New York City corridor. Most of I-80's path across the state goes through hilly and mountainous terrain, while the route passes through flat areas toward the western tier of the state. Interstate 80 serves many smaller cities in central to northern Pennsylvania including Sharon, Clarion, DuBois, Lock Haven, Bloomsburg and Stroudsburg, it passes close to three larger cities–Williamsport, State College, Wilkes-Barre. Most of the route in Pennsylvania is within a rural setting, with the exception of the Stroudsburg area, closer to the New York City and Philadelphia metropolitan areas, is suburban and populated.
From the state of Ohio, I-80 enters the Western Pennsylvania area which encompasses Mercer, Butler, Clarion and Clearfield Counties. In Mercer County, I-80 intersects I-376 in I-79 in Findley Township. Jefferson County at mile marker 73 is known for the city of Punxsutawney, the location of the famous groundhog Punxsutawney Phil who predicts the weather on Groundhog Day. In Clearfield County, I-80 passes by the city of Dubois at mile marker 101. East of exit 111, I-80 reaches its highest elevation east of the Mississippi River, 2,250 feet. A sign prominently displays this fact about the Interstate. I-80 enters Centre County around mile marker 138 and intersects I-99 at exit 161, the main connecting point to the Pennsylvania Turnpike and Pennsylvania State University. US 220 is concurrent between exits 161 and 178 where it heads towards Lock Haven, home to the Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania. Around mile marker 191, Pennsylvania Route 880 follows a parallel alignment within the median between the eastbound and westbound lanes for a half-mile, an unusual arrangement in Pennsylvania.
It is common to see horse-drawn carriages from the nearby Amish communities travelling this highway-within-a-highway. At mile marker 199, I-80 approaches the Williamsport area, the venue of the Little League World Series in Lycoming County, while passing through Union County. I-80 intersects I-180 at exit 212. I-80 enters the Northeastern Pennsylvania area to include points Northumberland County and east to New Jersey. In Montour County at mile marker 224, it approaches the Bloomsburg area, home to the Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania. I-80 passes by the Wilkes-Barre/Scranton area in Luzerne County. At exit 260, a connection can be made via I-81 to Harrisburg to the south and Wilkes-Barre and Syracuse, NY to the north. I-80 intersects I-476 at exit 277 in Carbon County for connections to Allentown and Philadelphia to the south. Exit 277 serves PA 940 and Hickory Run State Park. Just east of the PA Turnpike, I-80 crosses into Monroe County. Exit 284 connects to PA 115 near Lake Harmony. Exit 293 is an interchange with I-380 near Pocono Pines for a connection to I-84 to New England and Scranton towards the north.
Between exits 293 and 298, there is a rest area on the eastbound side with public restrooms and picnic tables, but no food or gas. Around exit 298, I-80 approaches the Stroudsburg and East Stroudsburg areas, a more suburban and populated region home to the East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania and the ski resort areas of the eastern Pocono Mountains. Stroudsburg is the seat for Monroe County. PA 611 follows I-80 through the area between exits 298 and 310, acting as a local alternative. Exit 298 is eastbound entrance, connecting to PA 611 in Scotrun. Exit 299 serves PA 715 in Tannersville, as well as a local outlet mall. Exit 302 on the eastbound side and exit 304 on the westbound side connect to PA 33 and US 209, which connect to Easton and Allentown towards the south. Exit 302 in both directions serves PA 611 in Bartonsville. I-80 and US 209 are concurrent with each other through most of Stroudsburg and East Stroudsburg, between exits 304 and 309. Exits 303, 305, 306, 307 serve downtown Stroudsburg and exit 308 serves downtown East Stroudsburg and the East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania.
I-80 splits with US 209 at exit 309. Shortly after at exit 310, PA 611 intersects I-80 for the last time before starting its southerly route down the Delaware River moving away from I-80. I-80 continues east into the Delaware Water Gap, entering the state of New Jersey via the Delaware Water Gap Toll Bridge, with eastbound signage pointing towards New York City; the corridor now served by I-80 was to be a branch of the Pennsylvania Turnpike from Sharon to Stroudsburg. Planning was shifted to the Pennsylvania Department of Highways in 1956 with the passage of the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act. In early plans for the Interstate Highway System, the connection across northern Pennsylvania would have paralleled U. S. Route 6N and U. S. Route Pennsylvania east to Scranton. From Scranton a route went southeast along U. S. Route 611 to the Stroudsburg area, east along U. S. Route 46 to near New York City. On May 22, 1957, a request by Pennsylvania to move the corridor
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Pennsylvania Route 28
Pennsylvania Route 28 is a major state highway which runs for 98 miles from Anderson Street in Pittsburgh to U. S. Route 219 in Brockway in Pennsylvania. From Pittsburgh to Kittanning it is a 44.5-mile-long limited access expressway named the Alexander H. Lindsay Memorial Highway or the Allegheny Valley Expressway. Route 28 begins adjacent to Downtown Pittsburgh at Anderson Street near the Interstate 279 /I-579 interchange and travels north/northeast along the northern bank of the Allegheny River; until the route was a surface street for the first two miles until the 40th Street Bridge and an expressway from 40th Street to Kittanning. Upgrades in 2013 made it a limited-access highway throughout its 44.5 miles in the Pittsburgh metropolitan area from the route's start at I-279 to Rayburn Township, Armstrong County, with Governor Tom Corbett attending the completion ceremony on November 17, 2014. In Etna, PA 28 interchanges with Pennsylvania Route 8 at exit 5 before departing the Blue Belt, which PA 28 is part of from I-279/I-579 to this point, at exit 6 near Aspinwall.
Near Harmar Township, PA 28 meets Pennsylvania Route 910 at exit 11 which provided access to Interstate 76. From exit 11 to U. S. Route 422 west of Kittanning, PA 28 has eight interchanges, including exits with Pittsburgh Mills Boulevard, Pennsylvania Route 366, Pennsylvania Route 356, while continuing to parallel the Allegheny to the east. Exit 18 consists of Pennsylvania Route 128 crossing or which used to be old 28 before the expressway. At exit 19, PA 28 merges with the limited-access US 422 and heads east along US 422 as it proceeds south of West Kittanning. Upon crossing the Allegheny River and entering Kittanning, US 422 and PA 28 interchange with Pennsylvania Route 66. PA 66 joins the concurrency for two miles to an exit with U. S. Route 422 Business southeast of downtown Kittanning. Here, US 422 leaves the freeway and heads east toward Indiana while PA 28 and PA 66 remain concurrent as they progress northward; the 41-mile-long freeway ends with a concurrency with Pennsylvania Route 66.
In Rayburn Township, PA 28/PA 66 intersects the western terminus of Pennsylvania Route 85. After PA 85, PA 28/PA 66 head towards the northeast. In South Bethlehem, PA 28/PA 66 become North Street and Broad Street intersecting the northern terminus of Pennsylvania Route 839. After crossing the Redbank Creek, PA 28/PA 66 enters New Bethlehem. In downtown New Bethlehem, PA 66 splits off from PA 28 and making the PA 28/PA 66 concurrency one of the longest concurrencies in Pennsylvania. After the split, PA 28 heads northeast as Broad Street paralleling the Redbank Creek. In Hawthorn, PA 28 is called Brookville Street and meets the western terminus of Pennsylvania Route 536. North of PA 536, PA 28 begins to slide to the north instead of the northeast. In Summerville, PA 28's course begins to slide towards the northeast again and in Summerville, PA 28 is called Harrison Street. In Clover and Rose townships, PA 28 parallels many railroads tracks that cross it. In Brookville, PA 28 has a Wrong-way concurrency with U.
S. Route 322 and Pennsylvania Route 36; the reason of the Wrong-way concurrency is that PA 28 is heading north while PA 36 is heading south on the concurrency with US 322. In downtown Brookville, PA 36 splits off from US 322/PA 28. After crossing the North Fork Creek, US 322/PA 28 meet the southern terminus of the former Pennsylvania Route 968. East of here, US 322 splits off from PA 28 at a "T" interchange. East of Brookville in Pine Creek Township, PA 28 intersects Interstate 80 at exit 81 a Diamond interchange. North of I-80, PA 28 continues north as a local road without intersecting another route for more than 14 miles. PA 28 passes through the many wildlife in Pennsylvania through a forest region. In Brockway, PA 28 is called Main Street before terminating at a "T" intersection with U. S. Route 219; the highway was signed in 1927 from Pittsburgh to Kittanning. The highway was extended north to Brockway in 1928. In 1928, the route was under construction from Blawnox to Cheswick, Troy Hill Road to Oakland, Hazen to Reitz Crossing Road.
Those sections were completed the following year. In 1929, the section from Avella to Woodrow and from Hickory to Fort Cherry Road was under construction and finished the following year. In 1930, the section from Skyline Road to PA 18 was paved as well as in Venice; that year the western terminus was moved from Avella to Independence. In 1958, the highway was widened and a median installed at the interchange with the Turnpike. On July 15, 1960, the highways southern terminus was moved from Independence to PA 8 in Etna; the former section of PA 28 from South Main St. in the West End Valley to the intersection of Noblestown Rd. and Crafton Blvd. in Crafton Heights was redesignated as PA 60. The remaining 83-mile stretch from Crafton Heights to Independence was renumbered PA 50; this designation change was made to reduce the number of concurrent routes in Pittsburgh. The changes took effect a few months and signs were changed by spring 1961. In 1963, this section opened to traffic from PA 8 north to the Highland Park Bridge interchange and the following year to Blawnox.
That year, the Pittsburgh Area Transportation Plan recommended upgrading PA 28 and PA 8, to a six-lane, limited-access highway starting 2,200 feet west of the 31st Street Bridge and ending at the 40th Street Bridge. Full interchanges would be constructed at both bridges, it laid out a plan that would turn PA 28 into an expressway from Pittsburgh to Brookville, this too was not carried out. In 1964, the highway was widened and a median install
Pennsylvania Route 338
Pennsylvania Route 338 is a 13.6-mile-long state highway located in Clarion County, Pennsylvania. The western terminus is at PA 58 in Richland Township; the eastern terminus is at US 322 in Ashland Township. PA 338 begins at an intersection with PA 58 in the community of Alum Rock in Richland Township, heading north on a two-lane undivided road; the route passes through the residential community of Turkey City. North of here, the road passes under I-80 before curving to the east and running through agricultural areas with some homes, heading into Beaver Township and passing through Monroe. PA 338 crosses over I-80 again and runs near more farmland before turning southeast through a woodland area. After passing through the residential community of Blairs Corners, the route curves northeast and passes under I-80 again. After this, the road passes through more woodland before continuing into agricultural areas. PA 338 heads north-northeast through a mix of farmland and woodland with some residences, crossing into Knox.
At this point, the route becomes Main Street and runs past homes, intersecting PA 208. Following this intersection, the road curves northwest and crosses back into Beaver Township, running through more areas of farms and woods with occasional residences as an unnamed road. PA 338 enters Ashland Township and continues northwest through more rural areas, turning to the north before ending at US 322 in Kossuth; the entire route is in Clarion County. U. S. Roads portal Pennsylvania portal