Pike County, Illinois
Pike County is a county in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 United States Census, it had a population of 16,430, its county seat is Pittsfield. Pike County was formed in January 1821 out of Madison County, it was named in honor of Zebulon Pike, leader of the Pike expedition in 1806 to map out the south and west portions of the Louisiana Purchase. Pike served at the Battle of Tippecanoe, was killed in 1813 in the War of 1812. Prior to the coming of the first European settler to the future Pike County, French traders and travelers passed through the native forests and prairies. Pike County began on the south junction of the Illinois and Mississippi rivers; the east boundary was the Illinois River north to the Kankakee River to the Indiana State line on north to Wisconsin territorial line and west to the Mississippi River to the original point at the south end. The first county seat was Cole's Grove, a post town, in what became Calhoun County; the Gazetteer of Illinois and Missouri, published in 1822, mentioned Chicago as "a village of Pike County" containing 12 or 15 houses and about 60 or 70 inhabitants.
The New Philadelphia Town Site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2005 and designated a National Historic Landmark in 2009. Founded by Frank McWorter, an early free black settler in Pike County, it was the first town founded by a black man in the United States. McWorter had invested in land there sight unseen after purchasing the first few members of his family out of slavery. In 1836 he founded the town of New Philadelphia, near Barry, he lived there the rest of his life. With the sale of land, he made enough money to purchase the freedom of his children. After the railroad bypassed the town, its growth slowed and it was abandoned in the 20th century; the town site is now an archaeological site. In the early 21st century, Pike County acquired notability as a whitetail deer hunting center for bowhunting. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 849 square miles, of which 831 square miles is land and 18 square miles is water. Pike County is located on the highlands between the Illinois River, which forms its eastern border, the Mississippi River, the county's western border.
It has two interstate highways, I-72, with bridges spanning both rivers to enter the county, I-172 which extends about 300 feet into the county to its intersection with I-72. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Pittsfield have ranged from a low of 15 °F in January to a high of 86 °F in July, although a record low of −25 °F was recorded in February 1905 and a record high of 115 °F was recorded in July 1954. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.74 inches in January to 4.11 inches in May. Pike County is one of the few US counties to border as many as nine counties. Illinois has two -- LaSalle. Great River National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 16,430 people, 6,639 households, 4,527 families residing in the county; the population density was 19.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,951 housing units at an average density of 9.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96.9% white, 1.7% black or African American, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.2% from other races, 0.7% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 26.3% were German, 16.8% were American, 15.1% were English, 13.4% were Irish. Of the 6,639 households, 30.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.5% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.8% were non-families, 27.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age was 42.5 years. The median income for a household in the county was $40,205 and the median income for a family was $50,426. Males had a median income of $39,071 versus $26,835 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,996. About 11.3% of families and 15.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.7% of those under age 18 and 11.2% of those age 65 or over. Pike County was reliably Democratic from 1892 through 1948. However, it was a national bellwether in every presidential election from 1912 to 2004 aside from 1924 & 1988.
Since 2000, the county has become a Republican stronghold, with Donald Trump winning it in the 2016 presidential election by a margin of 57.6 points. The county is located in Illinois's 18th Congressional District and is represented by Republican Davin LaHood. For the Illinois House of Representatives, the county is located in the 100th district and is represented by Republican C. D. Davidsmeyer; the county is located in the 50th district of the Illinois Senate, is represented by Republican William McCann. Barry Griggsville Pittsfield New Canton National Register of Historic Places listings in Pike County, Illinois Pike County Chamber of Commerce Pike County books and primary sources New Philadelphia Association Free Frank New Philadelphia Historic Preservation Foundation Christopher C. Fennell, "Updates on New Philadelphia Archaeology Project", University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign New Philadelphia: A Multiracial Town on the Illinois Frontier, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places lesson plan Pike County Township Histories summation Pike County Illinois History
Crawford County, Illinois
Crawford County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. As of the 2010 census, the population was 19,817, its county seat is Robinson. Crawford County was formed in Illinois Territory on December 1816 out of Edwards County. At the time of its formation, it encompassed about one third of the State, but it was reduced to its present borders by 1831 as it spawned new counties, it was named in honor of William H. Crawford, from Georgia, serving as Secretary of War and Secretary of the Treasury at the time. Crawford County was home to several battles between the settlers and Indians, the location of the only woman hanged in Illinois. In 1818, the town of Palestine was designated as the county seat. After elections in 1843, a new site was chosen. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 446 square miles, of which 444 square miles is land and 2.2 square miles is water. Some of the county's eastern border is defined by the Wabash River. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Robinson have ranged from a low of 21 °F in January to a high of 89 °F in July, although a record low of −23 °F was recorded in December 1989 and a record high of 114 °F was recorded in July 1954.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.45 inches in January to 4.67 inches in May. Clark County - north Sullivan County, Indiana - east Knox County, Indiana - southeast Lawrence County - south Richland County - southwest Jasper County - west Illinois Route 1 Illinois Route 33 As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 19,817 people, 7,763 households, 5,154 families residing in the county; the population density was 44.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 8,661 housing units at an average density of 19.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 92.8% white, 4.7% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.8% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 25.0% were German, 14.4% were American, 12.4% were Irish, 9.9% were English. Of the 7,763 households, 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.6% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families, 29.1% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age was 41.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,434 and the median income for a family was $51,218. Males had a median income of $40,050 versus $30,870 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,545. About 11.1% of families and 16.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.0% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over. Robinson Flat Rock Hutsonville Oblong Palestine Stoy Annapolis West York Crawford County is divided into ten townships: Although Crawford County was solidly Democratic before the Populist-backed candidacy of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, it has since become Republican; the last Democrat to gain a majority in the county was Lyndon Johnson in his 1964 landslide, although Bill Clinton won a plurality in 1992. Like all the rural Upland South, Crawford County has shown dramatic swings against the Democratic Party in recent elections, with Hillary Clinton’s 22.8 percent in 2016 the worst performance by a Democrat.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Crawford County, Illinois Perrin, William Henry, ed.. History of Crawford and Clark Counties, Illinois Chicago, Illinois. O. L. Baskin & Co.. Specific GeneralUnited States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States Board on Geographic Names United States National Atlas Crawford County, Illinois History and Genealogy
Clark County Courthouse (Illinois)
The Clark County Courthouse is a government building in Marshall, the county seat of Clark County, United States. Completed in 1903, it is the fifth courthouse in the third community in Clark County's history. A few Americans tried to settle on the Wabash River north of present-day Palestine circa 1812, but Indians killed them, the northward advance of civilization was halted until the end of the War of 1812; the General Assembly formed Clark County out of Crawford County in 1819, a commission was appointed to ascertain a location where the new county seat should be founded. The chosen location was named "Aurora", but no proper courthouse was built there. By an 1823 law, the seat was removed to McClure's Bluff on the Wabash. Here a 1½-story log courthouse was ordered in 1825 for $600, with a contracted completion date of April 1, 1826; the courthouse was weatherboarded in 1832, the upper floor was fitted as living space, on weekends the first floor served as a meeting place for a Presbyterian congregation whose pastor lived upstairs.
Darwin's location in the corner of the county, far from the new National Road, rendered it inconvenient for the growing population in the northern part of the county. The question was agitated, few individuals were neutral; as the majority favored relocation to some point, the General Assembly permitted a vote on the question in 1837, Marshall defeated Auburn by an 11% margin. A new Federal-style courthouse, the third in Clark County's history, was built there in 1839, it was replaced by a brick building in 1887, using the recent Second Empire style, but this structure served only for a short time — fire destroyed it after just fifteen years of service. Following the fire, county officials contracted for the erection of a fifth courthouse in 1903. Featuring a rectangular plan, the courthouse is a two-story brick building with a central cupola and clock tower. A stone foundation is raised above the lawn, enabling the basement to benefit from natural light, the main entrance is accessed by a small set of stairs.
The floors are separated by a stone belt course, a cornice with corbelling supports the edge of the roof on each side. The windows featured rounded arches with ornamental keystones, but the original panes have been replaced with rectangular sliding windows and the arches covered over. Above the main entrance is set a Palladian window overlooking a balcony. Except for the entrance and its surroundings, the western facade is nearly identical to the eastern facade; the building's overall design is predominantly Renaissance Revival in style. On the southern side, a stairway provides access from the roof to the bell tower, a bandstand sits on the northeastern corner of the lawn. Much of central Marshall was designated a historic district and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2013; the courthouse was designated a contributing property within the district, as was the bandstand, many of the other contributing properties are smaller buildings that face the courthouse square. Clark County
Illinois's 15th congressional district
The 15th Congressional District of Illinois is located in eastern and southeastern Illinois. Republican John Shimkus represents the district; the congressional district covers parts of Bond, Champaign and Madison counties, all of Clark, Clinton, Crawford, Douglas, Edwards, Fayette, Hamilton, Jasper, Lawrence, Massac, Pope, Saline, Vermilion, Washington and White counties. All or parts of Centralia, Danville, Effingham, Glen Carbon and Rantoul will be included; the representatives for these districts were elected in the 2012 primary and general elections, the boundaries became effective on January 5, 2013. Republican John Shimkus representing the 19th district, was on the 2012 ballot for the 15th congressional district. Angela Michael, a retired nurse and pro-life activist, ran on a single-issue pro-life Democratic ticket. Shimkus won reelection again, after facing a primary challenge from Illinois State Senator Kyle McCarter with Tea Party backing and funding from the Club for Growth. Shimkus continues to loom large in the 15th, but faces credible Democratic opposition from a local teacher and former Obama campaign worker.
The district included the cities of Charleston, Urbana and Champaign, all or parts of Livingston, Ford, McLean, DeWitt, Vermillion, Piatt, Edgar, Coles, Clark, Lawrence, Edwards, White and Gallatin counties. District created March 4, 1873 As of May 2015, two former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Illinois's 15th congressional district are alive; the most recent representative to die was Tim Lee Hall on November 12, 2008. The most serving representative to die was Edward Rell Madigan on December 7, 1994. Illinois's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present 2002 Census of Agriculture - 15th Congressional District Profile District map Congressional district profiles Washington Post page on the 15th District of Illinois U.
S. Census Bureau - 15th District Fact Sheet
Cumberland County, Illinois
Cumberland County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. As of the 2010 census, the population was 11,048, its county seat is Toledo. Cumberland County is part of the Charleston -- IL Micropolitan Statistical Area. Cumberland County was created on March 1843, from parts of Coles County, it is named for the National Road, projected to run through it. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 347 square miles, of which 346 square miles is land and 1.0 square mile is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Toledo have ranged from a low of 17 °F in January to a high of 86 °F in July, although a record low of −23 °F was recorded in January 1985 and a record high of 111 °F was recorded in July 1954. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.03 inches in January to 4.21 inches in June. Coles County - north Clark County - east Jasper County - south Effingham County - southwest Shelby County - west Interstate 57 Interstate 70 U. S. Route 40 U.
S. Route 45 Illinois Route 49 Illinois Route 121 Illinois Route 130 As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 11,048 people, 4,377 households, 3,121 families residing in the county; the population density was 31.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,874 housing units at an average density of 14.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.3% white, 0.3% black or African American, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.2% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 30.6% were German, 17.4% were American, 11.7% were Irish, 11.4% were English. Of the 4,377 households, 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.7% were married couples living together, 8.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.7% were non-families, 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.95. The median age was 40.9 years.
The median income for a household in the county was $42,101 and the median income for a family was $51,729. Males had a median income of $42,157 versus $29,142 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,262. About 8.1% of families and 12.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.4% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over. Neoga Casey Greenup Jewett Montrose Toledo Hazel Dell Walla Walla Dees Cumberland County is divided into eight townships: Although predominantly Democratic in the years before World War I, in the aftermath of which Woodrow Wilson’s policies towards Germany were locally deplored, Cumberland County has since become powerfully Republican. In Franklin D. Roosevelt’s 1932 and 1936 landslides, he won only small victories, since only three Democrats have carried the county. Bill Clinton, who won a plurality in 1992, is the last Democrat to reach forty percent of the county’s vote, in 2016, the rapid Upland South trend towards overwhelmingly Republican voting caused his wife Hillary to win less than twenty percent of the county’s ballots.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Cumberland County, Illinois History of Southern Illinois, George Washington Smith, 1912. United States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States Board on Geographic Names United States National Atlas
The Northwest Territory in the United States was formed after the American Revolutionary War, was known formally as the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio. It was the initial post-colonial Territory of the United States and encompassed most of pre-war British colonial territory west of the Appalachian mountains north of the Ohio River, it included all the land west of Pennsylvania, northwest of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River below the Great Lakes. It spanned all or large parts of six eventual U. S. States, it was created as a Territory by the Northwest Ordinance July 13, 1787, reduced to Ohio, eastern Michigan and a sliver of southeastern Indiana with the formation of Indiana Territory July 4, 1800, ceased to exist March 1, 1803, when the southeastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Ohio, the remainder attached to Indiana Territory. At its inception the Territory was a vast wilderness sparsely populated by nomadic Indians including the Delaware, Potawatomi and others.
At the territory's dissolution, there were dozens of towns and settlements, a few with thousands of settlers in Ohio chiefly along the Ohio and Miami Rivers and around the Great Lakes. The region was ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Paris of 1783; the Congress of the Confederation enacted the Northwest Ordinance in 1787 to provide for the administration of the territories and set rules for admission of jurisdictions as states. On August 7, 1789, the new U. S. Congress affirmed the Ordinance with slight modifications under the Constitution; the Territory was governed by martial law under a governor and three judges, but as population increased, a legislature, the Territorial General Assembly, was formed. Administratively, the Territory was divided into a succession of counties totaling 13. Conflicts between settlers and Native American inhabitants of the Territory resulted in the Northwest Indian War culminating in General "Mad" Anthony Wayne's victory at Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794.
The subsequent Treaty of Greenville 1795 opened the way for settlement of eastern Ohio. The Northwest Territory included all the then-owned land of the United States west of Pennsylvania, east of the Mississippi River, northwest of the Ohio River, it incorporated most of the former Ohio Country except a portion in western Pennsylvania, Illinois Country. It covered all of the modern states of Ohio, Illinois and Wisconsin, as well as the northeastern part of Minnesota. Lands west of the Mississippi River were the Louisiana Province of New France; the area included more than 260,000 square miles and comprised about 1/3 of the land area of the United States at the time of its creation. It was inhabited by about 45,000 Native Americans and 4,000 traders Canadien and British. Among the tribes inhabiting the region were the Shawnee, Miami, Wyandot and Potawatomi. Notably, the Miami capital along with British trading posts was at Kekionga at the site of present day Fort Wayne, Indiana. Neutralizing Kekionga became the focus of the Northwest Indian War, the driving events in the early evolution of the territory.
Integration of the Northwest Territory into a political unit, settlement, depended on three factors: relinquishment by the British, extinguishment of states' claims west of the Appalachians, usurpation or purchase of lands from the Indians. These objectives were accomplished correspondingly by the American Revolutionary War, provisions in the Articles of Confederation, various treaties preceding the Northwest Indian War including Treaty of Fort Stanwix and Treaty of Fort McIntosh; the treaty process would extend well beyond the War and existence of the Territory as a political entity. European exploration of the region began with French-Canadian voyageurs in the 17th century, followed by French missionaries and French fur traders. French-Canadian explorer Jean Nicolet was the first recorded European entrant into the region, landing in 1634 at the current site of Green Bay, Wisconsin; the French exercised control from separate posts in the region, which they claimed as New France. France ceded the territory to the Kingdom of Great Britain as part of the Indian Reserve in the 1763 Treaty of Paris, after being defeated in the French and Indian War.
From the 1750s to the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812, the British had a long-standing goal of creating an Indian barrier state, a large "neutral" Indian state that would cover most of the Old Northwest. It would be independent of the United States and under the tutelage of the British, who would use it to block American expansion and to build up their control of the fur trade headquartered in Montreal. A new colony, named Charlotina, was proposed for the southern Great Lakes region. However, facing armed opposition by Native Americans, the British issued the Proclamation of 1763, which prohibited white colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains; this action angered American colonists interested in expansion, as well as those who had settled in the area. In 1774, by the Quebec Act
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website