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Clark Street (Chicago)

Clark Street is a north-south street in Chicago, Illinois that runs close to the shore of Lake Michigan from the northern city boundary with Evanston, to 2200 South in the city street numbering system. At its northern end, Clark Street is at 1800 West, it is seen in Riverdale beyond 127th street across the Calumet River, along with other nearby streets that ended just south of the Loop. The major length of Clark Street runs a total of 98 blocks. Clark Street is named for George Rogers Clark, an American Revolutionary War soldier who captured much of the Northwest Territory from the British. Within the Chicago Loop Clark Street is one of the original streets laid out by James Thompson in his 1830 plat of Chicago. North of the Loop, from North Avenue, it follows part of the path of an Indian trail called Green Bay trail that ran all the way to Green Bay, Wisconsin. In the 1950s Clark Street between Ohio and Armitage Streets was a substantial neighborhood barrio home to the first Puerto Ricans in Chicago.

It was unofficially known as La Clark by the Puerto Ricans that lived there arriving from the steel mills of Indiana and rural migrant camps. This was during the Great Migration and war effort during and after World War II, they worked at the downtown hotels, the meat packing plants and the nearby factories located near downtown industrial areas. Many original members of the Young Lords, a former street gang that transformed into a Latino civil and human rights movement, were sons and daughters of these immigrants and grew up in La Clark. From the intersection with Ashland Avenue south to Ainslie Street, Clark Street passes through the Andersonville Commercial Historic District. Graceland Cemetery is on the east side of Clark Street from Montrose Avenue to its entrance at Irving Park Road; the Metro concert hall is located at 3730 North Clark Street, 1½ blocks north of Addison Street. At the intersection of Clark and Addison is Wrigley Field, home of the Chicago Cubs baseball team and occasionally used as a concert venue.

Another commercial strip on Clark Street stretches from Diversey Parkway south to Armitage Avenue. 2122 North Clark Street was the site of the Saint Valentine's Day massacre, although the building no longer stands. Further to the south Clark Street borders Lincoln Park, at North Avenue sits the Chicago History Museum; the street passes through the Near North Side, where in the River North neighborhood it passes the Rock N Roll McDonald's and the Rainforest Cafe. It continues over the Chicago River at the Clark Street Bridge and through the Loop, where it passes the Thompson Center and its Monument with Standing Beast. Clark Street continues between City Hall and the Daley Center and on to its termination at Cermak Road; the entire route is in Cook County

Larry Cummins (bushranger)

Larry Cummins was a bushranger in central New South Wales, Australia during the 1860s. Cummins was married to Bridget Francis. Bridget's father had been a supplier of illicit alcohol in Tamborambora Ford, on the Abercrombie River, his lawless career started. Larry was determined to make an attempt to rescue his brother, he got posse of desperate men, set an ambush against the police who were conveying his brother to the Bigga lock-up. Only two mounted constables had been sent in charge of the prisoner, they put up a fight. Cummings shot at a constable, who refused to obey the order to' Bail up!' Instead of hitting the officer, the shot struck his brother which killed him. Cummins was caught, found guilty of manslaughter, sentenced to life in Berrima gaol, he escaped and made his way back to his old haunts in the vicinity of Mudgee, Crookwell and other towns. Linking up with Fred Lowry and John Foley, Cummins robbed the Mudgee mail coach in July 1863. There was rumored to be 5,700 pounds on the coach.

He attempted a robbery of Webb’s store at Mutton Falls. Here he was reported to have been wounded in the face. On August 29, 1863 at Vardy’s Limerick Races Inn at Cooksvale Creek, north of Crookwell, Fredrick Lowry and Cummins were taken into custody following a shootout in which Lowry was shot in the throat. Lowry died the next day at Woodhouselee north of Goulburn. Cummins was gaoled for 15 years, he escaped from Berrima Gaol and returned to bushranging including an attempted robbery at Mutton Falls. He was arrested at Porters Retreat in 1867. Convicted at Goulburn, he was sentenced to a long term of imprisonment in the Parramatta gaol. After he served a number of years when with many other convicts, he was released by Sir Hercules Robinson Governor of New South Wales, granted a free pardon in 1874. Frank Gardiner and several other bushrangers were reprieved. Cummins gave up his wild career, went to Gippsland, where he became James Long, which name he held till his death, he was seen about Albury, attended sheep and horse sales.

He made did jobs of droving for a living. He died in October 1909

Paul Calvert

Paul Henry Calvert, AO, Australian politician, was a Senator for Tasmania from 1987 to 2007, was President of the Australian Senate from 2002 to 2007. Born into a long established farming family based outside Hobart, Calvert still runs a property in Tasmania, he was active in local government, serving as Warden of the City of Clarence, on Hobart's eastern shore. He was President of the Royal Agricultural Society of Tasmania. In 1987 he was elected to the Australian Senate, after declining an invitation by the former Liberal Premier of Tasmania, Robin Gray, to run for the House of Assembly after a successful career in local government and agri-politics, he was re-elected in 1990, 1996 and 2001. In 1997 Calvert became the government's Senate Whip, he became President following Margaret Reid in 2002, was re-elected in 2005. Early in his presidency he tackled the archaic five department structure of the Australian Parliament, achieved a streamlining to 3 departments – one for each Chamber and one looking after joint services.

On 7 August 2007 Calvert announced his intention to resign his position as President of the Senate on 14 August and to resign as a Senator for Tasmania before the Senate resumed on 10 September. He was succeeded as Senate President by South Australian Liberal Senator Alan Ferguson, he formally resigned as a Senator on 29 August 2007. In 2008 he was appointed a member of the Governing Council of Old Parliament House in Canberra; as part of the 2009 Queen's Birthday Honours list, he was appointed an Officer of the Order of Australia. Notes SourcesPaul Calvert, Senate Biography

R. Rated

R. Rated is an American comedy variety TV show consisting of five, half-hour episodes which aired in August 1999, Fridays at midnight on WFLD Fox 32, featured film and video shorts from sketch comedy troupes, theater companies, stand-up comics and other independent film and video makers. R. Rated was created, executive produced and hosted by stand-up comic Richard O'Donnell, billed as "R.". O'Donnell co-directed it with Edward Seaton. Short form video works from the ID, the Annoyance Theater Productions featured Rachel Dratch, Mick Napier, Stephnie Weir. Former Second City and Saturday Night Live alumni Tim Kazurinsky offered a Willy Laszlo directed short about the most unusual home invader while O'Donnell appeared in an array of impromptu "man on the street interviews" and monologues amidst spectacular bumpers and teasers created by Steve Wood and Peter Neville. Wood used graphics. Musical acts included The Swinging Love Hammers, Kleen Ex-Girl Wonder, The Gathering Field. O'Donnell requested Fox to keep the show out of prime time so that his contributors like Mick Napier of the infamous Annoyance Theatre, could have greater late-night artistic freedom without black-bar and sound bleep censorship.

Regarded as Chicago-centric, R. Rated was "...exactly what creator R. O'Donnell set out for: a fun, inventive half-hour showcasing Chicago talent."O'Donnell hoped his new TV comedy series would earn greater recognition for a wide array of Chicago talent. A fifth show was produced but never aired, in spite of high ratings that outpaced competing shows in the same time slot including the Late Late Show with Craig Kilborn on Chicago's Channel 2 and Mancow TV on Channel 26. R. Rated drew an average 2.9 rating out of 7 shares in its time slot, tying with Ch. 7 and Ch. 50 programming. Executives at Fox 32 awarded R. Rated with another 26 weeks of broadcasting, but the variety show unexpectedly lost its primary sponsor. R. Rated remains an extraordinary and rare collection of Chicago's variety and comedic talent on the rise in the late 1990s

Slender salamander

Batrachoseps is a genus of lungless salamanders called Slender salamanders. They can be distinguished from other lungless salamanders by the four toes, their genus name Batracho-seps means "frog-lizard", in reference to their projectile tongues. The lungless salamanders, in addition to having no lungs, have long slender snake-shaped bodies with small limbs that appear vestigial in several species, their main diet consists of small insects, such as springtails, small bark beetles, young snails and spiders. Like all salamanders in this family, they have long frog-like projectile tongues which they use to grab their prey in a flash. Unlike all other amphibians mature red blood cells in of species in the genus Batrachoseps have no nucleus, a trait, only known to occur in mammals and certain species of antarctic fish. Batrachoseps range from California to northern Baja California. Slender salamanders in California tolerate diverse variety of environments, as long as their basic needs are met. 21 species are recognized in this genus.

Some species may in fact be subspecies of others, some subspecies may be distinct species of their own. Genetic analysis is in process. Frost, Darrel R. "Batrachoseps". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. New York, NY: American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved July 30, 2008. Electronic Database accessible at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php American Museum of Natural History. "Batrachoseps". AmphibiaWeb. Berkeley, California. 2008. Retrieved 30 July 2008. Information on amphibian biology and conservation AmphibiaWeb is available at http://amphibiaweb.org/. "Batrachoseps". Tree of Life. "A slender salamanders page". Montereybay.com

U.S. postal strike of 1970

The U. S. postal strike of 1970 was an eight-day strike by federal postal workers in March 1970. The strike began in spread to some other cities in the following two weeks; this strike against the federal government, regarded as illegal, was the largest wildcat strike in U. S. history. President Richard Nixon called out the United States armed forces and the National Guard in an attempt to distribute the mail and break the strike; the strike influenced the contents of the Postal Reorganization Act of 1970, which dissolved the United States Post Office Department, replaced it with the more corporate United States Postal Service, guaranteed collective bargaining rights for postal workers At the time, postal workers were not permitted by law to engage in collective bargaining. Striking postal workers felt wages were low, benefits poor and working conditions unhealthy and unsafe. APWU president Moe Biller described Manhattan post offices as like "dungeons," dirty, too hot in summer, too cold in winter.

The Post Office Department's management was outdated and, according to workers, haphazard. Postal union lobbying of Congress to obtain higher pay and better working conditions had proven fruitless. An immediate trigger for the strike was a Congressional decision to raise the wages of postal workers by only 4%, at the same time as Congress raised its own pay by 41%; the post office was home to many black workers, this population increased as whites left postal work in the 1950s and'60s for better jobs. Postal workers in general were upset about poor conditions; the importance of black workers was amplified by militancy outside the post office. Isaac & Christiansen identify the civil rights movement as a major contributor to the 1970 strike as well as other radical labor actions, they highlight several causal connections, including cultural climate, overlapping personnel, the simple "demonstration effect," showing that nonviolent civil disobedience could accomplish political change. On March 17, 1970, in New York City, members of National Association of Letter Carriers Branch 36 met in Manhattan and voted to strike.

Picketing began just after midnight, on March 18. This was a mass action where rank and file leaders emerged like Manhattan letter carrier Vincent Sombrotto, who would go on to be elected first branch and national president of the NALC. More than 210,000 United States Post Office Department workers were involved across the nation, although the strike affected only workers in New York City; these workers decided to strike against the wishes of their leadership. The spontaneous unity produced by this decision empowered the workers. President Nixon appeared on national television and ordered the employees back to work, but his address only stiffened the resolve of the existing strikers and angered workers in another 671 locations in other cities into walking out as well. Workers in other government agencies announced they would strike if Nixon pursued legal action against the postal employees. Authorities were unsure of. Union leaders pleaded with the workers to return to their jobs; the government was hesitant to arrest strike leaders for fear of arousing sympathy among other workers, because of popular support for the strikers.

The strike crippled the nation's mail system. The stock market fell due to the strike's effect on trading volume; some feared. Nixon spoke to the nation again on March 23, asking the workers to go back to their jobs and announcing that he would deploy the National Guard to deliver mail in New York; this announcement was accompanied by Proclamation 3972. Nixon ordered 24,000 military personnel forces to begin distributing the mail. Operation Graphic Hand had at its peak more than 18,500 military personnel assigned to 17 New York post offices, from regular Army, National Guard, Army Reserve, Air National Guard and Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps Reserve; this was not very effective. The strike ended after eight days with not a single worker being fired, as the Nixon administration continued to negotiate with postal union leaders; the postal strike influenced the passage and signing of the Postal Reorganization Act of 1970. Effective July 1, 1971, the U. S. Post Office Department became the U. S. Postal Service, an independent establishment of the executive branch.

The four major postal unions won full collective bargaining rights: the right to negotiate on wages and working conditions, although they still were not allowed the right to strike. On July 1, 1971, five federal postal unions merged to form the American Postal Workers Union, the largest postal workers union in the world. "Video of President Nixon announcing federal intervention in the postal strike" – via YouTube. "Chapter 7: Nixon and Ford Administrations, 1969–1977". Brief History of DOL, U. S. Dept. of Labor. Retrieved December 5, 2006. "Video footage of strikers & Nixon" – via YouTube