Class (biology)

In biological classification, class is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. Other well-known ranks in descending order of size are life, kingdom, order, family and species, with class fitting between phylum and order; the class as a distinct rank of biological classification having its own distinctive name was first introduced by the French botanist Joseph Pitton de Tournefort in his classification of plants that appeared in his Eléments de botanique, 1694. Insofar as a general definition of a class is available, it has been conceived as embracing taxa that combine a distinct grade of organization -- i.e. a'level of complexity', measured in terms of how differentiated their organ systems are into distinct regions or sub-organs -- with a distinct type of construction, to say a particular layout of organ systems. This said, the composition of each class is determined by the subjective judgement of taxonomists. There is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists taking different positions.

There are no objective rules for describing a class, but for well-known animals there is to be consensus. In the first edition of his Systema Naturae. Carl Linnaeus divided all three of his kingdoms of Nature into classes. Only in the animal kingdom are Linnaeus's classes similar to the classes used today. In botany, classes are now discussed. Since the first publication of the APG system in 1998, which proposed a taxonomy of the flowering plants up to the level of orders, many sources have preferred to treat ranks higher than orders as informal clades. Where formal ranks have been assigned, the ranks have been reduced to a much lower level, e.g. class Equisitopsida for the land plants, with the major divisions within the class assigned to subclasses and superorders. The class was considered the highest level of the taxonomic hierarchy until George Cuvier's embranchements, first called Phyla by Ernst Haeckel, were introduced in the early nineteenth century; as for the other principal ranks, Classes can be subdivided.

Here are some examples. Cladistics List of animal classes Phylogenetics Systematics Taxonomy

Osceola and Renegade

Osceola and Renegade are the official mascots of the Florida State University Seminoles. Osceola, representing the historical Seminole leader Osceola, his Appaloosa horse Renegade introduce home football games by riding to midfield with a burning spear and planting it in the turf. Osceola and Renegade debuted in 1978, are the most recent of several mascots used by the school. FSU has tried to ensure a dignified depiction of Osceola; the portrayal is supported by leaders of the Seminole Tribe of Florida, but it remains controversial in some quarters. Florida State's Osceola tradition is overseen by Allen Durham, whose father, Bill Durham, introduced it in 1978. Osceola wears a Native American-themed costume that the university says was "designed and approved by the Seminole Tribe of Florida," consisting of leather clothing, face paint, a garnet bandana, he carries a feathered spear and is accompanied by Renegade, an appaloosa horse whom he rides bareback. Osceola performs at all home football games at Doak Campbell Stadium and related events like Homecoming.

He initiates each game by charging Renegade to midfield and hurling a flaming spear into the ground.. The Durham family selects and trains both the rider and horse, it coordinates the tradition with oversight by the university. Students portraying Osceola must undertake a two-year apprenticeship, demonstrate necessary riding skill for the role as well as moral character and maintain a grade-point average of 3.0. Students receive a scholarship for portraying Osceola and are required to remain in character and abide by a set of protocols throughout all performances. There is only one Osceola impersonator at a time. Florida State University adopted the Seminoles nickname in 1947, just after its reorganization from a women's college to a coed institution; the moniker was selected through a fan competition. Prior to the introduction of Osceola and Renegade, the Florida State Seminoles used several different Native American-themed mascots; the first was Sammy Seminole, introduced at the FSU Pow Wow in 1958 for football games.

This mascot was portrayed by a white male member of the gymnastics or circus programs, who performed wild stunts in garish faux-Native American garb. The gymnastics program's sponsorship of Sammy Seminole ended in 1968, but the character was reintroduced. In the late 1960s Chief Fullabull emerged as a mascot during basketball games. Like Sammy Seminole, he donned cartoonish Native American-themed outfits, performed clownish stunts. Under protest from Native American groups, the character's name was altered to Chief Wampumstompum, though this did nothing to assuage the concerns of protesters; the character was replaced with a more traditionally dressed figure named Yahola known as the "spirit chief". All of these mascots were retired, officials decided to find a more respectful representative for the school's teams; the Osceola and Renegade mascots were conceived by Bill Durham, a Tallahassee businessman and Florida State alumnus. He came up with the concept of a horseback-riding Seminole mascot as early as 1962, when he was voted into the school's homecoming court.

He returned to the idea in 1977, won the support of Ann Bowden, wife of head football coach Bobby Bowden, who helped make the idea a reality. Durham contacted the Seminole Tribe of Florida about the project, chairman Howard Tommie had tribe members make the first costume for Osceola. Durham provided the horse, while Bowden helped acquire the various permits necessary to allow a horse onto the field. Osceola and Renegade debuted at a September 1978 game against the Oklahoma State Cowboys, they proved quite popular, subsequently other faux-Indian traditions arose, including the "War Chant" in 1984 and the "Tomahawk Chop" shortly after. Durham oversaw the Osceola tradition for 25 years, over time aspects of the performance have become more refined and regulated. In 2002, Durham passed his role on to his son Allen Durham, a former Osceola portrayer. In the 1980s and 1990s, when mascots based on Native Americans became more controversial and many Native Americans and supporters protested their use, Florida State consulted with the Seminole Tribe of Florida, emphasizing that Osceola was never intended to be demeaning.

Several representatives of the Seminole Tribe, including Chairman James E. Billie and Council Member Max Osceola, have given FSU their blessing to use Osceola and Seminole imagery. However, the matter remains controversial for other Florida Seminoles, as well as members of the Seminole Tribe of Oklahoma. Critics have noted a political undercurrent in the support from Florida Seminole leaders, who are involved in business ventures such as Indian casinos in the state. In 2005, the NCAA added FSU to a list of schools facing potential sanctions for using "hostile and abusive" Indian mascots and names. In keeping with his stoic portrayal, FSU refers to Osceola and Renegade as a "symbols" rather than mascots, does not use them for more traditional mascot activities like cheerleading and promotions. In 2012, the university revived an older mascot, an anthropomorphic horse named "Cimarron", to fill this role. In April 2016, the FSU Student Government Association voted to discourage the wearing of Native American headdresses from sporting events as being contrary to the goal of maintaining its relationship with the Seminole Tribe, because the headdresses worn by fans are closer to those worn by

Luxor Records

Luxor Records is an American record label located in Los Angeles, California. Luxor Records was co-founded by Nick Morris, of As They Sleep; the label was created to release the band's first album, Blacken the Sun, but made it professional after signing bands such as It Lies Within and Forsake the Fallen. In 2012, the label signed Broken Flesh, a Christian metal of the extreme metal genre. More bands were signed throughout 2015-2016, such as The Order of Elijah, My Heart to Fear and From Blue to Gray; as They Sleep Born With Open Eyes Broken Flesh Dagon Emuness Forsake the Fallen From Blue to Gray A Hill to Die Upon Imminent Sonic Destruction It Lies Within Kaleido Motown Rage My Heart to Fear The Order of Elijah Primo Beats Read'Em and Weep Scream Out Loud Suppy Dudes Syphilic Toarn Upon a Broken Throne Cry Excess Duse Breed A Reason to Breathe