The term Cartesian linguistics was coined with the publication of Cartesian Linguistics: A Chapter in the History of Rationalist Thought, a book on linguistics by Noam Chomsky. The word "Cartesian" is the adjective pertaining to René Descartes, a prominent 17th-century philosopher. However, rather than confine himself to the works of Descartes, Chomsky surveys other authors interested in rationalist thought. In particular, Chomsky discusses the Port-Royal Grammar, a book which foreshadows some of his own ideas concerning universal grammar. Chomsky traces the development of linguistic theory from Descartes to Wilhelm von Humboldt, that is, from the period of the Enlightenment directly up to Romanticism; the central doctrine of Cartesian Linguistics maintains that the general features of grammatical structure are common to all languages and reflect certain fundamental properties of the mind. The book was written with the purpose of deepening "our understanding of the nature of language and the mental processes and structures that underlie its use and acquisition".
Chomsky wished to shed light on these underlying structures of the human language, subsequently whether one can infer the nature of an organism from its language. Chomsky's book received unfavorable reviews. Critics argued that "Cartesian linguistics" fails both as a methodological conception and as a historical phenomenon. Certain mechanical factors of language function, such as response to stimuli, are evident in both humans and animals; this is, in essence, the Cartesian theory of language production. Chomsky writes, "one fundamental contribution of what we have been calling'Cartesian linguistics' is the observation that human language, in its normal use, is free from the control of independently identifiable external stimuli or internal states and is not restricted to any practical communicative function, in contrast, for example, to the pseudo language of animals". "In short, animal'language' remains within the bounds of mechanical explanation as this was conceived by Descartes and Cordemoy" and the creative aspect of language is what separates humans and animals.
Philosophical undertones permeate Cartesian theory. One example of this is the idea that freedom from instinct and from stimulus control is the basis for what we call "human reason". Weakness of instinct is man's natural advantage. "From this conception of language, it is only a short step to the association of the creative aspect of language use with true artistic creativity". In other words, "the'poetical' quality of ordinary language derives from its independence of immediate stimulation and its freedom from practical ends" subject matter that correlates with Cartesian philosophy. Chomsky parallels theories of Enlightenment thinkers Humboldt and Herder, holding them up as researchers who were seeking a universal order and to show the tendency of Cartesian thinking to diffuse into different areas of academia. Humboldt's effort to reveal the organic form of language, like many of the cited experiments, is placed into the context of modern linguistics to show the differences between the Cartesian model of linguistics and the modern model of linguistics, to illustrate the contributions of the former to the latter.
Another aspect of this universality is generative grammar, a Chomskyan approach, one finite, ubiquitous aspect of language that provides the "organic unity" of which Humboldt wrote. Humboldtian is the idea that the forces generating language and thought are one and the same. "Pursuing the fundamental distinction between body and mind, Cartesian linguistics characteristically assumes that language has two aspects", the sound/character of a linguistic sign and its significance. Semantic and phonetic interpretation may not be identical in Cartesian linguistics. Deep structures are only represented in the mind, as opposed to surface structures, which are not. Deep structures vary less between languages than surface structures. For instance, the transformational operations yielding surface forms of Latin and French may obscure common features of their deep structures. Chomsky proposes, "In many respects, it seems to me quite accurate to regard the theory of transformational generative grammar, as it is developing in current work, as a modern and more explicit version of the Port-Royal theory".
The Port Royal Grammar is an cited reference in Cartesian Linguistics and is considered by Chomsky to be a more than suitable example of Cartesian linguistic philosophy. "A sentence has an inner mental aspect and an outer, physical aspect as a sound sequence." This theory of deep and surface structures, developed in Port Royal linguistics, meets the formal requirements of language theory. Chomsky describes it in modern terms as "a base system that generates deep structures and a transformational system that maps these into surface structures" a form of transformational grammar akin to modern theories. Chomsky bridges the past with the present by stating that from the standpoint of modern linguistic theory, the characterization and discovery of deep structures is absurd, in accordance with the present study and quantification of such things as "linguistic fact" and "sound-meaning correspondences". In any case, traditional attempts to deal with deep and surface structure theory were unsuccessful.
Descartes' idea of language is that it is a form of self-expression, not communication…Modern linguistics hasn't dealt with, or rather hasn't acknowledged, problems raised by Cartesian philos
Dewey Decimal Classification
The Dewey Decimal Classification, colloquially the Dewey Decimal System, is a proprietary library classification system first published in the United States by Melvil Dewey in 1876. Described in a four-page pamphlet, it has been expanded to multiple volumes and revised through 23 major editions, the latest printed in 2011, it is available in an abridged version suitable for smaller libraries. OCLC, a non-profit cooperative that serves libraries maintains the system and licenses online access to WebDewey, a continuously updated version for catalogers; the Decimal Classification introduced the concepts of relative location and relative index which allow new books to be added to a library in their appropriate location based on subject. Libraries had given books permanent shelf locations that were related to the order of acquisition rather than topic; the classification's notation makes use of three-digit Arabic numerals for main classes, with fractional decimals allowing expansion for further detail.
Using Arabic numerals for symbols, it is flexible to the degree that numbers can be expanded in linear fashion to cover special aspects of general subjects. A library assigns a classification number that unambiguously locates a particular volume in a position relative to other books in the library, on the basis of its subject; the number makes it possible to find any book and to return it to its proper place on the library shelves. The classification system is used in 200,000 libraries in at least 135 countries. Melvil Dewey was self-declared reformer, he was a founding member of the American Library Association and can be credited with the promotion of card systems in libraries and business. He developed the ideas for his library classification system in 1873 while working at Amherst College library, he applied the classification to the books in that library, until in 1876 he had a first version of the classification. In 1876, he published the classification in pamphlet form with the title A Classification and Subject Index for Cataloguing and Arranging the Books and Pamphlets of a Library.
He used the pamphlet, published in more than one version during the year, to solicit comments from other librarians. It is not known who received copies or how many commented as only one copy with comments has survived, that of Ernest Cushing Richardson, his classification system was mentioned in an article in the first issue of the Library Journal and in an article by Dewey in the Department of Education publication "Public Libraries in America" in 1876. In March 1876, he applied for, received copyright on the first edition of the index; the edition was 44 pages in length, with 2,000 index entries, was printed in 200 copies. The second edition of the Dewey Decimal system, published in 1885 with the title Decimal Classification and Relativ Index for arranging and indexing public and private libraries and for pamflets, notes, scrap books, index rerums, etc. comprised 314 pages, with 10,000 index entries. Five hundred copies were produced. Editions 3–14, published between 1888 and 1942, used a variant of this same title.
Dewey modified and expanded his system for the second edition. In an introduction to that edition Dewey states that "nearly 100 persons hav contributed criticisms and suggestions". One of the innovations of the Dewey Decimal system was that of positioning books on the shelves in relation to other books on similar topics; when the system was first introduced, most libraries in the US used fixed positioning: each book was assigned a permanent shelf position based on the book's height and date of acquisition. Library stacks were closed to all but the most privileged patrons, so shelf browsing was not considered of importance; the use of the Dewey Decimal system increased during the early 20th century as librarians were convinced of the advantages of relative positioning and of open shelf access for patrons. New editions were readied as supplies of published editions were exhausted though some editions provided little change from the previous, as they were needed to fulfill demand. In the next decade, three editions followed on: the 3rd, 4th, 5th.
Editions 6 through 11 were published from 1899 to 1922. The 6th edition was published in a record 7,600 copies, although subsequent editions were much lower. During this time, the size of the volume grew, edition 12 swelled to 1243 pages, an increase of 25% over the previous edition. In response to the needs of smaller libraries which were finding the expanded classification schedules difficult to use, in 1894, the first abridged edition of the Dewey Decimal system was produced; the abridged edition parallels the full edition, has been developed for most full editions since that date. By popular request, in 1930, the Library of Congress began to print Dewey Classification numbers on nearly all of its cards, thus making the system available to all libraries making use of the Library of Congress card sets. Dewey's was not the only library classification available. Charles Ammi Cutter published the Expansive Classification in 1882, with initial encouragement from Melvil Dewey. Cutter's system was not adopted by many libraries, with one major exception: it was used as the basis for the Library of Congress Classification system.
In 1895, the International Institute of Bibliography, located in Belgium and led by Paul Otlet, contacted Dewey about the possibility of translating the classification into French, using the classification system for bibliographies. This would have
Gaza in Crisis
Gaza in Crisis: Reflections on Israel's War against the Palestinians is a 2010 collection of interviews and essays from Noam Chomsky and Ilan Pappé that examine Israel's Operation Cast Lead and attempts to place it into the context of Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The book was edited by Frank Barat, who had conducted his first e-mail interview on the subject with Chomsky in 2005, as a result of his joint dialogue with Chomsky and Pappé published as Le Champ du possible, which forms the heart of the work. In his introduction, written in London in July 2010, editor Frank Barat outlines the origin of the book and explains his decision to include a mix of interviews and dialogues, to explore researched opinion in an accessible way, as well as essays, to provide in-depth analysis, in order to provide an answer to his self-posed question, "Why has this'conflict' lasted so long, who can stop it, how?" In this interview, conducted by Frank Barat in 2007, Chomsky highlights possible outcomes of the Palestine situation, the use of boycott and divestment and the important role that the U.
S. plays in supporting Israel. He begins by outlining the punishing measures taken by Israel, with the support of the U. S. against the Palestinians following the democratic election of Hamas in January 2006, which he states might result in the death of the nation. The author contends that the most feasible alternative to this scenario is the two-state solution supported by the international community, despite his personal preference for a binational state as proposed by Edward Said; the author concludes that the vast majority of US citizens support a two-state solution and the end of the unprecedented levels of US aid given to Israel, could, with the necessary education and organisation, become a powerful force for peace. In this 2007 essay published in Race & Class, Pappé focuses on five distinct clusters of history and how they have influenced US policy on Palestine. Evangelical preachers William Eugene Blackstone and Cyrus Scofield popularised Christian Zionism, which influences Republican Party policy in favour of Israel.
The King–Crane Commission led by academics Henry Churchill King and Charles R. Crane propagated a influential Arabist movement within the U. S. State Department. Any political opposition to Israel within the U. S. was however undermined by American politician Fiorello H. LaGuardia, pioneer of identity politics, Canadian journalist Isaiah L. Kenen, founder of lobby group the American Israel Public Affairs Committee; the discovery of oil in the Middle East by five American oil companies, nicknamed the Five Sisters, resulted in a military–industrial nexus influential within the Republican Party with a pro-Arab stance, sidelined by the Christian Zionists. American peace negotiations, inspired by the realist school of academics Hans Morgenthau and Kenneth Waltz, have condemned all efforts to failure by not taking Palestinian views into consideration. Pappé concludes that the result of the interaction of these clusters is not inevitable U. S. support for Israel and this could be changed in the future.
In this original essay Pappé seeks to examine Israel's erasure of the crimes of 1948, the 1948 Palestinian exodus, from the collective memory and the importance of this denial. It was, according to the author, a policy of ethnic cleansing, rather than military engagement, in operation from 1947 until 1954, under Plan D issued by the Haganah, that this had been an integral part of Zionism since its formulation in the late 19th century. While this policy has long been denied by Israeli authorities in their efforts to build a'heroic' narrative for their fledgling nation state, he concludes, it has begun to be exposed to, accepted and supported by, the general population of the now established country. In this reworked 2009 essay, based on a talk given at MIT on January 19, 2009, published on ZNet and in The Spokesman, Chomsky examines the US–Israel instigated Gaza War, which he describes as morally depraved and compares to someone walking down the street unconcerned about killing ants as they consider them insignificant.
The attack was, according to the author planned to cause disproportionate terror and maximum civilian casualties, rather than to defend itself against rocket attacks from Gaza as claimed. This aggression, he continues, is conducted with weapons and technology supplied and paid for by the U. S. government, including a shipment announced while the attack was in progress, at an unprecedented level of military aid set to increase under the Obama administration. The aim of the attack, which included the bombing of Sudan and the sinking of a ship in the Red Sea, remains open to speculation, contends the author, but has resulted in an increase in support for HAMAS and other militant Islamist groups across the region; the author maintains that, as well as specific violations such as deploying US-made white phosphorus shells in attacks on the al-Quds hospital and the UNRWA compounds, the entire operation, aimed at the destruction of all means of life including agriculture, fisheries and universities, was itself a war crime.
The Israeli authorities had, according to the author, no right to use force to defend itself against the rocket attacks from Gaza while other more effective solutions were open to them, including the proposed resumption of the ceasefire violated by Israel linked to the lifting of the blockade. The author concludes that the Israeli authorities want peace but, in accordance with longstanding policy that puts expansion over security, want to delay that peace for as long as necessary to ensure they can control the maximum amount of land
David Barsamian is an Armenian-American radio broadcaster and the founder and director of Alternative Radio, a Boulder, Colorado-based syndicated weekly public affairs program heard on some 250 radio stations worldwide. Barsamian started working in radio in 1978 at KGNU in Boulder, Colorado and KRZA in Alamosa, Colorado. Articles by Barsamian have appeared in The Progressive, The Sun and Z Magazine. Barsamian lectures on U. S. foreign policy, corporate control, the media, propaganda. He is well known for his insightful interview series with Noam Chomsky, Arundhati Roy, Edward Said, Eqbal Ahmad, Howard Zinn, Tariq Ali, which have been collected into books. In 1986, David Barsamian took the initiative to do more than critique the media. Frustrated by corporate media's lack of progressive, radical voices, he founded Alternative Radio. Now aired on more than 250 radio stations, Barsamian's journalism is well-respected around the world for analyzing the world´s most pressing social and environmental problems and exploring possible solutions to them.
Barsamian was born in New York in 1945 to refugees. He grew up with a strong interest in international issues, which developed further during an extended period in India in the 1960s, he regards that time as a major influence: "I was surrounded by some of that country's greatest musicians and poets. I learned so much, including Urdu and Bengali, it was like getting a graduate education in South Asia." These early experiences gave him the cultural and political awareness, the foundation of his journalism. In 1978, Barsamian volunteered at KGNU community radio in Colorado. Over eight years at KGNU, he learned the essentials of radio journalism—listening, writing, producing, on-air skills, he edited reel-to-reel tape with razor blades and wax pencils. He hosted and produced two KGNU shows, "Ganges to the Nile," an international cultural program, "Hemispheres," a political program. In 1986, he uplinked a two-and-a-half hour program with Noam Chomsky to the public radio satellite. Though most radio stations preferred half hour or one hour segments, a few stations picked up the program.
That long conversation with Chomsky was the beginning of Alternative Radio. Barsamian is critical of power in the U. S. and elsewhere, which has consequences. In 2011, at New Delhi airport, he was denied entry to India. Immigration officials forced him to return to the U. S. offering no explanation. Some theorize that he was blacklisted after broadcasting Arundhati Roy’s criticism of India’s treatment of people in Kashmir. Many prominent Indians spoke out against the travel ban, Barsamian did as well: “This arbitrary action … is not a sign of strength of Indian democracy. A healthy, vibrant democracy should include a rainbow of different opinions, different perspectives, points of view and it should embrace those differences rather than seeking to impose a uniformity of thought and opinion.” Since visiting Iran in 2016, he has been detained and questioned at U. S. airports. Founding Alternative Radio was Barsamian's personal attempt to meet the goals of public broadcasting: “to serve as a forum for controversy and debate” and “to provide a voice for groups that may otherwise be unheard."
Because mainstream media oversimplifies debate and leaves out so many voices, alternative media outlets play a crucial role in American democracy. In Barsamian’s view, "it was unacceptable that many of this country's greatest and most articulate radical voices had no forum on public radio. Alternative Radio was created to be the vehicle for progressive perspectives that are otherwise ignored or given short shrift.” After more than thirty years of AR, Barsamian continues to speak up for those who are unheard or ignored. List of Armenian Americans About David Barsamian, with list of programs featuring him, at Alternative Radio's website Alternative Radio website Statement of protest South Asia Citizens Web, Sep 28, 2011 Appearances on C-SPAN
A comic book or comicbook called comic magazine or comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are accompanied by brief descriptive prose and written narrative dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan, comic books were first popularized in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1930s; the first modern comic book, Famous Funnies, was released in the U. S. in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips, which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; the largest comic book market is Japan. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books/magazines in Japan. The comic book market in the United States and Canada was valued at $1.09 billion in 2016.
As of 2017, the largest comic book publisher in the United States is manga distributor Viz Media, followed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics. Another major comic book market is France, where Franco-Belgian comics and Japanese manga each represent 40% of the market, followed by American comics at 10% market share. Comic books are reliant on their appearance. Authors focus on the frame of the page, size and panel positions; these characteristic aspects of comic books are necessary in conveying the content and messages of the author. The key elements of comic books include panels, balloons and characters. Balloons are convex spatial containers of information that are related to a character using a tail element; the tail has an origin, path and pointed direction. Key tasks in the creation of comic books are writing and coloring. Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover, making it the first known American prototype comic book.
Proto-comics periodicals began appearing early in the 20th century, with historians citing Dell Publishing's 36-page Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics as the first true American comic book. The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry and ushered the Golden Age of Comics; the Golden Age originated the archetype of the superhero. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power. Historians divide the timeline of the American comic book into eras; the Golden Age of Comic Books began in the 1930s. The Silver Age of comic books is considered to date from the first successful revival of the then-dormant superhero form, with the debut of the Flash in Showcase #4; the Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man.
The demarcation between the Silver Age and the following era, the Bronze Age of Comic Books, is less well-defined, with the Bronze Age running from the early 1970s through the mid-1980s. The Modern Age of Comic Books runs from the mid-1980s to the present day. A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent, which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U. S. comic book industry set up the Comics Magazine Association of America. The CMAA instilled the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the self-censorship Comics Code that year, which required all comic books to go through a process of approval, it was not until the 1970s that comic books could be published without passing through the inspection of the CMAA. The Code was made formally defunct in November 2011.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comix. Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Many had an uninhibited irreverent style. Underground comics were never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order. Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon, has been credited as the first underground comic; the rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created/paralleled a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics" in the U. S; the first such comics included the anthology series Star Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman an
Library of Congress Classification
The Library of Congress Classification is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. It is used by most research and academic libraries in the U. S. and several other countries. LCC should not be confused with LCCN, the system of Library of Congress Control Numbers assigned to all books, which defines URLs of their online catalog entries, such as "82006074" and "http://lccn.loc.gov/82006074". The Classification is distinct from Library of Congress Subject Headings, the system of labels such as "Boarding schools" and "Boarding schools—Fiction" that describe contents systematically; the classifications may be distinguished from the call numbers assigned to particular copies of books in the collection, such as "PZ7. J684 Wj 1982 FT MEADE Copy 1" where the classification is "PZ7. J684 Wj 1982"; the classification was invented by Herbert Putnam in 1897, just before he assumed the librarianship of Congress. With advice from Charles Ammi Cutter, it was influenced by his Cutter Expansive Classification, the Dewey Decimal System, the Putnam Classification System.
It was designed for the purposes and collection of the Library of Congress to replace the fixed location system developed by Thomas Jefferson. By the time Putnam departed from his post in 1939, all the classes except K and parts of B were well developed. LCC has been criticized for lacking a sound theoretical basis. Although it divides subjects into broad categories, it is enumerative in nature; that is, it provides a guide to the books in one library's collections, not a classification of the world. In 2007 The Wall Street Journal reported that in the countries it surveyed most public libraries and small academic libraries used the older Dewey Decimal Classification system; the National Library of Medicine classification system uses the initial letters W and QS–QZ, which are not used by LCC. Some libraries use NLM in conjunction with LCC. Others include Medicine R. Subclass AC -- Collections. Series. Collected works Subclass AE – Encyclopedias Subclass AG – Dictionaries and other general reference works Subclass AI – Indexes Subclass AM – Museums.
Collectors and collecting Subclass AN – Newspapers Subclass AP – Periodicals Subclass AS – Academies and learned societies Subclass AY – Yearbooks. Almanacs. Directories Subclass AZ – History of scholarship and learning; the humanities Subclass B – Philosophy Subclass BC – Logic Subclass BD – Speculative philosophy Subclass BF – Psychology Subclass BH – Aesthetics Subclass BJ – Ethics Subclass BL – Religions. Mythology. Rationalism Subclass BM – Judaism Subclass BP – Islam. Bahaism. Theosophy, etc. Subclass BQ – Buddhism Subclass BR – Christianity Subclass BS – The Bible Subclass BT – Doctrinal theology Subclass BV – Practical Theology Subclass BX – Christian Denominations Subclass C – Auxiliary Sciences of History Subclass CB – History of Civilization Subclass CC – Archaeology Subclass CD – Diplomatics. Archives. Seals Subclass CE – Technical Chronology. Calendar Subclass CJ – Numismatics Subclass CN – Inscriptions. Epigraphy Subclass CR – Heraldry Subclass CS – Genealogy Subclass CT – Biography Subclass D – History Subclass DA – Great Britain Subclass DAW – Central Europe Subclass DB – Austria – Liechtenstein – Hungary – Czechoslovakia Subclass DC – France – Andorra – Monaco Subclass DD – Germany Subclass DE – Greco-Roman World Subclass DF – Greece Subclass DG – Italy – Malta Subclass DH – Low Countries – Benelux Countries Subclass DJ – Netherlands Subclass DJK – Eastern Europe Subclass DK – Russia.
Soviet Union. Former Soviet Republics – Poland Subclass DL – Northern Europe. Scandinavia Subclass DP – Spain – Portugal Subclass DQ – Switzerland Subclass DR – Balkan Peninsula Subclass DS – Asia Subclass DT – Africa Subclass DU – Oceania Subclass DX – Romanies Class E does not have any subclasses. Class F does not have any subclasses, however Canadian Universities and the Canadian National Library use FC for Canadian History, a subclass that the LC has not adopted, but which it has agreed not to use for anything else Subclass G – Geography. Atlases. Maps Subclass GA – Mathematical geography. Cartography Subclass GB – Physical geography Subclass GC – Oceanography Subclass GE – Environmental Sciences Subclass GF – Human ecology. Anthropogeography Subclass GN – Anthropology Subclass GR – Folklore Subclass GT – Manners and customs Subclass GV – Recreation. Leisure Subclass H – Social sciences Subclass HA – Statistics Subclass HB – Economic theory. Demography Subclass HC – Economic history and conditions Subclass HD – Industries.
Land use. Labor Subclass HE – Transportation and communications Subclass HF – Commerce Subclass HG – Finance Subclass HJ – Public finance Subclass HM – Sociology Subclass HN – Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform Subclass HQ – The family. Marriage and Sexuality Subclass HS – Societies: secret, etc. Subclass HT – Communities. Classes. Races Subclass HV – Social pathology. Social and public welfare. Criminology Subclass HX – Socialism. Communism. Anarchism Subclass J – General legislative and executive papers Subclass JA – Political science Subclass JC – Political theory Subclass JF – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JJ – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JK – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JL – Political instit
Cla$$war is a six-issue comic book limited series published by Com.x between 2002 and 2004. It was written by Rob Williams with art by Travel Foreman. Williams has summed up the story as "a political thriller with superheroes," dealing with a government supersoldier programme and how the leading superhero, The American, deals with the revelation of the truth; the series, written by Rob Williams with art by Trevor Hairsine, was due to be launched in November 2001, but had to be delayed because of the 9/11 attacks. The first three issues were published between January and July 2002 and were collected into a trade paperback in 2003; when the publisher came back from a hiatus caused by problems including a serious burglary, Hairsine had moved on to Marvel and, while Cary Nord was pencilled in as his replacement, a job that went to Travel Foreman and the last three issue were published between March and June 2004. Len O'Grady provided all the colouring to "maintain colour continuity"; when the publisher returned to publishing the series was collected into a hardcover edition.
Although people make the link with The Authority, Williams has said he had not read the series before starting to write Cla$$war and he went on to explain the actual inspiration: The series was always planned to run for twelve issues, Williams has expressed an interest in writing the next six-issue story arc but he is concerned that "with the production quality and level of artist that the series has had in its different incarnations - it's tough to sustain that over another six issues unless you're selling large numbers, for an indie company like com.x that's tough to achieve." The reviews have been positive, apart from complaints about scheduling. Michael Deeley reviewed the first issue for Comics Bulletin declared that it was a "this is a solid first issue for what promises to be an exciting and challenging story," with "tight" writing and "great art," the latter reminding him of "Gene Colan, but with a grittier texture." The X-Axis thought it was an "impressive package" and the review at Sequential Tart complimented the "gorgeous" art and drew on the comparisons, saying "where The Authority deals with interdimensional war and interstellar invasion, Cla$$war is much more personal and immediate."
Craig Lemon covered issue #2 for Comics Bulletin and concluded "a great title, a real breath of fresh air into a tired genre, one that doesn't rely on the shock value of revealing secret identities, or of changing powers and/or costumes," suggesting some parallels with John Smith's New Statesmen. Lemon returns for the third issue and suggests that "Rob Williams is beginning to get into this scripting lark, hitting his stride with spot-on dialogue and humorous asides amid the serious plot." Lemon reviewed the trade collection of the first three issues, concluding that "a cracking script to go with his detailed plot, the right mixture of tension, intrigue plus humour" and that it "shows work off to its best effect, the amount of effort he put in is all there on the page...complemented by Len O'Grady's excellent colouring work," although he did point out problems with spelling errors. When the series recommenced, Lemon picked up the reviews again concluding that the fourth issue is "a bit like Supreme-Power-to-the-MAX, ideal for fans of that book or Rising Stars, or for anyone who demands a little more... intelligence... from their superheroes."
After the highpoint of the previous issue "#5 just moves us from the bad guys looking for The American, to the confrontation itself" although "it still works and reads well." Craig Johnson reviewed the last issue for Comics Bulletin and suggested "you have a book which comes close to out-Authoritying The Authority, out-Ultimating The Ultimates." The X-Axis was less impressed, suggesting that the scheduling made it miss the window where the story's politics were relevant: "by this point Cla$$war seems like a strangely contradiction - a hamfisted anti-government rant, a curious relic of a more innocent pre-9/11 era when you had to make up silly conspiracy theories to justify broadsiding the US government."SFX reviewed the complete collection and found itself agreeing and disagreeing with Craig Johnson's introduction to the book: "o Johnson's right, if you don't have V for Vendetta, order it at once. But if you do, Cla$$war should be the next book on your must-buy list." Troy Brownfield at Newsarama felt that "Rob Williams doesn’t flinch when he puts a cold eye to this idea, it’s his willingness to stare that gives the story its fire" and that "lend some terrific art to the proceedings" before concluding that the volume is "an action-packed super-hero tale with resonance and relevance."
Ain't it Cool News was impressed with Hairsine's art, suggesting he "deserves a blowjob while eating ice cream for this work," and they felt that the change of artists was not the problem it could have been, "ure you knew it was a different guy, but he embodied the predecessor so well you just thought it was the original artist trying something new." They were impressed with the story and the presentation of the hardcover volume, concluding "verall the series is a powerhouse and this new hardcover collection rocks - with an incredible amount of extras thrown in," with their main concern being that the series was planned for twelve issues, so the volume is only the first story arc: The series has been collected into two trade paperbacks. The first was released in 2003 and brought together the three issues, published at that point and the second collects the entire six issues: Cla$$war: Series One: Complete Edition This volu