A practical joke, or prank, is a mischievous trick played on someone causing the victim to experience embarrassment, confusion, or discomfort. A person who performs a practical joke is called a "practical joker". Other terms for practical jokes include jape, or shenanigan. Practical jokes differ from confidence tricks or hoaxes in that the victim finds out, or is let in on the joke, rather than being talked into handing over money or other valuables. Practical jokes are lighthearted and without lasting impact, thus most practical jokes designed to encourage laughter. However, practical jokes performed with cruelty can constitute bullying, whose intent is to harass or exclude rather than reinforce social bonds through ritual humbling; some countries in Western culture traditionally emphasize the carrying out of practical jokes on April Fools' Day. A practical joke is "practical" because it consists of someone doing something physical, in contrast to a verbal or written joke. For example, the joker, setting up and conducting the practical joke might hang a bucket of water above a doorway and rig the bucket using pulleys so when the door opens the bucket dumps the water.
The joker would wait for the victim to walk through the doorway and be drenched by the bucket of water. Objects can feature in practical jokes, like fake vomit, chewing-gum bugs, exploding cigars, stink bombs and whoopee cushions. Practical jokes occur in offices to surprise co-workers. Examples include covering computer accessories with Jell-O, wrapping a desk with Christmas paper or aluminium foil or filling it with balloons. Practical jokes commonly occur during sleepovers, when teens play pranks on their friends as they come into the home, enter a room or as they sleep. American humorist H. Allen Smith wrote a 320-page book in 1953 called The Compleat Practical Joker that contains numerous examples of practical jokes; the book became a best seller - not only in the United States but in Japan. Moira Marsh has written an entire volume about practical jokes. - she found that in the USA males perpetrate such gags more than females. A practical joke recalled as his favorite by the playwright Charles MacArthur, concerns the American painter and bohemian character Waldo Peirce.
While living in Paris in the 1920s, Peirce "made a gift of a big turtle to the woman, the concierge of his building". The woman doted on the lavished care on it. A few days Peirce substituted a somewhat larger turtle for the original one; this continued for some time, with larger and larger turtles being surreptitiously introduced into the woman's apartment. The concierge was beside herself with happiness and displayed her miraculous turtle to the entire neighborhood. Peirce began to sneak in and replace the turtle with smaller and smaller ones, to her bewildered distress; this was the storyline behind Esio Trot, by Roald Dahl. Modern and successful pranks take advantage of the modernization of tools and techniques. In Canada, engineering students have a reputation for annual pranks. A similar prank was undertaken by engineering students at Cambridge University, where an Austin 7 car was put on top of the Senate House building. Pranks can adapt to the political context of the era. Students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are known for their "hacks".
Not unlike the Stone Louse of Germany, in the American West the jackalope has become an institutionalized practical joke perennially perpetrated by ruralites on tourists, most of whom have never heard of the decades-old myth. The 2003 TV movie Windy City Heat, consists of an elaborate practical joke on the film's star, Perry Caravallo, led to believe that he is starring in a faux action film, Windy City Heat, where the filming, ostensibly for the film's DVD extras documents the long chain of pranks and jokes performed at Caravallo's expense
Falling in Love Again (1980 film)
Falling in Love Again is a 1980 American romantic comedy film directed by Steven Paul and starring Elliott Gould and Susannah York. The film introduces Michelle Pfeiffer as the girl of the story in her early years. Harry Lewis grew up in the New York with grand ambitions, he married the most beautiful girl in school and planned to become an architect. Years Harry and Sue, unhappy now and nostalgic for their past, are living in Los Angeles and running a garment business. An invitation to their high school reunion persuades them to return to their roots, their lives together are recalled in flashback on the cross-country drive to New York. Elliott Gould - Harry Lewis Susannah York - Sue Lewis Kaye Ballard - Mrs. Lewis Stuart Paul - Pompadour Michelle Pfeiffer - Sue Wellington Twink Caplan - Melinda John Diehl - Pompadour's friend James Dunaway - Man on street Robert Hackman - Mr. Lewis Todd Hepler - Alan Childs Iren Koster - Piano player Marian McCargo - Mrs. Wellington Tony O'Dell - Bobby Lewis Bonnie Paul - Hilary Lewis Steven Paul - Stan the Con Herbert Rudley - Mr. Wellington Alan Solomon - Max the Brain Cathy Tolbert - Cheryl Herman Terrence Evans - Beaver The film was a box-office failure.
The New York Times' Vincent Canby in his review of Nov. 21, 1980, gave it an negative appraisal, deriding its "witless screenplay." Elliott Gould recalled "“It was a large score, it was overmusical. It was beautiful. Michel Legrand composed it. I thought, it was the first picture of a very young director. It was alright.” Falling in Love Again on IMDb Falling in Love Again at Rotten Tomatoes Falling in Love Again at Box Office Mojo Falling in Love Again at TCMDB Review of film at Variety
Philip Milton Roth was an American novelist and short-story writer. Roth's fiction set in his birthplace of Newark, New Jersey, is known for its intensely autobiographical character, for philosophically and formally blurring the distinction between reality and fiction, for its "sensual, ingenious style" and for its provocative explorations of American identity. Roth first gained attention with the 1959 novella Goodbye, for which he received the U. S. National Book Award for Fiction, he became one of the most awarded American writers of his generation. His books twice received the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle award, three times the PEN/Faulkner Award, he received a Pulitzer Prize for his 1997 novel American Pastoral, which featured one of his best-known characters, Nathan Zuckerman, a character in many of Roth's novels. The Human Stain, another Zuckerman novel, was awarded the United Kingdom's WH Smith Literary Award for the best book of the year. In 2001, in Prague, Roth received the inaugural Franz Kafka Prize.
Philip Roth was born in Newark, New Jersey, on March 19, 1933, grew up at 81 Summit Avenue in the Weequahic neighborhood. He was the second child of an insurance broker. Roth's family was Jewish, his parents were second-generation Americans. Roth's father's parents came from Kozlov near Lviv / Lemberg in Galicia, he graduated from Newark's Weequahic High School in or around 1950. As Arnold H. Lubasch wrote in the New York Times in 1969, "It has provided the focus for the fiction of Philip Roth, the novelist who evokes his era at Weequahic High School in the acclaimed Portnoy's Complaint.... Besides identifying Weequahic High School by name, the novel specifies such sites as the Empire Burlesque, the Weequahic Diner, the Newark Museum and Irvington Park, all local landmarks that helped shape the youth of the real Roth and the fictional Portnoy, both graduates of Weequahic class of'50." The Weequahic Yearbook describes Roth as "A boy of real intelligence, combined with wit and common sense." He was known as a comedian during his time at school.
Roth attended Rutgers University in Newark for a year transferred to Bucknell University in Pennsylvania, where he earned a B. A. magna was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. He received a scholarship to attend the University of Chicago, where he earned an M. A. in English literature in 1955 and worked as an instructor in the university's writing program. That same year, rather than wait to be drafted, Roth enlisted in the army, but he suffered a back injury during basic training and was given a medical discharge, he dropped out after one term. Roth taught creative writing at the University of Princeton University, he continued his academic career at the University of Pennsylvania, where he taught comparative literature before retiring from teaching in 1991. Between the end of his studies and the publication of his first book in 1959, Roth served two years in the United States Army and wrote short fiction and criticism for various magazines, including movie reviews for The New Republic. Roth's work first appeared in print in the Chicago Review while he was studying, teaching, at the University of Chicago.
His first book, Columbus, contains the novella Goodbye and four short stories. It won the National Book Award in 1960, he published his first full-length novel, Letting Go, in 1962. In 1967 he published, it is based in part on the life of Margaret Martinson Williams, whom Roth married in 1959. The publication in 1969 of his fourth and most controversial novel, Portnoy's Complaint, gave Roth widespread commercial and critical success, causing his profile to rise significantly. During the 1970s Roth experimented in various modes, from the political satire Our Gang to the Kafkaesque The Breast. By the end of the decade Roth had created his alter ego Nathan Zuckerman. In a series of self-referential novels and novellas that followed between 1979 and 1986, Zuckerman appeared as either the main character or an interlocutor. Sabbath's Theater may have Roth's most lecherous protagonist, Mickey Sabbath, a disgraced former puppeteer. In complete contrast, American Pastoral, the first volume of his so-called second Zuckerman trilogy, focuses on the life of virtuous Newark star athlete Swede Levov, the tragedy that befalls him when Levov's teenage daughter becomes a domestic terrorist during the late 1960s.
I Married a Communist focuses on the McCarthy era. The Human Stain examines identity politics in 1990s America; the Dying Animal is a short novel about eros and death that revisits literary professor David Kepesh, protagonist of two 1970s works, The Breast and The Professor of Desire. In The Plot Against America, Roth imagines an alternative American history in which Charles Lindbergh, aviator hero and isolationist, is elected U. S. president in 1940, the U. S. negotiates an understanding with Hitler's Nazi Germany and embarks on its own program of anti-Semitism. Roth's novel Everyman, a meditation on illness, aging and death, was published in May 2006. For Everyman Roth won his third PEN/Faulkner Award. Exit Ghost, which again features Nathan Zuckerman, was released in October 2007, it was the last Zuckerman novel. Indignation, Roth's 29th book, was published on September 16, 2008. Set in 1951, during the Korean War, it follows Marcus Messner's departure from Newark to Ohio's Wines
A film called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed in rapid succession; the process of filmmaking is both an industry. A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, other visual effects; the word "cinema", short for cinematography, is used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, to the art of filmmaking itself. The contemporary definition of cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, perceptions, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. Films were recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process and shown through a movie projector onto a large screen.
Contemporary films are now fully digital through the entire process of production and exhibition, while films recorded in a photochemical form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, they reflect those cultures. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens; the visual basis of film gives it a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions through the use of dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into other languages; the individual images that make up a film are called frames. In the projection of traditional celluloid films, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness as each frame, in turn, is moved into position to be projected, but the viewer does not notice the interruptions because of an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after its source disappears.
The perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called the phi phenomenon. The name "film" originates from the fact that photographic film has been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion-picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture and flick; the most common term in the United States is movie. Common terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the movies, cinema. In early years, the word sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, costumes, direction, audiences and scores. Much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images and sounds could not be recorded for replaying as with film; the magic lantern created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, achieved by various types of mechanical slides.
Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. In the mid-19th century, inventions such as Joseph Plateau's phenakistoscope and the zoetrope demonstrated that a designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of the changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show the objects moving if they were displayed one after the other at a sufficiently rapid rate; these devices relied on the phenomenon of persistence of vision to make the display appear continuous though the observer's view was blocked as each drawing rotated into the location where its predecessor had just been glimpsed.
Each sequence was limited to a small number of drawings twelve, so it could only show endlessly repeating cyclical motions. By the late 1880s, the last major device of this type, the praxinoscope, had been elaborated into a form that employed a long coiled band containing hundreds of images painted on glass and used the elements of a magic lantern to project them onto a screen; the use of sequences of photographs in such devices was limited to a few experiments with subjects photographed in a series of poses because the available emulsions were not sensitive enough to allow the short exposures needed to photograph subjects that were moving. The sensitivity was improved and in the late 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge created the first animated image sequences photographed in real-time. A row of cameras was used, each, in turn, capturing one image on a photographic glass plate, so the total number of images in each sequence was limited by the number of cameras, about two dozen at most. Muybridge used his system to analyze the movements of a wi
July, July is a novel by National Book Award Winner Tim O'Brien, about the 30th reunion of a graduating college class of 1969 that happened a year too late. It's filled with characters bent up by society's pliers, it flashes back to moments that shaped their lives, it expands on themes from his earlier novels, hope and war. July, July is set in 2000, members of the Darton Hall College class of 1969 are gathered, one year behind schedule, for their 30th reunion. Focusing on a dozen characters and life's pivotal moments rather than on a linear plot, O'Brien follows the ensemble cast for whom "the world had whittled itself down to now or never," as they drink and reminisce. Interspersed are tales of other moments when each character experienced something that changed him or her forever. Jumping across decades, O'Brien reveals past loves and old betrayals that still haunt: Dorothy failed to follow Billy to Canada. Comedy and pathos define the reunion days, while the histories devastate. Tim O'Brien, Author
Guilt is a cognitive or an emotional experience that occurs when a person believes or realizes—accurately or not—that they have compromised their own standards of conduct or have violated a universal moral standard and bear significant responsibility for that violation. Guilt is related to the concept of remorse. Guilt is an important factor in perpetuating obsessive–compulsive disorder symptoms. Guilt and its associated causes and demerits are common themes in psychology and psychiatry. Both in specialized and in ordinary language, guilt is an affective state in which one experiences conflict at having done something that one believes one should not have done, it gives rise to a feeling which does not go away driven by'conscience'. Sigmund Freud described this as the result of a struggle between the ego and the superego – parental imprinting. Freud rejected the role of God as punisher in times of rewarder in time of wellness. While removing one source of guilt from patients, he described another.
This was the unconscious force within the individual that contributed to illness, Freud in fact coming to consider "the obstacle of an unconscious sense of guilt...as the most powerful of all obstacles to recovery." For his explicator, guilt was the inevitable companion of the signifying subject who acknowledged normality in the form of the Symbolic order. Alice Miller claims that "many people suffer all their lives from this oppressive feeling of guilt, the sense of not having lived up to their parents' expectations....no argument can overcome these guilt feelings, for they have their beginnings in life's earliest period, from that they derive their intensity." This may be linked to what Les Parrott has called "the disease of false guilt.... At the root of false guilt is the idea that what you feel must be true." If you feel guilty, you must be guilty! The philosopher Martin Buber underlined the difference between the Freudian notion of guilt, based on internal conflicts, existential guilt, based on actual harm done to others.
Guilt is associated with anxiety. In mania, according to Otto Fenichel, the patient succeeds in applying to guilt "the defense mechanism of denial by overcompensation...re-enacts being a person without guilt feelings."In psychological research, guilt can be measured by using questionnaires, such as the Differential Emotions Scale, or the Dutch Guilt Measurement Instrument. Defenses against feeling guilt can become an overriding aspect of one's personality; the methods that can be used to avoid guilt are multiple. They include: Repression used by the superego and ego against instinctive impulses, but on occasion employed against the superego/conscience itself. If the defence fails one may begin to feel guilty years for actions committed at the time. Projection is another defensive tool with wide applications, it may take the form of blaming the victim: The victim of someone else's accident or bad luck may be offered criticism, the theory being that the victim may be at fault for having attracted the other person's hostility.
Alternatively, not the guilt, but the condemning agency itself, may be projected onto other people, in the hope that they will look upon one's deeds more favorably than one's own conscience. Sharing a feeling of guilt, thereby being less alone with it, is a motive force in both art and joke-telling. Self-harm may be used as an alternative to compensating the object of one's transgression – in the form of not allowing oneself to enjoy opportunities open to one, or benefits due, as a result of uncompensated guilt feelings. Feelings of guilt can prompt subsequent virtuous behavior. People who feel guilty may be more to exercise restraint, avoid self-indulgence, exhibit less prejudice. Guilt appears to prompt reparatory behaviors to alleviate the negative emotions. People appear to engage in targeted and specific reparatory behaviors toward the persons they wronged or offended. Individuals high in psychopathy lack any true sense of guilt or remorse for harm they may have caused others. Instead, they blame someone else, or deny it outright.
A person with psychopathy has a tendency to be harmful to others. They have little ability to plan ahead for the future. An individual with psychopathy will never find themselves at fault because they will do whatever it takes to benefit themselves without reservation. A person that does not feel guilt or remorse would have no reason to find themselves at fault for something that they did with the intention of hurting another person. To a person high in psychopathy, their actions can always be rationalized to be the fault of another person; this is seen by psychologists as part of a lack of moral reasoning, an inability to evaluate situations in a moral framework, an inability to develop emotional bonds with other people due to a lack of empathy. Some evolutionary psychologists theorize that guilt and shame helped maintain beneficial relationships, such as reciprocal altruism. If a person feels guilty when he harms another, or fails to reciprocate kindness, he is more not to harm others or become too selfish.
In this way, he reduces the chances of retaliation by members of his tribe, thereby increases his survival prospects, those of the tribe or group. As with any other emotion, guilt can be manipulated to influence others; as social animals living in large, rela