Classic Mac OS refers to the series of operating systems developed for the Macintosh family of personal computers by Apple Inc. from 1984 to 2001, starting with System 1 and ending with Mac OS 9. The Macintosh operating system is credited with having popularized the graphical user interface concept, it was included with every Macintosh, sold during the era in which it was developed, many updates to the system software were done in conjunction with the introduction of new Macintosh systems. Apple released the original Macintosh on January 24, 1984; the first version of the system software, which had no official name, was based on the Lisa OS, which Apple released for the Lisa computer in 1983. As part of an agreement allowing Xerox to buy shares in Apple at a favorable price, it used concepts from the Xerox PARC Alto computer, which former Apple CEO Steve Jobs and other Lisa team members had previewed; this operating system consisted of the Macintosh Toolbox ROM and the "System Folder", a set of files that were loaded from disk.
The name Macintosh System Software came into use in 1987 with System 5. Apple rebranded the system as Mac OS in 1996, starting with version 7.6, due in part to its Macintosh clone program. That program ended after the release of Mac OS 8 in 1997; the last major release of the system was Mac OS 9 in 1999. Initial versions of the System Software run one application at a time. With the introduction of System 5, a cooperative multitasking extension called MultiFinder was added, integrated into System 7 as part of the operating system along with support for virtual memory. By the mid-1990s, contemporary operating systems such as Windows NT, OS/2, NeXTSTEP had all brought pre-emptive multitasking, protected memory, access controls, multi-user capabilities to desktop computers, The Macintosh's limited memory management and susceptibility to conflicts among extensions that provide additional functionality, such as networking or support for a particular device, led to significant criticism of the operating system, was a factor in Apple's declining market share at the time.
After two aborted attempts at creating a successor to the Macintosh System Software called Taligent and Copland, a four-year development effort spearheaded by Steve Jobs' return to Apple in 1997, Apple replaced Mac OS with a new operating system in 2001 named Mac OS X. It retained most of the user interface design elements of the classic Mac OS, there was some overlap of application frameworks for compatibility, but the two operating systems otherwise have different origins and architectures; the final updates to Mac OS 9 released in 2001 provided interoperability with Mac OS X. The name "Classic" that now signifies the historical Mac OS as a whole is a reference to the Classic Environment, a compatibility layer that helped ease the transition to Mac OS X; the Macintosh project started in late 1978 with Jef Raskin, who envisioned an easy-to-use, low-cost computer for the average consumer. In September 1979, Raskin began looking for an engineer. Bill Atkinson, a member of the Apple Lisa team, introduced Raskin to Burrell Smith, a service technician, hired earlier that year.
Apple's concept for the Macintosh deliberately sought to minimize the user's awareness of the operating system. Many basic tasks that required more operating system knowledge on other systems could be accomplished by mouse gestures and graphic controls on a Macintosh; this would differentiate it from its contemporaries such as MS-DOS, which use a command-line interface consisting of terse, abbreviated textual commands. In January 1981, Steve Jobs took over the Macintosh project. Jobs and a number of Apple engineers visited Xerox PARC in December 1979, three months after the Lisa and Macintosh projects had begun. After hearing about the pioneering GUI technology being developed at Xerox PARC from former Xerox employees like Raskin, Jobs negotiated a visit to see the Xerox Alto computer and Smalltalk development tools in exchange for Apple stock options; the final Lisa and Macintosh operating systems use concepts from the Xerox Alto, but many elements of the graphical user interface were created by Apple including the menu bar, pull-down menus, the concepts of drag and drop and direct manipulation.
Unlike the IBM PC, which uses 8 kB of system ROM for power-on self-test and basic input/output system, the Mac ROM is larger and holds key OS code. Much of the original Mac ROM was coded by a member of the original Macintosh team, he was able to conserve precious ROM space by writing routines in assembly language code optimized with "hacks," or clever programming tricks. In addition to the ROM, he coded the kernel, the Macintosh Toolbox, some of the desktop accessories; the icons of the operating system, which represent folders and application software, were designed by Susan Kare, who designed the icons for Microsoft Windows 3.0. Bruce Horn and Steve Capps wrote the Macintosh Finder, as well as a number of Macintosh system utilities. Apple aggressively advertised their new machine. After its release, the company bought all 39 pages of advertisement space in the 1984 November/December edition of Newsweek magazine; the Macintosh outsold its more sophisticated but much more expensive predecessor, the Lisa.
Apple developed a product named MacWorks, which allowed the Lisa to emulate Macintosh system software through System 3, by which time it had been discontinued as the rebranded Macintosh XL. Many of Lisa's operating system advances would not appear in the Macintosh operating system until System 7 or later. Early versions of Mac OS are compatible only with Motorola
C. Turney Stevens, Jr. is the dean emeritus of the College of Business at Lipscomb University, a private Christian university in Nashville, Tennessee. Stevens was himself an alumnus of Lipscomb, graduating in 1972, he earned an MBA at Vanderbilt University in 1981, he worked as an investment banker for 35 years. He founded several Nashville-based companies including magazine publisher PlusMedia and investment bank Harpeth Capital. Stevens joined the Lipscomb faculty in 2007, after his retirement from Harpeth, became dean in 2008; as dean, Stevens created the Dean Institute for Corporate Governance and Integrity, founded a student ethics program with the support of the Center for Public Trust, established a lecture series featuring ethical business people, offered ethics training to local corporate leaders. On the basis of these activities, Ethisphere magazine named him as one of "2009's 100 most influential people in business ethics". In 2014, Stevens moved into an emeritus role, focusing on fundraising for the college
Conrad Adolphus Wallroth was an English cricketer who played first-class cricket for Oxford University between 1872 and 1874, Kent in 1872 and Derbyshire in 1879. He was a right-handed batsman and played 36 innings in 21 first-class games with a top score of 109 and an average of 17.02. He kept wicket. Wallroth was born in Lee in Kent, he was educated at Harrow School, playing in the Eton-Harrow match in 1870, went on to study at Brasenose College, Oxford. In 1871 he made his first-class debut playing against Oxford University for Marylebone Cricket Club, represented various other sides including Brasenose College and Gentlemen of England in that season. In the 1872 season he played for the Oxford University team including in the Varsity match, at the end of the season put in an appearance for Kent, he played for Oxford University in 1873 when he scored 109 against Middlesex and appeared in the winning Varsity match side. Oxford won the Varsity match again in 1874, Wallroth's last season. In 1876 he appeared for the Gentlemen of the South, by 1878 had moved to Derbyshire where he lived at Mickleover.
He played a non-qualifying match against Uppingham for Derbyshire in 1878 and played three first-class games for Derbyshire in the 1879 season. He played a number of games that year for the Harrow School old boys team, one of, against Derbyshire when the Harrow Wanderers beat the county side. In 1880 he played a game for Gentlemen of Derbyshire against Gentlemen of Canada. Wallroth, died at Compton Grange Godalming, Surrey at the age of 74. Wallroth's sister Louisa married Alfred Lubbock a Kent cricketer