Classical period (music)

The Classical period was an era of classical music between 1730 and 1820. The Classical period falls between the Romantic periods. Classical music is less complex, it is homophonic, using a clear melody line over a subordinate chordal accompaniment, but counterpoint was by no means forgotten later in the period. It makes use of style galant which emphasized light elegance in place of the Baroque's dignified seriousness and impressive grandeur. Variety and contrast within a piece became more pronounced than before and the orchestra increased in size and power; the harpsichord was replaced as the main keyboard instrument by the piano. Unlike the harpsichord, which plucks strings with quills, pianos strike the strings with leather-covered hammers when the keys are pressed, which enables the performer to play louder or softer and play with more expression. Instrumental music was considered important by Classical period composers; the main kinds of instrumental music were the sonata, string quartet and the solo concerto, which featured a virtuoso solo performer playing a solo work for violin, flute, or another instrument, accompanied by an orchestra.

Vocal music, such as songs for a singer and piano, choral works, opera were important during this period. The best-known composers from this period are Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Schubert. Ludwig van Beethoven is regarded either as a Romantic composer or a Classical period composer, part of the transition to the Romantic era. Franz Schubert is a transitional figure, as were Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Luigi Cherubini, Gaspare Spontini, Gioachino Rossini, Carl Maria von Weber and Niccolò Paganini; the period is sometimes referred to as the era of Viennese Classic or Classicism, since Gluck, Haydn, Salieri and Beethoven all worked in Vienna. In the middle of the 18th century, Europe began to move toward a new style in architecture and the arts known as Classicism; this style sought to emulate the ideals of Classical antiquity those of Classical Greece. Classical music used formality and emphasis on order and hierarchy, a "clearer", "cleaner" style that used clearer divisions between parts, brighter contrasts and "tone colors".

In contrast with the richly layered music of the Baroque era, Classical music moved towards simplicity rather than complexity. In addition, the typical size of orchestras began to increase, giving orchestras a more powerful sound; the remarkable development of ideas in "natural philosophy" had established itself in the public consciousness. In particular, Newton's physics was taken as a paradigm: structures should be well-founded in axioms and be both well-articulated and orderly; this taste for structural clarity began to affect music, which moved away from the layered polyphony of the Baroque period toward a style known as homophony, in which the melody is played over a subordinate harmony. This move meant that chords became a much more prevalent feature of music if they interrupted the melodic smoothness of a single part; as a result, the tonal structure of a piece of music became more audible. The new style was encouraged by changes in the economic order and social structure; as the 18th century progressed, the nobility became the primary patrons of instrumental music, while public taste preferred lighter, funny comic operas.

This led to changes in the way music was performed, the most crucial of, the move to standard instrumental groups and the reduction in the importance of the continuo—the rhythmic and harmonic groundwork of a piece of music played by a keyboard and accompanied by a varied group of bass instruments, including cello, double bass, bass viol, theorbo. One way to trace the decline of the continuo and its figured chords is to examine the disappearance of the term obbligato, meaning a mandatory instrumental part in a work of chamber music. In Baroque compositions, additional instruments could be added to the continuo group according to the group or leader's preference. By 1800, basso continuo was extinct, except for the occasional use of a pipe organ continuo part in a religious Mass in the early 1800s. Economic changes had the effect of altering the balance of availability and quality of musicians. While in the late Baroque, a major composer would have the entire musical resources of a town to draw on, the musical forces available at an aristocratic hunting lodge or small court were smaller and more fixed in their level of ability.

This was a spur to having simpler parts for ensemble musicians to play, in the case of a resident virtuoso group, a spur to writing spectacular, idiomatic parts for certain instruments, as in the case of the Mannheim orchestra, or virtuoso solo parts for skilled violinists or flautists. In addition, the appetite by audiences for a continual supply of new music carried over from the B

You Don't Like the Truth

You Don't Like The Truth: Four Days Inside Guantanamo is an award-winning 2010 documentary. The film focuses on the recorded interrogations of Canadian child soldier Omar Khadr, by Canadian intelligence personnel that took place over four days from February 13–16, 2003 while he was held at Guantanamo, it presents these with observations by his lawyers and former cell mates from the Bagram Theater Internment Facility and Guantanamo Bay detention camps. The film premiered at the Festival du nouveau cinéma in Montreal in October 2010; the film was shown to Canadian parliamentarians in October 2010. Khadr's defence attorney's planned to show the film during their summation if Khadr's trial went forward. According to the Montreal Gazette the film-makers Luc Côté and Patricio Henriquez produced a series of short YouTube videos as a companion to the feature-length documentary. Omar Khadr was taken captive in Pakistan at the age of 15 and imprisoned at Guantanamo, charged with killing a US soldier. Khadr was transferred into Canadian custody in late 2012.

He was transferred in 2014 to a medium-security one. He was released in 2015. Peter Bradshaw wrote in The Guardian, His unseen interrogator here is a Canadian intelligence officer, evidently the lead officer in a team, permitted by the Americans to question the prisoner on the understanding that a friendly seeming fellow countryman might cause Khadr to open up and give the US valuable intelligence. So far from being a respite from torture, this insincere friendly chat is a hideous refinement of cruelty: a horrifying turn of the screw. According to Andrew O'Hehir wrote in Salon, "Khadr became a sort of ritual sacrifice by the Canadian government, an offering to its American allies and/or overlords."Sam Kressner wrote in The question posed in You Don't Like the Truth: 4 Days Inside Guantanamo is not that of Omar's innocence. We will never know what happened. Rather, the crux of the film lies in the legal "black-hole" that Guantanamo detainees find themselves in. Is it possible to hold a man, let alone a child, accountable to the status of Prison of War, illegal under United Nations law since the days of the Nuremberg Trials?

The film won the Special Jury Award at the International Documentary Film Festival Amsterdam. The film won an award for "best documentary about society" at the Prix Gémeaux on September 13, 2011; the film was nominated in the best documentary category for the 2010 Genie awards. According to a September 27, 2011 review in the Film Journal, the film did not yet have a distributor in the United States, but was eligible for an Oscar nomination opening in New York City in September 2011, it did not receive a nomination. Shortly before the film's premiere, Canada lost its bid for one of the rotating seats on the United Nations Security Council. According to Rhéal Séguin, writing in The Globe and Mail, the filmmakers "are convinced one reason Canada failed to get a seat on the United Nations Security Council was because the federal government has been condemned by many countries for failing to respect Mr. Khadr's human rights and the provisions of the international convention on child soldiers." Official website Trailer Video on YouTube Full video on TVOntario You Don't Like the Truth on IMDb


Janpratinidhi is an online social networking service and news portal which acts as a bridge between voters and their elected representatives viz. MPs MLAs and councillors; the name comes from a universally used word in the Indian Subcontinent for people's representatives - Janpratinidhi. With the help of interactive maps and infographics, the website offers history of all elected representatives and details about their respective constituencies, its culture, geography and local businesses, it not only informs users about their assembly constituency but provide updates concerning their elected representatives, their assembly performance, development schemes and their progress. The portal promises a secure platform and a self-managed two-way communication system to every elected representative, through which a registered leader may manage its constituency, redress grievances and manage election campaigns. is a joint effort of a non-government organization SRISHTI and its technology partner Futuron Synergie Private Limited.

Jitendra Varma, president of Srishti—the voluntary organization behind says, "This platform is a judicious amalgamation of information technology and mobile telephony. It will enable leaders to connect with 80% of their electorates through IT and telecom." The work on the project began in 2008 and it took over two years for the team to compile the data and to create the algorithm. The portal was made available to public by the former Chief Election Commissioner of India Mr. S. Y. Quraishi at Constitution Club, New Delhi on August 29, 2013. is a combination of web interface, call-centers, live streaming, web conferences, sample surveys, socio-economic indicators, social audits and social network powered feedback mechanisms