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Classless Inter-Domain Routing

Classless Inter-Domain Routing is a method for allocating IP addresses and IP routing. The Internet Engineering Task Force introduced CIDR in 1993 to replace the previous addressing architecture of classful network design in the Internet, its goal was to slow the growth of routing tables on routers across the Internet, to help slow the rapid exhaustion of IPv4 addresses. IP addresses are described as consisting of two groups of bits in the address: the most significant bits are the network prefix, which identifies a whole network or subnet, the least significant set forms the host identifier, which specifies a particular interface of a host on that network; this division is used as the basis of traffic routing between IP networks and for address allocation policies. Whereas classful network design for IPv4 sized the network prefix as one or more 8-bit groups, resulting in the blocks of Class A, B, or C addresses, under CIDR address space is allocated to Internet service providers and end users on any address-bit boundary.

In IPv6, the interface identifier has a fixed size of 64 bits by convention, smaller subnets are never allocated to end users. CIDR encompasses several concepts, it is based on the variable-length subnet masking technique, which allows the specification of arbitrary-length prefixes. CIDR introduced a new method of representation for IP addresses, now known as CIDR notation, in which an address or routing prefix is written with a suffix indicating the number of bits of the prefix, such as for IPv4, 2001:db8::/32 for IPv6. CIDR introduced an administrative process of allocating address blocks to organizations based on their actual and short-term projected needs; the aggregation of multiple contiguous prefixes resulted in supernets in the larger Internet, which whenever possible are advertised as aggregates, thus reducing the number of entries in the global routing table. An IP address is interpreted as composed of two parts: a network-identifying prefix followed by a host identifier within that network.

In the previous classful network architecture, IP address allocations were based on the bit boundaries of the four octets of an IP address. An address was considered to be the combination of an 8, 16, or 24-bit network prefix along with a 24, 16, or 8-bit host identifier respectively. Thus, the smallest allocation and routing block contained only 256 addresses—too small for most enterprises, the next larger block contained 65536 addresses—too large to be used efficiently by large organizations; this led to inefficiencies in address use as well as inefficiencies in routing, because it required a large number of allocated class-C networks with individual route announcements, being geographically dispersed with little opportunity for route aggregation. During the first decade of the Internet after the invention of the Domain Name System it became apparent that the devised system based on the classful network scheme of allocating the IP address space and the routing of IP packets was not scalable.

This led to the successive development of subnetting and CIDR. The network class distinctions were removed, the new system was described as being classless, with respect to the old system, which became known as classful. In 1993, the Internet Engineering Task Force published a new set of standards, RFC 1518 and RFC 1519, to define this new concept of allocation of IP address blocks and new methods of routing IPv4 packets. An updated version of the specification was published as RFC 4632 in 2006. Classless Inter-Domain Routing is based on variable-length subnet masking, which allows a network to be divided into variously sized subnets, providing the opportunity to size a network more appropriately for local needs. Variable-length subnet masks are mentioned in RFC 950. Accordingly, techniques for grouping addresses for common operations were based on the concept of cluster addressing, first proposed by Carl-Herbert Rokitansky. CIDR notation is a compact representation of its associated routing prefix.

The notation is constructed from an IP address, a slash character, an integer. The integer is the count of leading 1 bits in the subnet mask. Larger values here indicate smaller networks; the maximum size of the network is given by the number of addresses that are possible with the remaining, least-significant bits below the prefix. The IP address is expressed according to the standards of IPv4 or IPv6; the address may denote a single, distinct interface address or the beginning address of an entire network. The aggregation of these bits is called the host identifier. For example: represents the IPv4 address and its associated routing prefix, or equivalently, its subnet mask, which has 24 leading 1-bits. The IPv4 block represents the 1024 IPv4 addresses from to The IPv6 block 2001:db8::/48 represents the block of IPv6 addresses from 2001:db8:0:0:0:0:0:0 to 2001:db8:0:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff.::1/128 represents the IPv6 loopback address.

Its prefix length is 128, the number of bits in the address. For IPv4, CIDR notation is an alternative to the older system of representing networks by their starting address and the subnet mask, both written in dot-decimal notation. is equivalent to The number of addresses of a subnet may be calculated as 2address length − prefix length, where address length is 128 for IPv6 and 32 for IPv4. For example, in IPv4, the prefix length /29 gives: 232 − 29 = 23 = 8 addresses. A subnet mask is a bitmask that encodes the prefix length associated with an IPv4 address or network in quad-dotted notation: 32 bits, starting with a number of 1 bits equal to the prefix length, ending with 0

Takatsuno Station

Takatsuno Station is a railway station on the Yunoyama Line in Yokkaichi, Mie Prefecture, operated by the private railway operator Kintetsu Railway. Takatsuno Station is 6.7 rail kilometers from the terminus of the line at Kintetsu-Yokkaichi Station. Kintetsu Railway Yunoyama Line Takatsuno Station has two opposed side platforms, one for each direction; this makes it possible for trains running in opposite directions one the single-line Yunoyama Line to pass each other at this station. Platform 1 is connected to the main station building. Takatsuno Station is used by morning and evening commuters to school and work. According to a study conducted on November 8, 2005, 1,005 people passed through this station daily; this made it the: 247th busiest Kintetsu station. 70th busiest Kintetsu station in Mie Prefecture. 9th busiest station on the Yunoyama Line. Yokkaichi Central Technical High School Mary Knoll Girls' School Mitaki River National Route 477 June 1, 1913 - Station opens as part of Yokkaichi Railway.

March 1, 1931 - Station falls under the ownership of Mie Railway following merger. February 11, 1944 - Station falls under the ownership of Sanco following merger. February 1, 1964 - Station falls under the ownership of Mie Electric Railway after railway division of Sanco splits off and forms separate company. April 1, 1965 - Station falls under the ownership of Kintetsu following merger. April 1, 2007 - Support for PiTaPa and ICOCA begins. Kintetsu: Takatsuno Station

Hilary Ng'weno

Hilary Boniface Ng’weno is a Kenyan historian and retired journalist. The Harvard-educated scientist was born in Nairobi in 1938. After graduating from Harvard with a degree in physics, Ng’weno worked as a reporter for the Daily Nation for nine months before his appointment as the newspaper’s first Kenyan editor-in-chief, he established a successful career as a journalist for more than forty years. In 1973, together with journalist Terry Hirst, he founded Joe, a political satire comic magazine that circulated in many parts of Africa until the late seventies when its publication ceased, he is best known as the editor-in-chief of the Weekly Review, a weekly newsmagazine than ran from 1975 to 1999. He is the founder of the Nairobi Times and the first independent TV news station in Kenya, STV, he is the producer of documentary videos on Kenyan history, including the Making of a Nation and Kenya's Darkest Hour. In 1975, Ng'weno founded The Weekly Review, a journal of political news and analysis followed in 1977 by The Nairobi Times, a Sunday newspaper that became a daily.

At the beginning, The Weekly Review and The Nairobi Times being locally owned enterprises, fared well in a field dominated by the foreign owned Daily Nation and The Standard but like other local papers, they faced stiff competition from the established papers for little or lack of advertising from the foreign companies in Kenya. Because the advertising community was still controlled by foreigners, it tended to favour the foreign owned publications. Advertisers were not too keen to deal with publications that were to stir the wrath of the government with inflammatory political reports. Ng’weno’s publications lasted an impressive length of time, his publications continued to gain popularity, The Weekly Review went on to dominate the weekly news scene for more than 20 years, becoming one of Africa’s best news magazines. Due to diminishing revenue from advertising sales, Ng'weno however, sold The Nairobi Times in 1983 to KANU, Kenya’s ruling party; the paper was renamed The Kenya Times, but its popularity suffered, as it was seen to be the mouthpiece of an oppressive government in a political era likened to dictatorship.

The Kenya Times wound up in July 2010. Ng’weno diversified his media empire, which included other periodicals such as The Financial Review, The Industrial Review and Rainbow, a monthly children’s magazine, his publishing company, Stellascope was acquired by KANU when the latter purchased The Nairobi Times. The Weekly Review folded on May 17, 1999 after 24 years of publication and Ng'weno moved on to television broadcasting launching a television station, STV Kenya. Following the sale of STV in 2000, Ng'weno reinvented himself as a historian, drawing on materials from his journalistic career. Jointly with the Nation Media Group he produced the Making of Nation. Jointly with NTV, he has produced over 160 individual half-hour profiles of important figures in Kenya's history, a series entitled Makers of Nation. Hilary Ng' weno has been married to a native of France, for nearly fifty years. Mrs. Ng’weno, a naturalist and former editor, holds a BSc degree in conservation from the University of Michigan.

She has been involved in environmental issues in Kenya for more than forty years, serving as Honorary Secretary to NatureKenya. Their two daughters Amolo Ng'weno and Dr. Bettina Ng'weno are distinguished achievers in education and media; the Harvard and Princeton educated Amolo served as deputy director of financial services for the poor at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. In 1994, Amolo together with two other Kenyans, Ayisi Makatiani and Karanja Gakio, founded Africaonline one of the first internet service providers in Africa; the three Kenyans met while still students in Cambridge. Dr. Bettina Ng’weno is an associate professor of African American and African studies at the University of California, Davis. SourcesPioneer Journalist and Creative Thinker in the Nation Profile of Hilary Ng'weno on Kenyablogspot Lamb, David.

The Africans. Hilary Ng'weno interviewed by Bernth Lindfors in The African Book Publishing Record. Volume 5, Issue 3, pp. 157–161, ISSN 7865-8717, ISSN 0306-0322, doi:10.1515/abpr.1979.5.3.157, //1979 published online: 20/10/2009 Rosenthal, Elizabeth J.. Birdwatcher: The Life of Roger Tory Peterson. P. 267

Orangeville Brampton Railway

The Orangeville-Brampton Railway is a 55-kilometre long short line railway between Orangeville and Streetsville Junction in Mississauga, Ontario. It passes through the Town of Caledon. At Streetsville, the OBRY connects with the Canadian Pacific Railway Galt Subdivision. At Brampton, it crosses the Canadian National Railway Halton Subdivision at grade, but no interchange traffic is handled. North of Brampton, the railway winds through the Niagara Escarpment and is notable for a curved, 349-metre long trestle over the Credit River and Forks of the Credit Road, near Belfountain in Caledon; the railway's main purpose is to service several industries in Brampton. However, between the fall of 2004 and spring of 2018, OBRY operated a public excursion train, marketed as Credit Valley Explorer, between Orangeville and Snelgrove. Freight trains on the line are operated by Trillium Railway under contract for OBRY and make weekday round trips between Orangeville and Mississauga. Most of the current OBRY route was built in the 1870s by the Credit Valley Railway, with construction completed to Orangeville in 1879.

The CVR was purchased by the CPR, which joined the tracks of the CVR with a former rival, the Toronto and Bruce Railway, at Orangeville, in effect extending the line north from Orangeville to the TGB's terminus in Owen Sound. Scheduled passenger service between Toronto and Owen Sound via Brampton and Orangeville ended in 1970, the Elora branch was abandoned in 1987, the Orangeville-Owen Sound trackage was abandoned in 1995; the Town of Orangeville purchased the Mississauga-Orangeville trackage between Mile 2.2 to Mile 34.6 from the CPR on September 29, 2000 to ensure the line's continued existence. The line is now managed by the Orangeville Brampton Rail Development Corporation. In early 2018, it was announced that after years of operation for the town, Cando would be discontinuing its contract to operate the line effective at the end of June 2018, as a result, a new operator was being sought by the town to run the line. Facing an uncertain future, the Credit Valley Explorer made its final runs in February 2018, the three passenger cars were sold off to the Waterloo Central Railway.

After the final freight runs by Cando in late June 2018, new contractor Trillium Railway commenced freight operations on the OBRY, starting in July 2018 with a leased locomotive. EMD GP9RM EMD GP9RM GMD GP9RM - 2 EMD GP9 - 1 CC&F LW coach - 3 ex-VIA Rail Budd dome car coach - 1 ex-Amtrak Budd RDC9 - ex-VIA RailSource. "Orangeville-Brampton Railway", CANDO Rail Services, the operator of the line History of the Credit Valley Railway From the Ontario Railway History Page by Robert Hughes. Credit Valley Explorer Tour Train

List of University of Birmingham people

This is a list of notable people related to the University of Birmingham. The University of Birmingham has had seven Chancellors since gaining its Royal Charter in 1900. Joseph Chamberlain, the first Chancellor, was responsible for the university gaining its Royal Charter in 1900 and for the development of the Edgbaston campus. Sir Oliver Lodge, Principal of the University of Birmingham 1900-19 Sir Charles Grant Robertson, British academic historian, Fellow of All Souls College, Principal of the University of Birmingham 1920-1923, Vice-chancellor & Principal of the University of Birmingham 1923-1938 Sir Raymond Priestley and early Antarctic explorer, Vice-chancellor & Principal of the University of Birmingham 1938-1952 Humphrey Francis Humphreys, Vice-chancellor & Principal of the University of Birmingham 1952-1953 Sir Robert Aitken, Vice-chancellor & Principal of the University of Birmingham 1953-1968, helped set up the University of Warwick Lord Hunter of Newington, Vice-chancellor & Principal of the University of Birmingham 1968-1981 Edward Marsland, Vice-chancellor & Principal of the University of Birmingham 1982-1987 Sir Michael Thompson, Vice-chancellor & Principal of the University of Birmingham 1987-1996 Maxwell Irvine, theoretical physicist, Vice-chancellor & Principal of the University of Birmingham 1996-2001 Sir Michael Sterling, Vice-chancellor & Principal of the University of Birmingham 2001-2009 Sir David Eastwood, former Chief Executive at the Higher Education Funding Council for England, Vice-chancellor & Principal of the University of Birmingham 2009- William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim, Field Marshal, member of Birmingham University Officers' Training Corps 1912–14 Sir John Aiken, Air Chief Marshal, became Officer Commanding Birmingham University Air Squadron in 1950 Sir Julian Bullard, British diplomat, Foreign Office Minister and Pro-Chancellor of Birmingham University Margery Fry, prison reformer and Principal of Somerville College, first warden of University House, the first all-women university Hall of Residence in Britain Lord Hannay of Chiswick, British diplomat, Pro-Chancellor of Birmingham University 2001-06.

James Marshall, member of the University clerical staff in the Faculty of Medicine, awarded the Victoria Cross for his part in the attack on the Sambre–Oise Canal in World War One on 4 November 1918 Jonathan Nicholls, Registrar of Birmingham University

Footprints Under the Window

Footprints Under the Window is Volume 12 in the original The Hardy Boys Mystery Stories published by Grosset & Dunlap. This book was written for the Stratemeyer Syndicate in 1933, purportedly by Leslie McFarlane. Between 1959 and 1973 the first 38 volumes of this series were systematically revised as part of a project directed by Harriet Adams, Edward Stratemeyer's daughter; the original version of this book was rewritten in 1965 by David Grambs, resulting in two different stories with the same title. Frank and Joe attempt to uncover a plot to smuggle refugees from Baredo in the Huellas into the United States, the involvement of local magnate Orrin North, they get involved with investigating attempts to spy on a top-secret satellite camera being built at a local company called Micro-Eye. Someone has taken photos of blueprints. Realizing that several clues point to the involvement of people from Baredo and Joe and their friend Chet Morton fly down to Cayenne, French Guiana, go by boat to Baredo in the nearby Huellas to investigate.

What they discover is that Orrin North, while on the side of rebels against the dictator of Baredo, is double-crossing the rebels by finding out their identities and capturing them. Returning to Bayport, the boys overhear a plot to steal the satellite camera the next day, but they are captured and taken aboard a ship where they are locked into a hold being filled with water, they manage to escape from the hold with the assistance of their father, Fenton Hardy, on the same case and went after this ship at the same time. They free the political prisoners on board, stop the theft at Micro-Eye, capture the criminals with the assistance of the Coast Guard; when Frank and Joe try to take their laundry to the laundromat in order to clean up the house before Aunt Gertrude arrives, they learn that its owner has disappeared and has been replaced by a sinister Chinaman named Louie Fong. That day, the boys go down to the docks to meet their aunt, who mysteriously does not show up. While waiting, they meet a man who introduces himself as Sidney Pebbles, invited to spend the night at the Hardy home.

The next morning Mr. Pebbles has disappeared, along with some papers from Fenton Hardy's coat pockets, leaving only a set of footprints below the window; that night, they arrive home to find Aunt Gertrude on the floor, ill. She had to arrive on the return voyage, making her a day late. Concerned, they hire Mrs. Cody, to take care of her while she recovers. In the following days, the Hardy boys investigate a fight amongst Chinamen at the local docks, as well as meeting Orrin North, who had hired their father to clear his company name under accusations that he is involved in smuggling Chinamen into America to avoid a head tax; the boys and Orrin North head to a Chinese restaurant named "Lantern Land" where Sidney Pebbles is working. To their surprise, a Sidney Pebbles is not the same man, they overhear Pebbles talking with Tom Wat, a Chinese man, stabbed in the dock fight, but miraculously survived, when someone releases a dog to attack Tom. The Hardy boys intervene and save the pair trying to help Tom and Sidney.

During the course of their investigation, the Hardy boys hide Tom Wat by dressing him up as a woman and hiding him in their home. They meet the real Mr. Pebbles and realize that they had been fooled by an imposter who lied to them in order to get into their house; the story concludes with the Hardy boys being held prisoner along with their father, until Tom Wat is able to escape and get help, resulting in the people smugglers being arrested and the Hardy boys solving the mystery of who left the footprints under the window