Cape Meares National Wildlife Refuge
Cape Meares National Wildlife Refuge is a National Wildlife Refuge of the Oregon Coast. It is one of six National Wildlife Refuges in the Oregon Coast National Wildlife Refuge Complex. Located on Cape Meares, the refuge was established in 1938 to protect a remnant of coastal old-growth forest and the surrounding habitat used by breeding seabirds; the area provides a home for a threatened bird species, the marbled murrelets. Peregrine falcons, once at the brink of extinction, have nested here since 1987; the refuge, with the exception of the Oregon Coast Trail, was designated a Research Natural Area in 1987. The Cape Meares Light, which marked the cape at night from 1890 until 1963, is now open to the public. Three Arch Rocks National Wildlife Refuge and Oregon Islands National Wildlife Refuge are seen from the cape, it is the only point in the United States. The Oregon Coast Trail passes through the center of this headland and interpretive displays along the trail describe the varied wildlife. From this trail, it is possible to see migrating gray whales, three species of scoters, western grebes, common loons.
A wildlife viewing deck, part of the Cape Meares State Scenic Viewpoint, provides views of the refuge's sea cliffs and inshore islands. In season, visitors can see the aerie of a nesting peregrine falcon pair; each spring thousands of seabirds return to nest on the cliffs. Species that can be seen are brants, pelagic cormorants, common murres, tufted puffins, pigeon guillemots, western gulls, black oystercatchers; this state park has 3 miles of hiking trails and a 1-mile walking trail through the forest of sitka spruce and western hemlock. Some of the trees on the refuge are hundreds of years more than 200 feet tall; the Cape Meares Giant, a sitka spruce, is of special interest. After the Great Coastal Gale of 2007 killed the Klootchy Creek Giant, once considered the largest sitka spruce in the world, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service granted a special use permit to Ascending the Giants, a Portland based organization, which allowed them to climb and measure the Cape Meares Giant. Based on the results, the FWS issued a press release in February 2008 that announced that the tree is the largest known Sitka spruce in the state and that it was designated an Oregon Heritage Tree.
Oregon's actual largest Sitka Spruce, using a point system, is Falcon's Tower and measured by Certified Arborist M. D. Vaden. Cape Meares Giant Spruce had only 743 points, whereas Falcon's Tower was documented at 750 points by M. D. Vaden. Falcon's Tower is between Cannon Beach and Manzanita, Oregon. List of National Wildlife Refuges
Willamette National Forest
The Willamette National Forest is a National Forest located in the central portion of the Cascade Range of the U. S. state of Oregon. It comprises 1,678,031 acres. Over 380,000 acres are designated wilderness. There are several National Wild and Scenic Rivers within the forest; the forest is named for the Willamette River. The forest headquarters are located in the city of Springfield. There are local ranger district offices in McKenzie Bridge, Sweet Home, Westfir; the forest is famous for being at the center of the controversy between the logging industry and the endangered species status of the northern spotted owl. Environmentalists maintain that the forest was aggressively clear-cut for many years threatening a federally listed endangered species; the timber industry contends that the forest can provide lumber jobs and wildlife habitat. Since April 1994, the forest is governed by the Northwest Forest Plan, which restricts, but does not eliminate, logging in potential spotted owl habitat; the forest stretches for over 100 miles along the western slopes of the Cascade Range in Western Oregon.
It extends from the Mount Jefferson area east of Salem to the Calapooya Ridge which divides the watersheds of the Willamette and Umpqua rivers. Most of the forest is located in Lane County, but there are large areas in Linn and Douglas counties, as well as much smaller areas in Clackamas and Jefferson counties; the elevation of the forest ranges from about 1,500 feet above sea level on the western edge of the forest to 10,500 feet at the top of Mount Jefferson, Oregon's second highest peak. Seven major peaks of the Cascades—Mount Jefferson, Mount Washington, Three Fingered Jack, Diamond Peak, North and South Sisters—as well as numerous high mountain lakes are within these wilderness areas; the McKenzie River and the North Fork Middle Fork Willamette River are Scenic rivers. The Willamette National Forest receives 80 to 150 inches of precipitation each year from moist onshore Pacific Ocean flow which encounters adiabatic cooling rising over the Cascades. Much of the precipitation is received in the form of snow which accumulates in higher elevations from October through April.
The rain and snow melt drain into the McKenzie and Willamette rivers, which flow from the forest and provide high-quality drinking water to Eugene, Salem and Albany. There streams in the forest and over 375 lakes; the forest's dominant tree species is the state tree of Oregon. Douglas-fir is a valuable timber species in the United States; the forest contains some stands of old-growth forest, some of which are over 300 feet tall, among the tallest trees in the world, with tree diameters ranging from 3 to 8 feet.. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated. Over one dozen other conifer species are common on the forest, including western redcedar, incense-cedar, western white pine, ponderosa pine, Pacific yew, western hemlock, mountain hemlock, several species of fir; the Willamette National Forest is home to over 300 species of fish and wildlife, including the northern spotted owl, mule deer, bald eagle, Chinook salmon, black-tailed deer, bull trout, black bear, southern red-backed vole, elk and several other sensitive and threatened species.
This section includes edited text from the Willamette National Forest website, in the public domain. The Cascade Forest Reserve was created in September 1893 by proclamation of President Grover Cleveland; this proclamation was in response to numerous petitions from local citizens requesting protection of the Cascade mountain range. The Cascade Forest Reserve stretched from the Columbia River to the California border. From 1893 to 1897, the Cascade Forest Reserve was managed as a preserve; the Sundry Civil Appropriations Act of June 1897 appropriated funds for management of the national forest reserves and mandated management goals. Those management goals included: "…securing favorable conditions of water flows, to furnish a continuous supply of timber for the use and necessities of the citizens of the United States", protection of the forests from destruction by fire and depredations, development of mineral resources, among other provisions; the Organic Act led to establishment of forest reserve boundaries, forest supervisors, forest ranger patrol districts.
Addie Morris and Cy Bingham were noteworthy early rangers in areas that would become the Willamette National Forest. In 1908, the Cascade Forest Reserve was divided into the Oregon National Forest, the Cascade National Forest, the Umpqua National Forest and the Crater National Forest. In 1911, the Santiam National Forest was created from parts of the Oregon National Forest and the Cascade NF; the Deschutes National Forest was created from the portions. In 1933, the Santiam National Forest and the Cascade National Forest were combined to form the Willamette National Forest; the period of 1905 to 1933 featured decentralized administration for the forests of the western Cascades. Forest and district administrative boundaries were further refined; the Forest Service made efforts to establish relationships with local communities and with the forest users. This was a time of extensive recreation planning in the western Cascades. A fire control organization was built. Mining claims were established, the first large timber sales were sold near Detroit and Oakridge.
Fort Vancouver National Historic Site
Fort Vancouver National Historic Site is a United States National Historic Site located in the states of Washington and Oregon. The National Historic Site consists of two units, one located on the site of Fort Vancouver in modern-day Vancouver, Washington; the two sites were separately given national historic designation in the 1940s. The Fort Vancouver unit was designated a National Historic Site in 1961, was combined with the McLoughlin House into a unit in 2003; the visitor center at Fort Vancouver National Historic Site was built in 1966 as a part of the National Park Service's Mission 66 Program. Today, the visitor center is co-operated by the both the National Park Service and the United States Forest Service. Recent renovations to the visitor center transformed the historic building as an information center for both Fort Vancouver National Historic Site and the Gifford Pinchot National Forest; the visitor center features rotating archaeological exhibits from the national historic site and art exhibits from local native artists.
The building has a theater that shows 3 films from the National Park Service and the United States Forest Service: Fort Vancouver - One place Across Time, Vancouver Kaiser Shipyards Documentary, Mount St. Helens - Eruption of Life; the main unit of the site, containing Fort Vancouver, is located in Vancouver, just north of Portland, Oregon. Fort Vancouver was an important Hudson's Bay Company fur trading post, established in 1824. Operations until 1845 were overseen by Chief Factor John McLoughlin, it was the headquarters of the Hudson's Bay Company's fur trade activity on the Pacific coast and its influence stretched from the Rocky mountains in the east, to Alaska in the north, Alta California in the south, to the Kingdom of Hawaii in the Pacific. Ratified in 1846, the Treaty of Oregon was signed by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the United States, thereby ending the decades long Oregon boundary dispute; the treaty permitted the Hudson's Bay Company to continue to operate at Fort Vancouver, now within the Oregon Territory.
On June 14, 1860, Fort Vancouver was abandoned by the Hudson's Bay Company in favor of their stations in British Columbia, such as Fort Victoria. In 1849, the United States Army constructed the Vancouver Barracks adjacent to the British trading post. A fire destroyed the Hudson's Bay Company fort in 1866, but the Army facility continued in operation in various forms until to the present. Fort Vancouver was separated from the Army's barracks and became a national monument in 1948. Congress re-designated the site as a National Historic Site. For some years after its addition to the National Park System, the National Park Service was reluctant to begin reconstruction of the fort walls or buildings, preferring to manage it as an archaeological site as provided by its standing policies. However, in 1965, with the urging of the local community, Congress directed reconstruction to begin. All fort structures seen today are modern replicas, albeit placed on the original locations. In response to concerns about the designation of reconstructed structures, the Park Service designated the Vancouver National Historic Reserve Historic District to encompass reconstructed buildings as well as historic Army and Mission 66 era Park Service structures.
The National Park Service operates the Pearson Air Museum on the fort grounds. An earth-covered pedestrian land bridge was built over the Lewis and Clark Highway, as part of the Confluence Project, in 2007, it connects the site with the Columbia River. The McLoughlin House unit consists of the homes of McLoughlin, of Dr. Forbes Barclay, an explorer and associate of McLoughlin's, they are located adjacent to each other on a bluff overlooking the Willamette River in Oregon City, Oregon, on a plot of land set aside for public use by McLoughlin in the 1840s. In 1846, McLoughlin left the employ of Hudson's Bay Company, purchased from the company a land claim located on the Willamette River in Oregon City. McLoughlin constructed the house there, lived there until his death in 1857; the house, a two-style colonial mansion, is typical of East Coast residences from the time. After McLoughlin's death in 1857, his widow lived there; the home soon became a bordello known as the Phoenix Hotel. In 1908, the paper mill that owned the property wished to expand and the house was threatened with demolition, but preservationists saved it the next year, raising over $1,000 and overcoming a referendum.
The house was moved from the riverfront to its current location on a bluff overlooking downtown Oregon City in 1910. It sat there for twenty-five years, until being restored in 1935-1936 under the auspices of the Civil Works Administration, opened as a museum; the Barclay House was built in 1849 by Portland carpenter and pioneer John L. Morrison, occupied by Dr. Barclay and his family. Barclay died in 1874. Today, the Barclay House contains a gift shop; the McLoughlin House became a National Historic Site in 1941, both homes were added to the National Park System in 2003, becoming part of the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site. The McLoughlin House unit lies on the Oregon National Historic Trail, a part of the National Trails System; the graves of McLoughlin and his wife are on the
Malheur National Wildlife Refuge
Malheur National Wildlife Refuge is a National Wildlife Refuge located 30 miles south of the city of Burns in Oregon's Harney Basin. Administered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the refuge area is T-shaped with the southernmost base at Frenchglen, the northeast section at Malheur Lake and the northwest section at Harney Lake; the refuge was created in 1908 by order of President Theodore Roosevelt to protect habitat for diverse waterfowl and migratory birds, grew to encompass 187,757 acres of public lands. A popular site for birding, fishing and hiking, the refuge gained widespread attention in early 2016 after its headquarters complex was occupied by armed anti-government protesters. Archaeological research within the Harney Basin region, including near Burns, demonstrates that it was home to Native Americans for about the past 16,000 to 15,000 years; the first recognizable remains of seasonal prehistoric dwellings appear in the Harney Basin at the Dunn Site about 5,500 BP. Around Malheur and Harney lakes, the presence of identifiable remains of numerous settlements and burials of the Boulder Village Period demonstrate that these lakes were utilized by Paiute tribes for hunting and fishing as part of their seasonal nomadic round of the Harney Valley from before 3,000 BP up until historic contact with and settlement of the area by non-Native peoples.
For example, the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge Headquarters lies within a major archaeological site, once a settlement used by Paiute tribes seasonally for thousands of years until historic contact. The arrival of settlers in the region led to restrictions on the use of the land by the Paiute people who were restricted to living in the Malheur Indian Reservation. After it was established, the size of the Malheur Indian Reservation continued to shrink as small areas of it were extracted from it and transferred to local settlers for their private use; the Paiute people were denied the local fishing and hunting rights that were promised them. The Paiute people were forced to leave their Malheur Indian Reservation after joining the Bannock people in Idaho in an uprising, the Bannock War, in 1878, were resettled in Yakama Reservation, 350 miles away in southeastern Washington. About 550 Paiute men and children, of whom many had not engaged in any hostile action, traveled for nearly a month through the snow and over two mountain ranges.
Though supplies were in transit from the Malheur agency, the Paiute people were forced to leave Camp Harney under-equipped. As a result, five children, one woman, an elderly man died along the way and were left unburied as they traveled. During the five years they spent on the Yakama Reservation, historian Sally Zanjani estimates that more than one-fifth of them died during their exile of malnourishment and disease; when they were allowed to leave the reservation in 1883, some of the Paiute people moved to either the Warm Springs Reservation or Nevada. Others returned to the Harney Basin and in 1972, acquired title to 771 acres of land and created the Burns Paiute Indian Reservation. After the removal of Paiute tribes, much of the region's land became public property; the region hosted large livestock operations while the area's water resources were altered by irrigation and drainage projects. The remarkable abundance and diversity of bird life within the pre-irrigation Malheur region was first described by Charles Bendire in the middle 1870s.
Beginning in the late 1880s, the area's bird populations were devastated by the actions of plume hunters who harvested the showy feathers of Malheur's waterfowl for use as hat ornaments. In 1908, wildlife photographers William L. Finley and Herman Bohlman documented the area's unusual diversity of birds, as well as the detrimental impacts of plume hunting. Finley used photographs to lobby President Theodore Roosevelt for federal protection of the region. Malheur National Wildlife Refuge was created on August 18, 1908 by a proclamation from President Roosevelt, under a law which allowed the president to declare game preserves on federal public land; the refuge began as a 81,786-acre parcel surrounding Malheur Lake, Harney Lake and Mud Lake, was named the Malheur Lake Refuge. In the years that followed, the refuge grew to its current size of 187,756 acres through federal purchases and acquisitions of surrounding lands. Of its current acreage, 43,665.57 acres were acquired by purchase from various willing sellers.
The creation and expansion of this refuge involved litigation, of which two lawsuits ended in favorable Supreme Court decisions, that provide the legal foundation for its ownership and management by federal agencies. Roads and other infrastructure were built by workers with the Civilian Conservation Corps during the Great Depression. While cattle grazing was permitted on some portions of the property after 1935, the prioritization of the needs of the refuge's wildlife led to reductions in the number of cattle allowed on the property starting in the 1970s; the number of cattle allowed to graze within the refuge remained at a steady level throughout the 1990s and 2000s. As the need for a comprehensive management plan for the refuge was realized, ranch operators became concerned about the possibility of furt
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. National Forests are forest and woodland areas owned collectively by the American people through the federal government, managed by the United States Forest Service, a division of the United States Department of Agriculture; the National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, signed under the presidency of Benjamin Harrison. It was the result of concerted action by Los Angeles-area businessmen and property owners who were concerned by the harm being done to the watershed of the San Gabriel Mountains by ranchers and miners. Abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing 190 million acres of land; these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the mountain ranges of the Western United States.
Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands. The U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two distinctly different types of forests within the National Forest system; those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were acquired by the federal government since 1891, may be second growth forests. The land had long been in the private domain and sometimes logged since colonial times, but was purchased by the United States government in order to create new National Forests; those west of the Great Plains in the Western United States, though established since 1891, are on lands with ownership maintained by the federal government since the U. S. acquisition and settling of the American West. These are lands that were kept in the public domain, with the exception of inholdings and donated or exchanged private forest lands. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection and recreation.
Unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, in many cases encouraged. However, the first-designated wilderness areas, some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands; these conflicts center on endangered species protection, logging of old-growth forests, intensive clear cut logging, undervalued stumpage fees, mining operations and mining claim laws, logging/mining access road-building within National Forests. Additional conflicts arise from concerns that the grasslands and forest understory are grazed by sheep, and, more rising numbers of elk and mule deer due to loss of predators. Many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests. List of U. S. National Forests United States National Grassland National Forests of the United States topics State forest National Forest Management Act of 1976 Protected areas of the United States USDA Forest Service USDA Forest Service - The First Century 100 Years of Federal Forestry
Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge
Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge is located in the fertile Willamette Valley of northwestern Oregon, 12 miles south of Salem. The valley was once a rich mix of wildlife habitats. Valley wetlands were once extensive, with meandering vast seasonal marshes. Today, the valley is a mix of farmland and growing cities, with few areas remaining for wildlife; the refuge is situated in open farmland near the confluence of the Santiam and Willamette rivers in the middle of the broad Willamette Valley. Elevations range between 180 and 290 feet MSL; the Willamette Valley, with its mild, rainy winter climate, is an ideal environment for wintering waterfowl. The refuge consists of 1,765 acres of cropland, which provide forage for wintering geese, 600 acres of riparian zone forests, 500 acres of shallow water seasonal wetlands; as with the other refuges within the Willamette Valley National Wildlife Complex, the primary management goal of Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge is to provide high quality wintering habitat for geese the dusky Canada goose, to ensure healthy, viable goose populations while minimizing goose browse damage to crops on private agricultural lands.
Unlike most other Canada geese, dusky Canada geese have limited winter ranges. They nest on Alaska's Copper River Delta and winter exclusively in the Willamette Valley. Habitat loss and hunting caused a decrease in their population; the Willamette Valley refuges incorporate an intensive cooperative farming program in order to provide high protein browse for seven subspecies of wintering Canada geese, with primary emphasis on the dusky subspecies. Under cooperative agreements, area farmers plant refuge fields; some fields are planted annually and others are mowed or burned to produce the tender, nutritious grasses preferred by geese. The geese need water for resting and foraging habitat. Many refuge wetlands occur naturally. In some low-lying areas of the refuge, wetlands that were drained or channelized by previous owners have been restored to increase diversity and desirability of habitat for wildlife; the majority of wetlands are being managed as moist soil units, to promote growth of wetland food plants used as food by waterfowl and other wildlife.
By resting in undisturbed areas on the refuges, wintering geese regain energy reserves required for migration and nesting. This sanctuary reduces depredation problems on neighboring private lands by encouraging waterfowl to use refuge resources; because of their need for a quiet resting area, waterfowl habitat is closed to public entry while the geese are in residence in order to minimize human disturbance. The refuge has increased efforts to restore and expand riparian forest and wet prairie habitats. Ankeny NWR provides habitat for a wide variety of other bird species, as well as mammals and amphibians. Wildlife and wild-lands observation, photography and environmental education and interpretation are the major public use activities allowed on the refuge. Visitor facilities include Ankeny Hill Overlook on Ankeny Hill Road and Eagle Marsh Kiosk on Buena Vista Road. Trails include the Rail Trail, both on Wintel Road. Provide winter habitat for the dusky Canada goose and other migratory waterfowl protect and enhance populations of threatened and endangered species maintain habitats for indigenous species and perpetuate natural diversity provide for environmental education and wildlife oriented recreation Hiking Wildlife observation Environmental education Photography List of National Wildlife Refuges "Welcome".
Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge. FWS. "Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge Overview". U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest
The Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest is a United States National Forest in the U. S. states of California. The separate Rogue River and Siskiyou National Forests were administratively combined in 2004. Now, the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest ranges from the crest of the Cascade Range west into the Siskiyou Mountains, covering 1.8 million acres. Forest headquarters are located in Oregon; the former Rogue River portion of the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest is located in parts of five counties in southern Oregon and northern California. In descending order of land area they are Jackson, Douglas and Josephine counties, with Siskiyou County being the only one in California, it has a land area of 628,443 acres. There are local ranger district offices located in Ashland, Butte Falls, Grants Pass and Prospect; the former Siskiyou portion of the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest is located in parts of four counties in southwestern Oregon and northwestern California. In descending order of land area they are Curry and Coos counties in Oregon and Del Norte County in California.
It has a land area of 1,094,726 acres. There are local ranger district offices located in Cave Junction, Gold Beach, Powers. Nearly all of the national forest is mountainous and includes parts of the Southern Oregon Coast Range, the Klamath Mountains, the Cascade Range; the largest river in the national forest is the Rogue River, which originates in the Cascade Range and flows through the Klamath Mountains and Coast Range. The Illinois River is a major tributary of the Rogue in the Klamath Mountains, while the Sixes, Pistol and Winchuck rivers drain the Coast Range directly to the Pacific Ocean; the Siskiyou National Forest was established on October 5, 1906. On July 1, 1908, it absorbed other lands. Rogue River National Forest traces its establishment back to the creation of the Ashland Forest Reserve on September 28, 1893, by the General Land Office; the lands were transferred to the Forest Service in 1906, it became a National Forest on March 4, 1907. On July 1, 1908, Ashland was combined with other lands from Cascade and Siskiyou National Forests to establish Crater National Forest.
On July 18, 1915, part of Paulina National Forest was added, on July 9, 1932, the name was changed to Rogue River. On September 9, 1942, an airplane dropped bombs on Mount Emily in the Siskiyou National Forest, turned around, flew back over the Pacific Ocean; the bombs exploded and started a fire, put out by several forest service employees. Bomb fragments were said to have Japanese markings. Stewart Holbrook vividly described this event in his essay "First Bomb", it was confirmed that the plane was indeed Japanese, the incident became known as the Lookout Air Raid. It was the first bombing of the continental United States by an enemy aircraft; the national forest is home to some stands of old growth, including Port Orford cedar and Douglas fir in the Copper Salmon area. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated that the extent of old growth in the forest was 345,300 acres some of which occurs in the Red Buttes Wilderness. Blue oak, Quercus douglasii, Canyon live oak, Quercus chrysolepis occur in the Siskiyou National Forest.
For the California endemic Blue Oak, the disjunctive stands are occurring near the northern limit of its range, which occur no farther north than Del Norte County. The world's tallest pine tree is located in the national forest. In 2002, the massive Biscuit Fire burned nearly 500,000 acres, including much of the Kalmiopsis Wilderness; the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest contains all or part of eight separate wilderness areas, which together add up to 565,900 acres: High Cascades Complex Fires List of U. S. National Forests List of old growth forests Media related to Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest at Wikimedia Commons Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest