Grand Falconer of France
The Grand Falconer of France was a position in the King's Household in France from the Middle Ages to the French Revolution. The position first appeared in 1250 as "Master Falconer of the King"; the title was changed to Grand Falconer in 1406, although the title of "First Falconer" was sometimes used. The Grand Falconer was responsible for organizing the royal falcon hunt and for caring for the king's hunting birds; the position was one of the "Great Offices of the Maison du Roi". From the reign of Louis XIV, the position became purely honorific, as the kings had stopped hunting with birds of prey; this notwithstanding, Louis XIV maintained an aviary of hunting birds, located in Montainville, as a symbol of power. Falcons were presented to the king at the start of each year in the Galerie des Glaces of the château of Versailles in the presence of foreign ambassadors. Only northern kings and the Grand Falconer had the right to pose a falcon on the hand of the king; the coat of arms of the Grand Falconer featured two lures in blue and fleur-de-lys, placed below and to each side of the shield.
C.1250: Jean de Beaune c.1274: Étienne Granché dates?: Simon de Champdivers c.1313: Pierre de Montguignard c.1325: Pierre de Neuvy c.1317: Jean Candavenes c.1338: Philippe Danvin c.1351: Jean de Serens c.1354: Jean de Pisseleu c.1367: Eustache de Chisy c.1371: Nicolas Thomas c.1372: André d'Humières 1381: Enguerrand Dargies 1385: Enguerrand de Laigny 1394: Jean de Sorvilliers 1406: Eustache de Gaucourt "Rassin" 1415: Jean V Malet de Granville et de Montagu 1416: Nicolas de Bruneval 1418: Guillaume Després 1428: Jean de Lubin 1429: Philippe de La Châtre c.1441: Arnoulet de Caves 1455: Georges de La Châtre 1468: Olivier Salart, seigneur de Bonnel c.1480: Jacques Odart, seigneur de Cursay c.1514: Raoul Vernon, seigneur de Montreuil-Bonin c.1521: René de Cossé, seigneur de Brissac c.1549: Louis Prévost de Sansac c.1550: Charles I de Cossé, comte de Brissac c.1563: Timoléon de Cossé, comte de Brissac 1569: Charles II de Cossé, comte and duc de Brissac dates?: Robert de La Vieuville, baron de Rugles et d'Arzillières 1610: Charles de La Vieuville 1612: André de Vivonne, seigneur de la Béraudière dates?: Nicolas de La Rochefoucauld 1616: Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes 1622: Claude de Lorraine, prince de Joinville, duc de Chevreuse 1643: Louis Charles d'Albert de Luynes, duc de Luynes, duc de Chevreuse 1650: Nicolas Dauvet, baron de Boursault 1672: Henry François Dauvet, marquis de Saint-Phalle 1688: François Dauvet, baron de Boursault 1717: François Louis Dauvet, baron de Boursault 1748: Louis César de La Baume Le Blanc, duc de La Vallière 1762: Louis Gaucher de Châtillon 1780: Joseph Hyacinthe François de Paule de Rigaud, Comte de Vaudreuil Great Officers of the Crown of France Maison du Roi Protoierakarios This article is based on the article Grand Fauconnier de France from the French Wikipedia, retrieved on September 5, 2006.
Grand Falconer Heraldry
Château de Dampierre
The Château de Dampierre is a castle in Dampierre-en-Yvelines, in the Vallée de Chevreuse, France. Built by Jules Hardouin-Mansart in 1675–1683 for the duc de Chevreuse, Colbert's son-in-law, it is a French Baroque château of medium size. Protected behind fine wrought iron double gates, the main block and its outbuildings, linked by balustrades, are ranged symmetrically around a dry paved and gravelled cour d'honneur. Behind, the central axis is extended between the former parterres, now mown hay; the park with formally shaped water was laid out by André Le Nôtre. There are sumptuous interiors; the small scale makes it easier to compare it to the contemporary Het Loo, for William III of Orange. The grande galerie was reconstructed for the amateur archaeologist and collector, Honoré Théodoric d'Albert de Luynes, under the direction of antiquarian architect Félix Duban. Sculptor Pierre-Charles Simart contributed Hellenic reliefs for the project. Ingres' Age of Gold remains as testament to the abortive project of decorating it in fresco, not Ingres' habitual medium.
The park, which lost many trees in the storm of 26 December 1999, offers a formal canal and an eighteenth-century garden folly. The castle has been closed to the public since 2016. In 2018 it was purchased by Franky Mulliez, it is being renovated as a museum of horse-carriages
Francis I, Duke of Nevers
Francis I of Cleves, was a commander in the French Royal Army and the first Duke of Nevers. He participated in the suppression of the Amboise conspiracy; the only son of Charles II of Nevers and Marie d'Albret, Countess of Rethel, Francis succeeded his father as Count of Nevers and Eu. In 1539 he became Duke of Nevers; when his mother died in 1549, he inherited the title of Count of Rethel. In 1538, Francis married Marguerite of Bourbon-La Marche, daughter of Charles de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme and Françoise of Alençon, they had five children: Duke of Nevers, 2nd Duke. Henriette of Cleves. James, Duke of Nevers, 3rd Duke, no issue. Catherine of Cleves. Marie of Cleves. Boltanski, Ariane. Les ducs de Nevers et l'État royal: genèse d'un compromis. Librairie Droz. Potter, David. Keen, Maurice, ed. A History of France, 1460–1560: The Emergence of a Nation State. Macmillan
Order of the Garter
The Order of the Garter is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry in England and the United Kingdom. It is dedicated to the image and arms of England's patron saint. Appointments are made at the Sovereign's sole discretion. Membership of the Order is limited to the Sovereign, the Prince of Wales, no more than 24 living members, or Companions; the order includes supernumerary knights and ladies. New appointments to the Order of the Garter are announced on St George's Day, as Saint George is the order's patron saint; the order's emblem is a garter with the motto Honi soit qui mal y pense in gold lettering. Members of the order wear it on ceremonial occasions. King Edward III founded the Order of the Garter around the time of his claim to the French throne; the traditional year of foundation is given as 1348. However, the Complete Peerage, under "The Founders of the Order of the Garter", states the order was first instituted on 23 April 1344, listing each founding member as knighted in 1344.
The list includes Sir Sanchet D'Abrichecourt, who died on 20 October 1345. Other dates from 1344 to 1351 have been proposed; the King's wardrobe account shows Garter habits first issued in the autumn of 1348. Its original statutes required that each member of the Order be a knight and some of the initial members listed were only knighted that year; the foundation is to have been inspired by the Spanish Order of the Band, established in about 1330. The earliest written mention of the Order is found in Tirant lo Blanch, a chivalric romance written in Catalan by Valencian Joanot Martorell, it was first published in 1490. This book devotes a chapter to the description of the origin of the Order of the Garter. At the time of its foundation, the Order consisted of King Edward III, together with 25 Founder Knights, listed in ascending order of stall number in St George's Chapel: King Edward III Edward, the Black Prince, Prince of Wales Henry of Grosmont, Earl of Lancaster Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick Jean III de Grailly, Captal de Buch Ralph de Stafford, 1st Earl of Stafford William de Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March John de Lisle, 2nd Baron Lisle Bartholomew de Burghersh, 2nd Baron Burghersh John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp John de Mohun, 2nd Baron Mohun Sir Hugh de Courtenay Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent John de Grey, 1st Baron Grey de Rotherfield Sir Richard Fitz-Simon Sir Miles Stapleton Sir Thomas Wale Sir Hugh Wrottesley Sir Nele Loring Sir John Chandos Sir James Audley Sir Otho Holand Sir Henry Eam Sir Sanchet D'Abrichecourt Sir Walter Paveley They are all depicted in individual portraits in the Bruges Garter Book made c.
1431, now in the British Library. Various legends account for the origin of the Order; the most popular involves the "Countess of Salisbury", whose garter is said to have slipped from her leg while she was dancing at a court ball at Calais. When the surrounding courtiers sniggered, the king picked it up and returned it to her, exclaiming, "Honi soit qui mal y pense!", the phrase that has become the motto of the Order. However, the earliest written version of this story dates from the 1460s, it seems to have been conceived as a retrospective explanation for the adoption of what was seen as an item of female underclothing as the symbol of a band of knights. In fact, at the time of the Order's establishment in the mid-14th century, the garter was predominantly an item of male attire. According to another legend, King Richard I was inspired in the 12th century by St George the Martyr while fighting in the Crusades to tie garters around the legs of his knights, who subsequently won the battle. King Edward recalled the event in the 14th century when he founded the Order.
This story is recounted in a letter to the Annual Register in 1774: In Rastel's Chronicle, I. vi. under the life of Edward III is the following curious passage: "About the 19 yere of this kinge, he made a solempne feest at Wyndesore, a greate justes and turnament, where he devysed, perfyted substanegally, the order of the knyghtes of the garter. And afterwarde they were called the knyghtes of the blew thonge." I am obliged for this passage to Esq.. Hence some affirm, that the origin of the garter is to be dated from Richard I* and that it owes its pomp and splendor to Edward III. *Winstanley, in his Life of Edward III says that the original book of the institution deduces the invention from King Richard the First. The motto in fact refers to Edward's claim to the French throne, the Order of the Garter was created to help pursue this claim; the use of the garter as an emblem may have derived from straps used t
Francis, Duke of Guise
Francis de Lorraine II, Prince of Joinville, Duke of Guise, Duke of Aumale, was a French soldier and politician. By religion, he practised Catholicism, at a time when France was being polarized between the Catholics and Huguenots, his sister, Mary of Guise, was Queen of Scotland as wife of King James V of Scotland and she was the mother of Mary, Queen of Scots. Born at Bar-le-Duc, Guise was the son of Claude, Duke of Guise, his wife Antoinette de Bourbon, his sister, Mary of Guise, was the wife of mother of Mary, Queen of Scots. His younger brother was Cardinal of Lorraine, he was the youthful cousin of Henry II of France, with whom he was raised, by birth a prominent individual in France, though his detractors emphasised his "foreign" origin, namely the Duchy of Lorraine. In 1545, he was wounded at the Second Siege of Boulogne, but recovered, he was struck with a lance through the bars of his helmet. The steel head pierced both cheeks, 15 cm of the shaft were snapped off by the violence of the blow.
He sat firm in his saddle, rode back unassisted to his tent. In 1548 he was magnificently wedded to Anna d'Este, daughter of the Duke of Ferrara, Ercole II d'Este, French princess, Renée, the daughter of Louis XII. In 1551, he was created Grand Chamberlain of France, he won international renown in 1552 when he defended the city of Metz from the forces of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, defeated the imperial troops again at the Battle of Renty in 1554, but the Truce of Vaucelles temporarily curtailed his military activity. He led an army into Italy in 1557 to aid Pope Paul IV, but was recalled to France and made Lieutenant-General of France after the defeat of the Constable de Montmorency at the Battle of St. Quentin. Taking the field, he captured Calais from the English on 7 January 1558— an enormous propaganda victory for France— Thionville and Arlon that summer, was preparing to advance into Luxembourg when the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis was signed. Throughout the reign of Henry II Guise was the premier military figure of France, courteous and frank, universally popular, the "grand duc de Guise" as his contemporary Brantôme called him.
The accession of Francis's niece Mary, Queen of Scots, her husband, Francis II of France, was a triumph for the Guise family, the Grand Master of France Montmorency was disgraced and sent from court. The Duke of Guise and his brother, Cardinal of Lorraine were supreme in the royal council, he signed public acts in the royal manner, with his baptismal name only. In reaction to the dominating power at court of the ultra-Catholic Guises, La Renaudie, a Protestant gentleman of Périgord at the distanced instigation of Louis of Bourbon, Prince of Condé, organized a plot, the conspiracy of Amboise, to seize the person of the Duke of Guise and his brother Charles, the Cardinal of Lorraine; when the ill-organized plot was put off for six days, it was discovered by the court well ahead of time. On 12 March 1560, the Huguenots stormed the Château d'Amboise, to which the Guises had moved the young king and queen for safety; the uprising was violently suppressed, with 1,200 executed, many within sight of the castle.
In the immediate aftermath Condé was obliged to flee the court, the power of the Guises was supreme. The discourse which Coligny, leader of the Huguenots, pronounced against les Guises in the Assembly of the notables at Fontainebleau, did not influence King Francis II in the least, but resulted rather in the imprisonment of Condé, at Charles's behest. However, the king died on 5 December 1560—making Mary, Queen of Scots a widow, of little political importance; the Guises lost status alongside her, thus making a year full of calamity for the Guises both in Scotland and France. Within a year and a half, their influence waned. After the accession of Charles IX, the Duke of Guise lived in retirement on his estates; the regent, Catherine de' Medici, was at first inclined to favour the Protestants. To defend the Catholic cause, the Duke of Guise, together with his old enemy, the Constable de Montmorency and the Maréchal de Saint-André formed the so-called triumvirate opposed to the policy of concessions which Catherine de' Medici attempted to inaugurate in favour of the Protestants.
His former military hero's public image was changing: "he could not serve for long as the military executive of this extreme political, ultra-montane, pro-Spanish junta without attracting his share of odium," N. M. Sutherland has observed in describing the lead-up to his assassination; the plan of the Triumvirate was to treat with Habsburg Spain and the Holy See, to come to an understanding with the Lutheran princes of Germany to induce them to abandon the idea of relieving the French Protestants. About July, 1561, Guise wrote to this effect to the Duke of Württemberg; the Colloquy at Poissy between theologians of the two confessions was fruitless, the conciliation policy of Catherine de' Medici was defeated. From 15 to 18 February 1562, Guise visited the Duke of Württemberg at Saverne, convinced him tha
Philippa of Guelders
Philippa of Guelders, was a Duchess consort of Lorraine. She served as regent of Lorraine during the absence of her son. Philippa was born in the daughter of Adolf of Egmond and Catharine of Bourbon, she was the twin of Duke of Guelders. To strengthen the ties between the Kingdom of France and the Duchy of Lorraine, she was chosen as the bride of René II, Duke of Lorraine; the marriage took place in Orléans on 1 September 1485. After the death of her spouse in 1508, Philippa tried to assume the regency of the duchy in the name of her son Anthony, 19 years old, but it was decided that he was old enough to reign alone. However, when Duke Anthony left to serve in the French campaign in Italy in 1509, he appointed his mother Philippa to serve as regent in Lorraine during his absence, her regency has been regarded as a wise one. On 13 June 1509 she redeemed the lordship of Mayenne from Margaret of Duchess of Alençon, she retired to the convent Clarisse to Pont-à-Mousson on 15 December 1519 where she remained until her death.
She was still a dominant figure in her family and visited by her relatives, who treated her with great respect, she maintained a reputation of piety and popularity with the public. While at the convent Philippa commanded that a magnificent altarpiece be built for the congregation, it remained there until her death, she died at the Convent of Poor Clares of Pont-à-Mousson on 28 February 1547. She had twelve children. In 1528, Philippa's son Louis died of plague in 1528, his heart was placed in a casket beneath the sepulchre and covered with a black velvet shroud with the arms of Lorraine, at the Convent of Pont-à-Mousson. When Philippa died in 1547, she was buried at the convent. In 1576, her Protestant cousin Louis, Prince of Condé, sheltered the convent from his troops. Philippa and René had the following children: Charles, d. young Francis Antoine, Duke of Lorraine Anne Nicholas, d. young Isabelle Claude, Duke of Guise, first Duke of Guise John, Cardinal of Lorraine and Bishop of Metz Louis, Count of Vaudémont Claude and Catherine, d. young Francis, Count of Lambesc.
Martyrs and Murderers: The Guise Family and the Making of Europe. Oxford University Press. Denis, Paul. Ligier Richier: l'artiste et son œuvre. Berger-Levrault. Hanawalt, Barbara. City and Spectacle in Medieval Europe. 6. University of Minnesota Press