Green Clay Smith
Green Clay Smith was a United States soldier and politician. Elected to the Kentucky state house before the American Civil War, he was commissioned as a Union officer when he volunteered, advancing to the rank of brigadier general before he resigned to go to Congress, he was promoted to Major General by brevet on March 13, 1865. He was elected to the US Congress from Kentucky in 1862 representing the Unionist Party, serving until 1866; that year, Smith was appointed as the Territorial Governor of Montana, serving from 1866 to 1869. He returned to Washington, DC, where he was ordained as a Baptist minister and became active in the temperance movement. Smith was born in 1826 in Richmond, Kentucky to John Speed Smith and his wife Elizabeth Lewis Smith as the third of seven children, he was named for his maternal grandfather, Green Clay, a wealthy planter and slaveholder in Kentucky and a prominent politician. His siblings included Sally Ann Lewis, named for her maternal grandmother. Smith's father was elected to the Kentucky legislature and the U.
S. House of Representatives, his mother's younger brothers, Brutus J. Clay and Cassius M. Clay, both became state politicians and were elected as members of the Unionist Party to the US Congress from Kentucky during the American Civil War. Cassius became known as an abolitionist before the war; as a young man, Green Clay Smith pursued academic studies. When the U. S.-Mexican War began, he enlisted in the Army and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the First Regiment of the Kentucky Volunteer Infantry on June 9, 1846. Smith returned to Kentucky, where he graduated from Transylvania University in 1849 studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1852, he began his practice in Covington. From 1853 to 1857, Smith served as a school commissioner. Smith was elected as a member of the Kentucky House of Representatives, serving from 1861 to 1863. On April 4, 1862, he was commissioned colonel of the Fourth Regiment of the Kentucky Volunteer Cavalry, he was appointed brigadier general of volunteers on June 12, 1862.
Like his uncles Brutus J. and Cassius M. Clay, Smith joined the Unionist Party. In 1862, he was elected as an Unconditional Unionist to the thirty-eighth congress, resigning from his military post on December 1, 1863, he served as chairman of the Committee on Militia from 1865 to 1866. He was brevetted major general of volunteers on March 13, 1865. Smith resigned from Congress in July 1866 when President Andrew Johnson appointed him as Territorial Governor of Montana, he served there from 1866 to 1869, working to moderate hostilities between European American settlers and the Native Americans who occupied the lands, including tribes of the Blackfoot Confederacy. After he resigned, Smith returned to Washington, D. C.. He was ordained to the Baptist ministry and served in a number of congregations while supporting the temperance movement, he was pastor in Richmond, Mt. Sterling and Louisville, Kentucky. In 1890 he was called as pastor of the Metropolitan Baptist Church in Washington, D. C. which he served until his death in 1895.
In 1876, the National Prohibition Party nominated Smith for President of the United States. With his running mate, Gideon T. Stewart, the two received 9,737 popular votes in the election. Smith continued his work in temperance. Smith was interred in Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia. List of American Civil War generals United States Congress. "Green Clay Smith". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved on 2008-08-17 Green Clay Smith at Arlington National Cemetery "Green Clay Smith". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2008-08-13
James Black (prohibitionist)
James Black was an American temperance movement activist and a founder of the Prohibition Party. In 1872 Black was the first nominee of the Prohibition Party for President of the United States. James Black was born September 23, 1823 in Lewisburg, the son of John Black and Jane Egbert Black. In 1836 the family moved to the city of Lancaster, which would remain his hometown for the rest of his life. In addition to his home in the city of Lancaster, Black had a residence in Fulton Township, Pennsylvania; as a boy Black worked for a time in a sawmill before entering the Lewisburg Academy in 1841. In 1844, Black began the study of law, passing into the Pennsylvania state bar in 1846 and setting up a legal practice in Lancaster. Black married Eliza Murray in 1845. Black was a member of the Republican Party but was deeply committed to anti-alcohol activism, having joined the Washingtonian movement while still a youth. Black was involved in establishing the Good Templars, a temperance organization. In addition, he co-founded the National Temperance Society and Publishing House with Neal Dow, another pioneering temperance leader.
In its first 60 years, the publishing house printed over one billion pages. It published three monthly periodicals with a combined circulation of about 600,000, it published over 2,000 books and pamphlets plus textbooks, flyers and other temperance materials. In 1869, Black and some of his friends founded the Prohibition Party. Three years he was selected to run as the party’s first presidential candidate. However, he won only 5,607 popular votes. One reason for the low vote he received was that the powerful Anti-Saloon League, under the direction of Wayne Wheeler, would not support third party candidates; the same was true of the influential Women's Christian Temperance Union. Black died of pneumonia at his home in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, on December 16, 1893, he was 70 years old at the time of his death. Is There a Necessity for a Prohibition Party? New York: National Temperance Society and Publication House, 1876. Brief History of Prohibition and of the Prohibition Reform Party. New York: National Committee of the Prohibition Reform Party, 1880.
Hon. James Black's Cleveland address. Address delivered at the opening of the National Prohibition Reform Party Convention, held in Cleveland, Wednesday, June, 17th, 1880. New York: Prohibition Reform Party, 1880. History of the National Prohibition Party. New York: National Temperance Society and Publication House, 1893. "Obituary," The New York Times, 17 December 1893, 2. James G. Wilson, et al. Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography. NY: Appleton & Co. 1887-1889. "James Black," OurCampaigns biography, www.ourcampaigns.com/ Lawrence Kestenbaum, "James Black," The Political Graveyard, www.politicalgraveyard.com/
1932 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1932 was the thirty-seventh quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1932. The election took place against the backdrop of the Great Depression. Incumbent Republican President Herbert Hoover was defeated in a landslide by Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Governor of New York; the election marked the effective end of the Fourth Party System, dominated by Republicans. Despite poor economic conditions, Hoover faced little opposition at the 1932 Republican National Convention. Roosevelt was considered the front-runner at the start of the 1932 Democratic National Convention, but was not able to clinch the nomination until the fourth ballot of the convention; the Democratic convention chose a leading Southern Democrat, Speaker of the House John Nance Garner of Texas, as the party's vice presidential nominee. Roosevelt united the party around him, he promised recovery with a "New Deal" for the American people. Roosevelt won by a landslide in both the electoral and popular vote, carrying every state outside of the Northeast and receiving the highest percentage of the popular vote of any Democratic nominee up to that time.
Hoover had won over 57% of the popular vote in the 1928 presidential election, but saw his share of the popular vote decline to 39.7%. Socialist Party nominee Norman Thomas won 2.2% of the popular vote. Subsequent landslides in the 1934 mid-term elections and the 1936 presidential election confirmed the commencement of the Fifth Party System, which would be dominated by Roosevelt's New Deal Coalition. Republican candidates: Herbert Hoover, President of the United States John J. Blaine, Senator from Wisconsin Joseph I. France, former Senator from Maryland James Wolcott Wadsworth, Jr. former Senator from New York As the year 1932 began, the Republican Party believed Hoover's protectionism and aggressive fiscal policies would solve the depression. Whether they were successful or not, President Herbert Hoover controlled the party and had little trouble securing a re-nomination. Little-known former United States Senator Joseph I. France ran against Hoover in the primaries, but Hoover was unopposed.
France's primary wins were tempered by his defeat to Hoover in his home state of Maryland and the fact that few delegates to the national convention were chosen in the primaries. Hoover's managers at the Republican National Convention, which met in Chicago between June 14 and 16, ran a tight ship, not allowing expressions of concern for the direction of the nation, he was nominated on the first ballot with 98% of the delegate vote. The tally was spectacularly lopsided: Both rural Republicans and hard-money Republicans balked at the floor managers and voted against the renomination of Vice-President Charles Curtis, who won with just 55% of the delegate votes. Democratic candidates: Franklin D. Roosevelt, governor of New York Al Smith, former governor of New York and 1928 Democratic presidential nominee John Nance Garner, U. S. Speaker of the House, of Texas The leading candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1932 was New York Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt. Speaker of the House John Nance Garner and former New York Governor Al Smith were trailing him.
Before the 1932 Democratic National Convention met in Chicago between June 27 and July 2, Roosevelt was believed to have more delegate votes than all of his opponents combined. However, due to the "two-thirds" nominating rule used by the Democrats, his opponents hoped that he would be unable to obtain the two-thirds majority necessary to win, that they could gain votes on ballots or coalesce behind a dark horse candidate. On the first three ballots Roosevelt had well over a majority of the delegate vote, but still lacked the two-thirds majority. Before the fourth ballot, his managers James Farley and Louis McHenry Howe struck a deal with House Speaker John Nance Garner: Garner would drop out of the race and support Roosevelt, in return Roosevelt would agree to name Garner as his running mate. With this agreement, Roosevelt with it the presidential nomination. After making an airplane trip to the Democratic convention, Roosevelt accepted the nomination in person. In his speech, he stated, "ours must be a party of liberal thought, of planned action, of enlightened international outlook, of the greatest good to the greatest number of our citizens."
Roosevelt's trip to Chicago was the first of several successful, precedent-making moves designed to make him appear to be the candidate of change in the election. Large crowds greeted Roosevelt; the Democrats were united as they had not been in 1928, the most united the party had been in the entire Fourth Party System. Roosevelt's Protestant background nullified the anti-Catholic attacks Smith faced in 1928, The Depression seemed to be of greater concern among the American public than previous cultural battles. Prohibition was a favorite Democratic target, with few Republicans trying to defend it given mounting demand to end prohibition and bring back beer and the resulting tax revenues. In contrast, Hoover was not supported by many of the more prominent Republicans and violently opposed by others, in particular by a number of senators who had fought him throughout his administration and whose national reputation made their opposition of considerable importance. Many prominent Republicans went so far as to espouse the cause of the Democratic candidate openly.
Making matters worse
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at law, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, civil law notary, counselor, counselor at law, chartered legal executive, or public servant preparing and applying law, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary. Working as a lawyer involves the practical application of abstract legal theories and knowledge to solve specific individualized problems, or to advance the interests of those who hire lawyers to perform legal services; the role of the lawyer varies across legal jurisdictions, so it can be treated here in only the most general terms. In practice, legal jurisdictions exercise their right to determine, recognized as being a lawyer; as a result, the meaning of the term "lawyer" may vary from place to place. Some jurisdictions have two types of lawyers and solicitors, whilst others fuse the two. A barrister is a lawyer. A solicitor is a lawyer, trained to prepare cases and give advice on legal subjects and can represent people in lower courts.
Both barristers and solicitors have gone through law school, completed the requisite practical training. However, in jurisdictions where there is a split-profession, only barristers are admitted as members of their respective bar association. In Australia, the word "lawyer" can be used to refer to both barristers and solicitors, whoever is admitted as a lawyer of the Supreme Court of a state or territory. In Canada, the word "lawyer" only refers to individuals who have been called to the bar or, in Quebec, have qualified as civil law notaries. Common law lawyers in Canada are formally and properly called "barristers and solicitors", but should not be referred to as "attorneys", since that term has a different meaning in Canadian usage, being a person appointed under a power of attorney. However, in Quebec, civil law advocates call themselves "attorney" and sometimes "barrister and solicitor" in English, all lawyers in Quebec, or lawyers in the rest of Canada when practising in French, are addressed with the honorific title, "Me." or "Maître".
In England and Wales, "lawyer" is used to refer to persons who provide reserved and unreserved legal activities and includes practitioners such as barristers, solicitors, registered foreign lawyers, patent attorneys, trade mark attorneys, licensed conveyancers, public notaries, commissioners for oaths, immigration advisers and claims management services. The Legal Services Act 2007 defines the "legal activities" that may only be performed by a person, entitled to do so pursuant to the Act.'Lawyer' is not a protected title. In Pakistan, the term "Advocate" is used instead of lawyer in The Legal Practitioners and Bar Councils Act, 1973. In India, the term "lawyer" is colloquially used, but the official term is "advocate" as prescribed under the Advocates Act, 1961. In Scotland, the word "lawyer" refers to a more specific group of trained people, it includes advocates and solicitors. In a generic sense, it may include judges and law-trained support staff. In the United States, the term refers to attorneys who may practice law.
It is never used to refer to patent paralegals. In fact, there are statutory and regulatory restrictions on non-lawyers like paralegals practicing law. Other nations tend to have comparable terms for the analogous concept. In most countries civil law countries, there has been a tradition of giving many legal tasks to a variety of civil law notaries and scriveners; these countries do not have "lawyers" in the American sense, insofar as that term refers to a single type of general-purpose legal services provider. It is difficult to formulate accurate generalizations that cover all the countries with multiple legal professions, because each country has traditionally had its own peculiar method of dividing up legal work among all its different types of legal professionals. Notably, the mother of the common law jurisdictions, emerged from the Dark Ages with similar complexity in its legal professions, but evolved by the 19th century to a single dichotomy between barristers and solicitors. An equivalent dichotomy developed between procurators in some civil law countries.
Several countries that had two or more legal professions have since fused or united their professions into a single type of lawyer. Most countries in this category are common law countries, though France, a civil law country, merged its jurists in 1990 and 1991 in response to Anglo-American competition. In countries with fused professions, a lawyer is permitted to carry out all or nearly all the responsibilities listed below. Arguing a client's case before a judge or jury in a court of law is the traditional province of the barrister in England, of advocates in some civil law jurisdictions. However, the boundary between barristers and solicitors has evolved. In England today, the barrister monopoly covers only appellate courts, barristers must compete directly with solicitors in many trial courts. In countries like the United States, that have fused legal professions, there are trial lawyers who specialize in trying cases in court, but trial lawyers do not have a de jure monopoly like barristers.
In some countries, litigants have the option of arguing pro
John St. John (American politician)
John Pierce St. John was the eighth Governor of Kansas and a candidate for President of the United States in 1884. St. John was born in Indiana, he served as lieutenant colonel of the 143rd Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment in the Union Army during the American Civil War. From 1873 he sat in the Kansas Senate, was the Republican Governor of Kansas from 1879 to 1883. Active in the temperance movement, he promoted a prohibition amendment to that state's constitution. St. John helped create the Kansas Freedmen's Relief Association during the Great Exodus of African-Americans to Kansas in 1879, he was the Prohibition Party candidate for President of the United States in the 1884 election. On October 2, 1884 he was nearly shot, with the bullet hitting the window next to him, he received 147,482 votes on a ticket with William Daniel. The election was won by Grover Cleveland of the Democratic Party. St. John was surpassed by two other unsuccessful candidates: James Gillespie Blaine of the Republican Party.
Benjamin Franklin Butler of the United States Greenback Party. St. John died after suffering heat exhaustion on August 1916 in Olathe, Kansas; the city of St. John, Kansas, is named after him. Temperance organizations "John St. John". Find a Grave. Retrieved February 15, 2008. Publications concerning Kansas Governor St. John's administration available via the KGI Online Library
Free Methodist Church
The Free Methodist Church is a Methodist Christian denomination within the holiness movement. It is Wesleyan-Arminian in theology; the Free Methodist Church has 77,000 members in the United States and 1,055,000 members worldwide in 82 nations. The Light & Life Magazine is their official publication; the Free Methodist Church World Ministries Center is in Indiana. The Free Methodist Church was organized at Pekin, New York, in 1860; the founders had been members of the Methodist Episcopal Church but were excluded from its membership for too earnestly advocating what they saw as the doctrines and usages of authentic Wesleyan Methodism. Under the leadership of the Rev. Benjamin Titus Roberts, a graduate of Wesleyan University and an able and eloquent preacher, the movement spread rapidly. Societies were organized, churches built and the work established. At the 1910 session of the General Conference of the Methodist Church at Rochester, New York, a full acknowledgement was made of the wrong done to Roberts fifty years before, the credentials unjustly taken from him were restored in a public meeting to his son, Rev. Benson Roberts.
Before the founding of the church, Roberts began publication of a monthly journal, The Earnest Christian. In 1868, The Free Methodist was begun. A publishing house was established in 1886 to produce books and Sunday school curriculum and literature; the name "Methodist" was retained for the newly organized church because the founders felt that their misfortunes had come to them because of their adherence to doctrines and standards of Methodism. The word "Free" was adopted because the new church was anti-slavery. Next, pews were to be free to all rather than sold or rented, so as to provide full access to the poor; the new church hoped for the freedom of worship in the Holy Spirit, as opposed to a stifling formality. A fourth principle was "freedom" from secret and oath-bound societies, so has to have full loyalty to Christ. Fifth was "freedom" from the abuse of ecclesiastical authority. Was "freedom" to experience transformation in sanctification via the Holy Spirit due to personal consecration and faith versus just'sin-management' or gradual growth following justification.
Holiness Conservatives within the Free Methodist Church left to form the United Holiness Church in 1966 and the Evangelical Wesleyan Church in 1963. Free Methodist headquarters were located in Winona Lake, until 1990 when the denomination moved its headquarters to Indianapolis; the church has about 77,000 members in the United States. Worldwide its membership is over 1,000,000 with large segments of membership in East Central Africa and India. In doctrine, Free Methodists’ beliefs are the standard beliefs of Wesleyan-Arminian Protestantism, with distinctive emphasis on the teaching of entire sanctification as held by John Wesley, to whom the Free Methodist Church traces its origins; the Free Methodist Church, along with the United Methodist Church, shares a common heritage linked to the Methodist revival in England during the 18th century. The Free Methodist Church itself arose within the context of holiness movement within 19th century Methodism. While some clergy in the Free Methodist Church wear the pulpit robe, others do not wear vestments of any sort during worship.
The first general superintendent, B. T. Roberts, was in favor of ordaining women, but never saw it take place in his lifetime. Out of his own conviction he wrote Ordaining Women: Historical Insights; the impact of his writings prevailed in the church. The Free Methodist Church affirmed the ordination of women in 1911; as of June 2008, out of 2,011 ordained clergy, 216 were women. Twenty-six percent of all ministerial candidates are women. Free Methodists license unordained persons for particular ministries, they mandate lay representation in numbers equal to clergy in the councils of the church. As a reaction to paid musicians in the Methodist Episcopal Church, early Free Methodists enjoyed a capella congregational hymns during worship. However, the General Conference of 1943 voted to allow each Conference to vote on whether or not their churches could have instrumental music; as a result and organs became common across most conferences. Many churches have worship teams composed of vocalists, keyboards and other instruments.
The Free Methodist Church's highest governing body is the World Conference, composed of representatives, both lay and clergy, from all countries with a Free Methodist General Conference. As the church in each country develops, its status progresses from Mission District to Annual Conference to General Conference. There are 13 General Conferences in the world, which are linked together through the articles of religion and common constitution of the first two chapters of the Book of Discipline, the World Conference, the Council of Bishops; the USA branch of the Free Methodist Church is led by three bishops: Bishop David Kendall, Bishop Matthew Thomas, Bishop David Roller. International Child Care Ministries, a child sponsorship initiative serves more than 21 000 children in 29 countries around the world. Through education and medical care, children in need are given an opportunity for a better life; each sponsored child is connected to a Free Methodist ministry at a local level. Sustainable Empowerment through Economic Development
1884 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1884 was the 25th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 1884. It saw the first election of a Democrat as President of the United States since the 1856. Governor Grover Cleveland of New York defeated Republican James G. Blaine of Maine. Cleveland won the presidential nomination on the second ballot of the 1884 Democratic National Convention. President Chester A. Arthur had acceded to the presidency in 1881 following the assassination of James A. Garfield, but he was unsuccessful in his bid for nomination to a full term. Blaine, who had served as Secretary of State under President Garfield, defeated Arthur and other candidates on the fourth ballot of the 1884 Republican National Convention. A group of reformist Republicans known as "Mugwumps" abandoned Blaine's candidacy, viewing him as corrupt; the campaign was marred by personal invective. Blaine's reputation for public corruption and his inadvertent alienation of Catholic voters proved decisive.
In the election, Cleveland won 48.9% of the nationwide popular vote and 219 electoral votes, carrying the Solid South and several key swing states. Blaine won 48.3 % of 182 electoral votes. Cleveland won his home state by just 1,047 votes. Two third-party candidates, John St. John of the Prohibition Party and Benjamin Butler of the Greenback Party and the Anti-Monopoly Party, each won less than 2% of the popular vote; the 1884 Republican National Convention was held in Chicago, Illinois, on June 3–6, with former Speaker of the House James G. Blaine from Maine, President Arthur, Senator George F. Edmunds from Vermont as the frontrunners. Though he was still popular, Arthur did not make a serious bid for a full-term nomination, knowing that his increasing health problems meant he would not survive a second term. Blaine led on the first ballot, with Arthur second, Edmunds third; this order did not change on successive ballots as Blaine increased his lead, he won a majority on the fourth ballot. After nominating Blaine, the convention chose Senator John A. Logan from Illinois as the vice-presidential nominee.
Blaine remains the only Presidential nominee to come from Maine. Famed Civil War general William Tecumseh Sherman was considered a possible Republican candidate, but ruled himself out with what has become known as the Sherman pledge: "If drafted, I will not run. Robert Todd Lincoln, Secretary of War of the United States, son of the past President Abraham Lincoln, was strongly courted by politicians and the media of the day to seek the presidential or vice-presidential nomination. Lincoln however was as averse to the nomination; the Democrats convened in Chicago on July 8–11, 1884, with New York Governor Grover Cleveland as clear frontrunner, the candidate of northern reformers and sound-money men. Although Tammany Hall bitterly opposed his nomination, the machine represented a minority of the New York delegation, its only chance to block Cleveland was to break the unit rule, which mandated that the votes of an entire delegation be cast for only one candidate, this it failed to do. Daniel N. Lockwood from New York placed Cleveland's name in nomination.
But this rather lackluster address was eclipsed by the seconding speech of Edward S. Bragg from Wisconsin, who roused the delegates with a memorable slap at Tammany. "They love him, gentlemen," Bragg said of Cleveland, "and they respect him, not only for himself, for his character, for his integrity and judgment and iron will, but they love him most of all for the enemies he has made." As the convention rocked with cheers, Tammany boss John Kelly lunged at the platform, screaming that he welcomed the compliment. On the first ballot, Cleveland led the field with 392 votes, more than 150 votes short of the nomination. Trailing him were Thomas F. Bayard from Delaware, 170. McDonald from Indiana, 56. Randall withdrew in Cleveland's favor; this move, together with the Southern bloc scrambling aboard the Cleveland bandwagon, was enough to put him over the top of the second ballot, with 683 votes, to 81.5 for Bayard and 45.5 for Thomas A. Hendricks from Indiana. Hendricks was nominated unanimously for vice-president on the first ballot after John C.
Black, William Rosecrans, George Washington Glick withdrew their names from consideration. Anti-Monopoly candidates: The Anti-Monopoly National Convention assembled in the Hershey Music Hall in Chicago, Illinois; the party had been formed to express opposition to the business practices of the emerging nationwide companies. There were around 200 delegates present from 16 states, but 61 of those delegates had come from Michigan and Illinois. Alson Streeter was the temporary chairman and John F. Henry was the permanent chairman. Benjamin F. Butler was nominated for president on the first ballot. Delegates from New York, Washington D. C. and Maryland bolted the convention when it appeared that no discussion of other candidates would be allowed. Allen Thurman and James Weaver were put forward as alternatives to Butler, but Weaver declined, not wishing to run another national campaign for political office, Thurman's name failed to generate much enthusiasm. Butler, while far from opposed to the nomination, hoped to be nominated by the Democratic or Republican parties, or at least in the case of the former, to influence the party platform into being more favorable to greenbacks.
However, only the Greenback Party would endorse his candidacy. The convention chose not to nominate