Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical, or cultural, for most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Elements of Aboriginal, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, Canada has been strongly influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour, the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew gradually over the course of years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. World War I and World War II in particular gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Canadas nationality law closely mirrored that of the United Kingdom, legislation since the mid 20th century represents Canadians commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development. As of 2010, Canadians make up 0. 5% of the total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth.
Approximately 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, and 20 percent of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent. Aboriginal peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4. 3% of the countrys 33,476,688 population. The French originally settled New France, in present-day Quebec and Ontario, approximately 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. This arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, after the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Ruperts Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America and these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia.
Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries are often referred to as old stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island, the Chinese Immigration Act of 1885 eventually placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has consistently risen, doubling approximately every 40 years, from the mid- to late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted Home Children from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries, some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Poles
Montreal, officially Montréal, is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the 2nd-most populous in Canada as a whole. Originally called Ville-Marie, or City of Mary, it is believed to be named after Mount Royal, the city has a distinct four-season continental climate, with warm-to-hot summers and cold, snowy winters. In 2016, Montreal had a population of 1,704,694, Montreals metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927 and a population of 1,958,257 in the urban agglomeration, with all of the municipalities on the Island of Montreal included. Legally a French-speaking city,60. 5% of Montrealers speak French at home,21. 2% speak English and 19. 8% speak neither, Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with 56% of the population able to speak both official languages. Montreal is the second-largest primarily French-speaking city in the world after Paris, historically the commercial capital of Canada, it was surpassed in population and economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s.
It remains an important centre of commerce, finance, technology, education, tourism, film, Montreal was named a UNESCO City of Design. In 2009, Montreal was named North Americas leading host city for international events, according to the 2009 preliminary rankings of the International Congress. According to the 2015 Global Liveability Ranking by the Economist Intelligence Unit, in the 2017 edition of their Best Student Cities ranking, Quacquarelli Symonds ranked Montreal as the worlds best city to study abroad. Also, Montreal has 11 universities with 170,000 students enrolled, the Greater Montréal region has the highest number of university students per capita among all metropolitan areas in North America. It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics, the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In 2012, Montreal was ranked as a Beta+ world city, in Kanien’kéha, or Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià, ke Tsi or Ka-wé-no-te.
In Anishinaabemowin, or Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang, though the city was first named by French colonizers Ville Marie, or City of Mary, its current name comes from Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. The most popular theory is that the name derives from Mont Réal, Cartiers 1535 diary entry, naming the mountain, according to the Commission de toponymie du Québec and the Geographical Names Board of Canada, Canadian place names have only one official form. Thus, Montreal is officially spelled with an accent over the e in both English and French. In practice, this is limited to governmental uses. English-speaking Montrealers, including English-language media, regularly omit the accent when writing in English, archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD1000, they had started to cultivate maize, within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages.
Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at locations in the valley since at least the 14th century
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England. It grew rapidly from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris, after disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge. The two ancient universities are frequently referred to as Oxbridge. The university is made up of a variety of institutions, including 38 constituent colleges, All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities. Being a city university, it not have a main campus, its buildings. Oxford is the home of the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the worlds oldest and most prestigious scholarships, the university operates the worlds oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system in Britain.
Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 28 Nobel laureates,27 Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, the University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in form as early as 1096. It grew quickly in 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris, the historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190. The head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge, the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two nations, representing the North and the South. In centuries, geographical origins continued to many students affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. At about the time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities.
Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, Lincolnshire was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III. Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England, even in London, thus and Cambridge had a duopoly, the new learning of the Renaissance greatly influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, and John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, as a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxfords reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment, enrolments fell and teaching was neglected
In different countries, there are different requirements for an individual to legally practice neurosurgery, and there are varying methods through which they must be educated. In most countries, neurosurgeon training requires a period of seven years after graduating from medical school. In the United States, a neurosurgeon must generally complete four years of education, four years of medical school. Most, but not all, residency programs have some component of science or clinical research. Neurosurgeons may pursue training in the form of a fellowship, after residency or in some cases. In the U. S. neurosurgery is considered a highly competitive specialty composed of 0. 6% of all practicing physicians, in the United Kingdom, students must gain entry into medical school. MBBS qualification takes four to six years depending on the students route, junior doctors apply to enter the neurosurgical pathway. Neurosurgery remains consistently amongst the most competitive specialties in which to obtain entry.
The Incas appear to have practiced a procedure known as trepanation since the late Stone age, during the Middle Ages in Arabia from 936 to 1013 AD, Al-Zahrawi performed surgical treatments of head injuries, skull fractures, spinal injuries, subdural effusions and headache. There was not much advancement in neurosurgery until late 19th early 20th century, history of electrodes in the brain, In 1878 Richard Canton discovered that electrical signals transmitted through an animals brain. In 1950 Dr. Jose Delgado invented the first electrode that was implanted in a brain, using it to make it run. In 1972 the cochlear implant, a neurological prosthetic that allowed people to hear was marketed for commercial use. In 1998 researcher Philip Kennedy implanted the first Brain Computer Interface into a human subject, history of tumor removal, In 1879 after locating it via neurological signs alone, Scottish surgeon William Macewen performed the first successful brain tumor removal. On March 16,1907 Austrian surgeon Hermann Schloffer became the first to remove a pituitary tumor.
The main advancements in neurosurgery came about as a result of highly crafted tools, modern neurosurgical tools, or instruments, include chisels, dissectors, elevators, hooks, probes, suction tubes, power tools, and robots. Most of these tools, like chisels, forcepts, impactors. The main difference of these tools and post advancement in neurosurgery, were the precision in which they were crafted and these tools are crafted with edges that are within a millimeter of desired accuracy. Other tools such as hand held power saws and robots have only recently been used inside of a neurological operating room
Doctor of Medicine
The Doctor of Medicine is a terminal medical degree for practitioners of medicine. The meaning of the varies between different countries. In countries that follow the United States system, the M. D. denotes a first professional degree awarded upon initial graduation from medical school. In those countries, the title of the equivalent first professional degree is Bachelor of Medicine, in 1703, the University of Glasgows first medical graduate, Samuel Benion, was issued with the academic degree of Doctor of Medicine. North American medical schools switched to the tradition of the ancient universities of Scotland, the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York was the first American university to grant the MD degree instead of the MB. Early medical schools in North America that granted the Doctor of Medicine degrees were Columbia, Harvard and these first few North American medical schools that were established were founded by physicians and surgeons who had been trained in England and Scotland.
A feminine form, Doctress of Medicine or Medicinae Doctrix, has used by the New England Female Medical College in Boston in the 1860s. The MD degree is earned in four years. Following the awarding of the MD, physicians who wish to practice in the United States are required to complete at least one internship year and those who wish to further specialize in areas such as cardiology or interventional radiology complete a fellowship. Depending upon the chosen field and fellowships involve an additional three to eight years of training after obtaining the MD. This can be lengthened with additional research years, which can last one, the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine or DO degree allows similar practice in the United States and Canada to the M. D. degree and Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine are fully licensed physicians. The M. D. degree is awarded only by the 137 Medical Schools in the United States, similarly, M. D. s must attend M. D. rated residency and fellowship programs while D. O. s can attend either type of program.
The American M. D. degree is recognized by most countries in the world. While the D. O. degree is getting more widely accepted in countries as fully licensed physicians. In Canada, the MD is the medical degree required to practice medicine. McGill University Faculty of Medicine is the medical school in Canada that continues to award the MD. MDCM is from the Latin Medicinae Doctorem et Chirurgiae Magistrum meaning doctor of medicine, upon graduation, students enter into a residency phase of training. Combined medical and research training is offered through programs granting MD-PhD, the National Institutes of Health through its Medical Scientist Training Program funds MD-PhD training programs at many universities
Order of Canada
The Order of Canada is a Canadian national order, admission into which is the second highest honour for merit in the system of orders and medals of Canada. It comes second only to membership in the Order of Merit, membership is accorded to those who exemplify the orders Latin motto, desiderantes meliorem patriam, meaning they desire a better country, a phrase taken from Hebrews 11,16. Appointees to the order are recommended by a board and formally inducted by the governor general or the sovereign. As of October 2016,6,699 people have been appointed to the Order of Canada, including scientists, politicians, athletes, business people, and film stars and others. Some have resigned or have been removed from the order, while other appointments have been controversial, appointees are presented with insignia and receive the right to armorial bearings. Pearson, who was assisted with the establishment of the order by John Matheson. Laurent, Hugh MacLennan, David Bauer, Gabrielle Roy, Donald Creighton, Thérèse Casgrain, Wilder Penfield, Arthur Lismer, M. J.
Coldwell, Edwin Baker, Alex Colville, and Maurice Richard. From the Order of Canada grew a Canadian honours system, thereby reducing the use of British honours, by the 1980s, Canadas provinces began to develop their own distinct honours and decorations. The Canadian monarch, seen as the fount of honour, is at the apex of the Order of Canada as its Sovereign, followed by the governor general, who serves as the fellowships Chancellor. Thereafter follow three grades, which are, in order of precedence, Companion and Member, each incumbent governor general is installed as the Principal Companion for the duration of his or her time in the viceregal post and continues as an extraordinary Companion thereafter. As of March 2016, there have twenty one honorary appointments. There were originally, in effect, only two ranks to the Order of Canada and the Medal of Service, there was, however, a third award, the Medal of Courage, meant to recognize acts of gallantry. This latter decoration fell in rank between the two levels, but was anomalous within the Order of Canada, being a separate award of a different nature rather than a middle grade of the order.
Lester Pearsons vision of a structure to the order was thus fulfilled. Companions of the Order of Canada have demonstrated the highest degree of merit to Canada and humanity, up to 15 Companions are appointed annually, with an imposed limit of 165 living Companions at any given time, not including those appointed as extraordinary Companions or in an honorary capacity. As of October 2015, there are 143 living Companions, none being honorary, since 1994, substantive members are the only regular citizens who are empowered to administer the Canadian Oath of Citizenship. As of October 2015, there were 1,123 living Officers, Members of the Order of Canada have made an exceptional contribution to Canada or Canadians at a local or regional level, field or activity. As many as 136 Members may be appointed annually, not including extraordinary Members and those inducted on an honorary basis, as of October 2015, there were 2,225 living Members, none being honorary
The Rhodes Scholarship, named for the British mining magnate and South African politician Cecil John Rhodes, is an international postgraduate award for students to study at the University of Oxford. It is widely considered to be one of the worlds most prestigious scholarships, established in 1902, it was the first large-scale programme of international scholarships, inspiring the creation of a great many other awards in other countries. With the scholarships, he aimed at making Oxford University the educational centre of the English-speaking race, since its creation, controversy has surrounded both its former exclusion of women, and Rhodes Anglo-supremacist beliefs and legacy of colonialism. As of 2016, there have been 7,776 scholars since the programmes inception, more than 4,700 are still living. The Rhodes Scholarships are administered and awarded by the Rhodes Trust, which was established in 1902 under the terms and conditions of the will of Cecil John Rhodes, Rhodes motivation in establishing the scholarship is reflected in his will.
Stead noted that it him to the world as the first distinguished British statesman whose Imperialism was that of Race, with the scholarships, he aimed at making Oxford University the educational centre of the English-speaking race. With this motivation in mind, the legacy originally provided for scholarships for the British colonies and these three were chosen because it was thought that a good understanding between England and the United States of America will secure the peace of the world. In 1925, the Commonwealth Fund Fellowships were established to reciprocate the Rhodes Scholarships by enabling British graduates to study in the United States and it cooperates with universities in China, BLCC for example. BLCC offers high-level scholarships for students who aim to study Chinese in Beijing. In 1953, the Parliament of the United Kingdom created the Marshall Scholarship as an alternative to the Rhodes Scholarship that would serve as a living gift to the United States. For at least its first 75 years, Rhodes Scholars usually studied for a second Bachelor of Arts degree, while that remains an option, more recent scholars usually study for an advanced degree.
In recognition of the centenary of the foundation of the Rhodes Trust in 2003 and these were John Brademas, Bob Hawke, Rex Nettleford and David R. Woods. During the centenary celebrations, the foundation of the Mandela Rhodes Foundation was marked, Cecil Rhodes wished current scholars and Rhodes alumni to have opportunities of meeting and discussing their experiences and prospects. Each countrys scholarship varies in its selectivity, in the United States, in 2014, there were 857 university-endorsed applicants for the Americans Rhodes scholarship, of whom 3. 7% were ultimately elected. In Canada between 1997-2002, there were an average of 234 university-endorsed applicants annually for 11 scholarships, for a rate of 4. 7%. An early change was the elimination of the scholarships for Germany during the First, no German scholars were chosen from 1914 to 1929, nor from 1940 to 1969. Rhodess bequest was whittled down considerably in the first decades after his death, a change occurred in 1929, when an Act of Parliament established a fund separate from the original proceeds of Rhodess will and made it possible to expand the number of scholarships.
Between 1993 and 1995, scholarships were extended to countries in the European Community
Governor General of Canada
The Governor General of Canada is the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. The commission is for a period of time—known as serving at Her Majestys pleasure—though five years is the normal convention. Beginning in 1959, it has been traditional to rotate between anglophone and francophone incumbents, once in office, the governor general maintains direct contact with the Queen, wherever she may be at the time. The office began in the 16th and 17th centuries with the Crown-appointed governors of the French colony of Canada followed by the British governors of Canada in the 18th and 19th centuries, the office is, along with the Crown, the oldest continuous institution in Canada. Throughout this process of gradually increasing Canadian independence, the role of governor general took on additional responsibilities, finally, in 1947, King George VI issued letters patent allowing the viceroy to carry out almost all of the monarchs powers on his or her behalf.
The current governor general is David Johnston, who has served since 1 October 2010, johnstons wife—who is thus the viceregal consort—is Sharon Johnston. The Government of Canada spells the title governor general without a hyphen, the Canadian media still often use the governor-general spelling. As governor is the noun in the title, it is pluralized, governors general, both terms are capitalized when used in the formal title preceding an incumbents name. The position of general is mandated by both the Constitution Act,1867, and the letters patent issued in 1947 by King George VI. As such, on the recommendation of his or her Canadian prime minister and that individual is, from until being sworn-in, referred to as the governor general-designate. Besides the administration of the oaths of office, there is no set formula for the swearing-in of a governor general-designate, the governor general will give a speech, outlining whichever cause or causes he or she will champion during his or her time as viceroy.
The incumbent will generally serve for at least five years, though this is only a convention. The prime minister may recommend to the Queen that the viceroy remain in her service for a longer period of time. A governor general may resign, and two have died in office, the sovereign has unrestricted freedom of choice. We leave that to Her Majesty in all confidence, between 1867 and 1931, governors general were appointed by the monarch on the advice of the British Cabinet. Thereafter, in accordance with the Statute of Westminster 1931, the appointment was made by the sovereign with the direction of his or her Canadian ministers only. Until 1952, all governors general were members of the Peerage or sons of peers. These viceroys spent a limited time in Canada, but their travel schedules were so extensive that they could learn more about Canada in five years than many Canadians in a lifetime
Sherbrooke is a city in southern Quebec, Canada. Sherbrooke is situated at the confluence of the Saint-François and Magog rivers in the heart of the Estrie administrative region, Sherbrooke is the name of a territory equivalent to a regional county municipality and census division of Quebec, coextensive with the city of Sherbrooke. With 154,601 residents at the 2011 census, Sherbrooke was the sixth largest city in the province of Quebec, the Sherbrooke Census Metropolitan Area had 201,890 inhabitants, making it the fourth largest metropolitan area in Quebec and nineteenth largest in Canada. Originally known as Hyatts Mill, it was renamed after Sir John Coape Sherbrooke, a British general who was Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia, and Governor General of British North America. Sherbrooke is the economic, political and institutional centre of Estrie. There are eight institutions educating 40,000 students and employing 11,000 people,3,700 of whom are professors and researchers, the direct economic impact of these institutions exceeds 1 billion dollars.
The proportion of university students is 10.32 students per 100 inhabitants, in proportion to its population, Sherbrooke has the largest concentration of students in Quebec. Since the nineteenth century, Sherbrooke has been a manufacturing centre and this segment of the economy has experienced a considerable transformation in recent decades as a result of the decline of the citys traditional manufacturing sectors. The service sector occupies a prominent place in the economy of the city, the Sherbrooke region is surrounded by mountains and lakes. There are several ski hills nearby and various tourist attractions in regional flavour, Mont-Bellevue Park, a large park in the city, is used for downhill skiing. The First Nations were the first inhabitants, having settled the region between 8,000 and 3,000 years ago. Traces of seasonal camps, characterized by arrowheads, ceramic objects dating from the Woodland period were found, indicating that the region continued to be occupied by nomadic people during this period.
Upon the arrival of Samuel de Champlain in Quebec in 1608, france created an alliance through its missionaries with the Abenaki, located in Maine and Vermont. The French were driven to the valley of the St. Lawrence River near Trois-Rivières after a Mohawk victory in the war of 1660. Seeking to obtain control of the territory, the area around present-day Sherbrooke was a battlefield between the two peoples who had to travel to the region. The Treaty of Paris was signed in 1783, ending the war, the Eastern Townships were under Abekani control for a few years, having practised hunting and fishing for centuries. However, the American Revolution attracted loyalists to the region who began to covet the land and obtain government grants. The first European settler to reside in the Sherbrooke region was a French Canadian named Jean-Baptiste Nolain, of whom few details are known, the first attempts at colonization occurred in 1792 on the banks of the St. Francis River
Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada and the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Quebec is Canadas largest province by area and its second-largest administrative division and it shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canadas second-most populous province, after Ontario, most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Approximately half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, the Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited primarily by Aboriginal peoples. Even in central Quebec at comparatively southerly latitudes winters are severe in inland areas, Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995, in 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the Québécois as a nation within a united Canada.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, early variations in the spelling of the name included Québecq and Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the seat for the French colony of New France. The province is sometimes referred to as La belle province, the Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years War. The proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River, the Treaty of Versailles ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly, in 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada.
This territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867, each became one of the first four provinces. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the aboriginal peoples. This was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec. In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Located in the part of Canada, and part of Central Canada. Its topography is very different from one region to another due to the composition of the ground, the climate. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Canadian Shield are the two main regions, and are radically different