Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Conservatoire de Paris
The Conservatoire de Paris is a college of music and dance founded in 1795 associated with PSL Research University. It is situated in the avenue Jean Jaurès in the 19th arrondissement of France; the Conservatoire offers instruction in music and drama, drawing on the traditions of the "French School". In 1946 it was split in two, one part for acting and drama, known as the Conservatoire national supérieur d'art dramatique, the other for music and dance, known as the Conservatoire national supérieur de musique et de danse de Paris. Today the conservatories operate under the auspices of the Ministry of Communication. On 3 December 1783 Papillon de la Ferté, intendant of the Menus-Plaisirs du Roi, proposed that Niccolò Piccinni should be appointed director of a future École royale de chant; the school was instituted by a decree of 3 January 1784 and opened on 1 April with the composer François-Joseph Gossec as the provisional director. Piccinni did join the faculty as a professor of singing; the new school was located in buildings adjacent to the Hôtel des Menus-Plaisirs at the junction of the rue Bergère and the rue du Faubourg Poissonnière.
In June, a class in dramatic declamation was added, the name was modified to École royale de chant et de déclamation. In 1792, Bernard Sarrette created the École gratuite de la garde nationale, which in the following year became the Institut national de musique; the latter was installed in the facilities of the former Menus-Plaisirs on the rue Bergère and was responsible for the training of musicians for the National Guard bands, which were in great demand for the enormous, popular outdoor gatherings put on by the revolutionary government after the Reign of Terror. On 3 August 1795, the government combined the École royale with the Institut national de musique, creating the Conservatoire de musique under the direction of Sarrette; the combined organization remained in the facilities on the rue Bergère. The first 351 pupils commenced their studies in October 1796. By 1800, the staff of the Conservatory included some of the most important names in music in Paris, besides Gossec, the composers Luigi Cherubini, Jean-François Le Sueur, Étienne Méhul, Pierre-Alexandre Monsigny, as well as the violinists Pierre Baillot, Rodolphe Kreutzer, Pierre Rode.
A concert hall, designed by the architect François-Jacques Delannoy, was inaugurated on 7 July 1811. The hall, which still exists today, was in the shape of a U, it held an audience of 1055. The acoustics were regarded as superb; the French composer and conductor Antoine Elwart described it as the Stradivarius of concert halls. In 1828 François Habeneck, a professor of violin and head of the Conservatory's orchestra, founded the Société des Concerts du Conservatoire; the Society held concerts in the hall continuously until 1945, when it moved to the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées. The French composer Hector Berlioz premiered his Symphonie fantastique in the conservatory's hall on 5 December 1830 with an orchestra of more than a hundred players; the original library was created by Sarrette in 1801. After the construction of the concert hall, the library moved to a large room above the entrance vestibule. In the 1830s, Berlioz became a part-time curator in the Conservatory library and was the librarian from 1852 until his death in 1869, but never held a teaching position.
He was succeeded as librarian by Félicien David. Sarrette was dismissed on 28 December 1814, after the Bourbon Restoration, but was reinstated on 26 May 1815, after Napoleon's return to power during the Hundred Days. However, after Napoleon's fall, Sarrette was compelled to retire on 17 November; the school was closed in the first two years of the Bourbon Restoration, during the reign of Louis XVIII, but reopened in April 1816 as the École royale de musique, with François-Louis Perne as its director. In 1819, François Benoist was appointed professor of organ; the best known director in the 19th century was Luigi Cherubini, who took over on 1 April 1822 and remained in charge until 8 February 1842. Cherubini maintained high standards and his staff included teachers such as François-Joseph Fétis, Fromental Halévy, Le Sueur, Ferdinando Paer, Anton Reicha. Cherubini was succeeded by Daniel-François-Esprit Auber in 1842. Under Auber, composition teachers included Adolphe Adam, Halévy, Ambroise Thomas.
In 1852, Camille Urso, who studied with Lambert Massart, became the first female student to win a prize on violin. The Conservatory Instrument Museum, founded in 1861, was formed from the instrument collection of Louis Clapisson; the French music historian Gustave Chouquet became the curator of the museum in 1871 and did much to expand and upgrade the collection. In the Franco-Prussian War, during the siege of Paris, the Conservatory was used as a hospital. On 13 May 1871, the day after Auber's death, the leaders of the Paris Commune appointed Francisco Salvador-Daniel as the director – however Daniel was shot and killed ten days by the troops of the French Army, he was replaced by Ambroise Thomas, who remained in the post until 1896. Thomas's rather conservative directorship was vigorously criticized by many of the students, notably Claude Debussy. During this period César Franck was ostensibly the organ teacher, but was giving classes in composition, his classes were attended by several st
Besançon is the capital of the department of Doubs in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. The city is located in the border with Switzerland. Capital of the historic and cultural region of Franche-Comté, Besançon is home to the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté regional council headquarters, is an important administrative centre in the region, it is the seat of one of the fifteen French ecclesiastical provinces and one of the two divisions of the French Army. In 2016 the city had a population of 116,466, in a metropolitan area of 251,293, the second in the region in terms of population. Established in a meander of the Doubs river, the city was important during the Gallo-Roman era under the name of Vesontio, capital of the Sequani, its geography and specific history turned it into a military stronghold, a garrison city, a political center, a religious capital. Besançon is the historical capital of watchmaking in France; this has led it to become a center for innovative companies in the fields of microtechnology and biomedical engineering.
The University of Franche-Comté, founded in 1423, every year enrolls more than 20,000 students. The greenest city in France, it enjoys a quality of life recognized in Europe. Thanks to its rich historical and cultural heritage and its unique architecture, Besançon has been labeled a "Town of Art and History" since 1986 and its fortifications due to Vauban has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site since 2008; the city is first recorded in 58 BC as Vesontio in the Book I of Julius Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico. The etymology of Vesontio is uncertain; the most common explanation is that the name is of Celtic origin, derived from wes, meaning'mountain'. During the 4th century, the letter B took the place of the V, the city name changed to Besontio or Bisontion and underwent several transformations to become Besançon in 1243; the city sits within an oxbow of the Doubs River. During the Bronze Age, c.1500 BCE, tribes of Gauls settled the oxbow. From the 1st century BC through the modern era, the town had a significant military importance because the Alps rise abruptly to its immediate south, presenting a significant natural barrier.
The Arar River formed part of the border between the Haedui and their hereditary rivals, the Sequani. According to Strabo, the cause of the conflict was commercial; each tribe claimed the tolls on trade along it. The Sequani controlled access to the Rhine River and had built an oppidum at Vesontio to protect their interests; the Sequani defeated and massacred the Haedui at the Battle of Magetobriga, with the help of the Arverni tribe and the Germanic Suebi tribe under the Germanic king Ariovistus. Julius Caesar, in his commentaries detailing his conquest of Gaul, describes Vesontio, as the largest town of the Sequani, a smaller Gaulic tribe, mentions that a wooden palisade surrounded it. Over the centuries, the name permutated to become Besantio, Bisanz in Middle High German, arrived at the modern French Besançon; the locals retain their ancient heritage referring to themselves as Bisontins. It has been an archbishopric since the 4th century. In 843, the Treaty of Verdun divided up Charlemagne's empire.
Besançon became part of Lotharingia, under the Duke of Burgundy. As part of the Holy Roman Empire since 1034, the city became an archbishopric, was designated the Free Imperial City of Besançon in 1184. In 1157, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa held the Diet of Besançon. There, Cardinal Orlando Bandinelli asserted before the Emperor that the imperial dignity was a papal beneficium, which incurred the wrath of the German princes, he would have fallen on the spot under the battle-axe of his lifelong foe, Otto of Wittelsbach, had Frederick not intervened. The Imperial Chancellor Rainald of Dassel inaugurated a German policy that insisted upon the rights and the power of the German kings, the strengthening of the Church in the German Empire, the lordship of Italy and the humiliation of the Papacy; the Archbishops were elevated to Princes of the Holy Roman Empire in 1288. The close connection to the Empire is reflected in the city's coat of arms. In 1290, after a century of fighting against the power of the archbishops, the Emperor granted Besançon its independence.
In the 15th century, Besançon came under the influence of the dukes of Burgundy. After the marriage of Mary of Burgundy to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, the city was in effect a Habsburg fief. In 1519 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Spain, became the Holy Roman Emperor; this made him a francophone imperial city. In 1526 the city obtained the right to mint coins, which it continued to strike until 1673. All coins bore the name of Charles V; when Charles V abdicated in 1555, he gave the Franche-Comté to Philip II, King of Spain. Besançon remained a free imperial city under the protection of the King of Spain. In 1598, Philip II gave the province to his daughter on her marriage to an Austrian archduke, it remained formally a portion of the Empire until its cession at the peace of Westphalia in 1648. Spain regained control of Franche-Comté and the city lost its status as a free city. In 1667, Louis XIV claimed the pr
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Joseph Isidore Samson
Joseph Isidore Samson was a 19th-century French actor and playwright. Samson was born near Paris, the son of a restaurateur, he took first prize for comedy at the Conservatoire in 1812, married an actress with whom he had toured in France, joined the Comédie-Française in 1826. There he remained until 1863. In 1829 Samson became a professor at the Conservatoire, under whom Rachel Félix, Rose Cheri, the Brohans and others were trained, he wrote several comedies, among them La Belle-Mère et le gendre, La Famille poisson. Samson died in Paris on 28 March 1871. TheatreLa Fête de Molière, comédie épisodique in 1 act and in verse, Paris, Théâtre de l'Odéon, 15 January 1825 La Belle-mère et le gendre, comedy in 3 acts, in verse, Paris, Théâtre de l'Odéon, 20 April 1826 Un Veuvage, comedy in 3 acts and in verse, Paris, Théâtre-Français, 27 May 1842 Un Péché de jeunesse, comedy in 1 act, mingled with song, with Jules de Wailly. Paris, Théâtre du Vaudeville, 28 March 1843 La Famille Poisson, ou les Trois Crispins, comedy in 1 act, Paris, Théâtre-Français, 15 Decembre 1845 La Dot de ma fille, comedy in 1 act, in verse, Paris, Théâtre-Français, 13 December 1854OtherCollection des rapports faits par M. Samson, de l'Association de secours mutuels entre les artistes dramatiques, 1851 Text online Mémoires de Samson, de la Comédie française, 1862 Text online L'Art théâtral, 2 vols, 1863–1865 Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Samson, Joseph Isidore". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24. Cambridge University Press. Eugène de Mirecourt, Samson, J.-P. Roret, Paris, 1854 Text online Madame Joseph-Isidore Samson, Rachel et Samson: souvenirs de théâtre, foreword by Jules Claretie, P. Ollendorff, Paris, 1898 Text online Mémoires de Samson
The Comédie-Française or Théâtre-Français is one of the few state theatres in France. Founded in 1680, it is considered the oldest active theatre company in the world. Established as a French state-controlled entity in 1995, it is the only state theatre in France to have its own permanent troupe of actors; the company's primary venue is the Salle Richelieu, a part of the Palais-Royal complex and located at 2 rue de Richelieu on the Place André-Malraux in the 1st arrondissement of Paris. The theatre has been known as the Théâtre de la République and popularly as "La Maison de Molière", it acquired the latter name from the troupe of the best-known playwright associated with the Comédie-Française, Molière. He was considered the patron of French actors, he died seven years before his troupe became known as the Comédie-Française, but the company continued to be known as "La Maison de Molière" after the official change of name. The Comédie-Française was founded on 8 August 1680 by a decree of Louis XIV merging the only two Parisian acting troupes of the time, the troupe of the Guénégaud Theatre and that of the Hôtel de Bourgogne.
On the death of Molière in 1673, the troupe at the Guénégaud had been formed by a merger of the Théâtre du Marais and the Troupe de Molière. Two years they received a royal grant of 12,000 livres per year, thus the Comédie-Française may be said to have an unbroken tradition reaching back to the days of Molière. The company gave its first performance on 25 August 1680 at the Guénégaud, its leading actors included Molière's widow, Armande Béjart, her husband, Guérin d'Estriché, La Grange, Mlle Champmeslé, Baron and Raymond Poisson. The repertoire consisted of the collection of theatrical works by Molière and Jean Racine, along with a few works by Pierre Corneille, Paul Scarron and Jean Rotrou. In the 18th century, the Comédie-Française was enjoyed by the French nobility, since the price to watch at the theater was expensive. On the performance of Joseph Chénier's anti-monarchical play Charles IX in 1789, violent political discussions arose among the performers, they split into two sections: the Republican party, under the young tragedian Talma, establishing a new theatre under the name "Théâtre de la République," on the site of the present building in the Rue de Richelieu.
On 3 September 1793, during the French Revolution, the Théâtre de la Nation was closed by order of the Committee of Public Safety for putting on the seditious play Pamela, the actors were imprisoned though released later. On 31 May 1799, the new government made the Salle Richelieu available and allowed the actors to reconstitute the troupe; the Comédie-Française today has three theatres in Paris. The Comédie-Française has had several homes since its inception. In 1689, it was established across from the café Procope; the Odéon was designed by Charles De Wailly. From 1770 to 1782, the Comédie performed in the theatre in the royal palace of the Tuileries. Since 1799, the Comédie-Française has been housed in the Salle Richelieu at rue de Richelieu; this theatre was enlarged and modified in the 1800s rebuilt in 1900 after a severe fire. The membership of the theatrical troupe is divided into "sociétaires" and "pensionnaires." The former are regular members of the organisation and as such receive a pension after 20 years of service, while the latter are paid actors who may, after a certain length of service, become "sociétaires."
The names of nearly all the great actors and dramatists of France have, at some time in their career, been associated with that of the Comédie-Française. The chief administrator of the Comédie-Française has been given the title administrateur général since Simonis' term of 1850. Before that, a variety of titles were given. Troupe of the Comédie-Française in 1680 Troupe of the Comédie-Française in 1752 Troupe of the Comédie-Française in 1754 Troupe of the Comédie-Française in 1755 Troupe of the Comédie-Française in 1790 List of works by Henri Chapu. Bust of Alexandre Dumas Pere Brockett, Oscar G.. History of the Theatre, tenth edition. Boston: Pearson. ISBN 9780205511860. Clarke, Jan; the Guénégaud Theatre in Paris. Volume One: Founding and Production. Lewiston, New York: The Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 9780773483927. Gaines, James F.. The Molière Encyclopedia. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313312557. Hartnoll, editor; the Oxford Companion to the Theatre. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192115461.
Laugier, Eugène. Documents historiques sur la Comédie-Française pendant le règne de S. M. l'Empereur Napoléon Ier. Paris: Firmin-Didot. Copies 1, 2, 3 at Internet Archive. Maurice, Charles. Le Théâtre-Français, monuments et dépendances, second edition and enlarged. Paris: Garnier. Copies 1 and 2 at Internet Archive. Sanjuan, Agathe. Comédie-Française: une histoire du théâtre. Paris: Éditions du Seuil. ISBN 9782021343755. Comédie-Française's website The Comédie Française Registers Project includes performances from 1680 to 1791
The Barber of Seville (play)
The Barber of Seville or the Useless Precaution is a French play by Pierre Beaumarchais, with original music by Antoine-Laurent Baudron. It was conceived as an opéra comique, was rejected as such in 1772 by the Comédie-Italienne; the play as it is now known was written in 1773, due to legal and political problems of the author, it was not performed until February 23, 1775, at the Comédie-Française in the Tuileries. It is the first play in a trilogy of which the other constituents are The Marriage of Figaro and The Guilty Mother. Though the play was poorly received at first, Beaumarchais worked some fast editing of the script, turning it into a roaring success after three days; the play's title might be a pun on Tirso de Molina's earlier play El Burlador de Sevilla. Mozart wrote a set of 12 variations, K. 354, on one of Baudron's songs, "Je suis Lindor". The story follows a traditional Commedia dell'arte structure, with many characters based on famous stock characters; the plot involves a Spanish count, called The Count, although "Almaviva" appears as an additional name, who has fallen in love at first sight with a girl called Rosine.
To ensure that she loves him and not just his money, the Count disguises himself as a poor college student named Lindor, attempts to woo her. His plans are foiled by Rosine's guardian, Doctor Bartholo, who keeps her locked up in his house and intends to marry her himself; the Count's luck changes, after a chance reunion with an ex-servant of his, working as a barber and therefore has access to the Doctor's home. After being promised money, afraid the Count will seek revenge on him if he refuses, Figaro devises a variety of ways for the Count and Rosine to meet and talk, first as Lindor as Alonzo, a fellow student of the same music master, Bazile; the story culminates in the marriage of the Rosine. Count Almaviva, a Spanish grandee, in love with Rosine Figaro, barber of Seville Rosine, Don Bartholo's ward Don Bartholo, a doctor and Rosine's guardian Don Bazile, an organist, Rosine's singing teacher La Jeunesse, Bartholo's elderly servant L'Éveillé, another servant of Bartholo, lazy A Notary An Alcade Scene: the street in front of Dr. Bartholo's house in Seville.
The Count, disguised as a poor university student, waits in hope of catching a glimpse of Rosine, whom he encountered in Madrid and has followed to Seville. To this point they have never spoken to each other. Figaro happens to come down the street. While the two men talk, Dr. Bartholo and Rosine come to a window of the house. Rosine pretends to drop a piece of sheet music from her window inadvertently. While the doctor is coming down the stairs to retrieve it, Rosine instructs the Count to pick up the sheet himself, he does, finds a note from Rosine hidden inside it. Figaro tells the Count that Rosine is the ward of Dr. Bartholo, adds that as he is the doctor's barber and apothecary, he frequents the house, he proposes a plan to smuggle the Count into the house by disguising him as a drunken soldier in need of lodging. The two are interrupted when they overhear Dr. Bartholo making plans to secretly marry Rosine during the night, before he leaves to see his friend Bazile, to make the arrangements.
Afterwards, the Count sings to Rosine, introducing himself as a poor man named Lindor, in love with her. From inside the house, Rosine sings a verse to the tune of Maître en droit, requiting his affections, before she is caught by someone else inside and is forced to retreat. Figaro and the Count go their separate ways. In Dr. Bartholo's house, Rosine writes a note to "Lindor"; when Figaro drops in, she asks. Figaro agrees; the moment he steps out, Dr. Bartholo comes in, complaining that Figaro has given incapacitating medical treatments to all the servants, he notices ink stains on Rosine's fingers. When she continues to deny writing anything, he accuses Figaro of having seduced her. Rosine leaves. Figaro is shown to be hiding in a cabinet, he listens as Bartholo and Bazile discuss the inquiries Count Almaviva has been making all over town about Rosine. They hatch a plan to spread malicious gossip about the Count so that if he should find her, she will be too disgusted with him to want to form a relationship.
They leave. Figaro warns her that Bartholo plans to force her to marry him before morning. At this point the Count enters disguised as an inebriated soldier, sings a song to the tune of "Vive le vin", he presents a forged lodging billet. The doctor explains; when he goes to find the paperwork which certifies this, the Count slips a note to Rosine. The doctor sends the Count away, he demands she show it to him. Rosine reads the actual note; the Count comes to the house again, disguised this time as a teacher. He tells Bartholo that Bazile is sick and has sent him as a substitute to give Rosine her music lesson for the day. Rosine enters pretending to be quite angry, having chosen the music lesson as an excuse to pic