Lanvin is a French multinational high fashion house, founded by Jeanne Lanvin in 1889. It is the oldest French fashion house still in operation. In 1990, the house was taken over by the Orcofi Group sold to l’Oréal in 1996. In 2001, Shaw-Lan Wang, a Taiwanese media magnate, took Lanvin private again. On 14 March 2016, Bouchra Jarrar was appointed as Creative Director for Women’s Collection, replacing Alber Elbaz, who had transformed the company over the previous fourteen years. Ms. Bouchra's departure was announced on 6 July 2017, she was succeeded as artistic director by Olivier Lapidus, who left the company without a named successor on 22 March 2018. Men’s Collections have been headed by Lucas Ossendrijver since 2005. Lanvin made clothes for her daughter, Marie-Blanche de Polignac, which began to attract the attention of a number of wealthy people, who requested copies for their own children. Soon, Lanvin was making dresses for their mothers, some of the most famous names in Europe were included in the clientele of her new boutique on the rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré, Paris.
In 1909, Lanvin joined the Syndicat de la Couture. The Lanvin logo was inspired by a photograph taken for Jeanne Lanvin as she attended a ball with her daughter wearing matching outfits in 1907. From 1923, the Lanvin empire included a dye factory in Nanterre. In the 1920s, Lanvin opened shops devoted to home decor, menswear and lingerie, but her most significant expansion was the creation of Lanvin Parfums SA in 1924. "My Sin", an animalic-aldehyde based on heliotrope, was introduced in 1925, is considered a unique fragrance. It would be followed by her signature fragrance, Arpège, in 1927, said to have been inspired by the sound of her daughter's practising her scales on the piano. Jeanne Lanvin was one of the most influential designers of the 1930s, her use of intricate trimmings, virtuoso embroideries and beaded decorations in clear, floral colors became a Lanvin trademark. When Lanvin died in 1946, ownership of the firm was ceded to her daughter Marguerite, who had shared management of the firm from 1942 with a cousin and a fashion-industry expert.
Because Marie-Blanche de Polignac was childless when she died in 1958, the ownership of the House of Lanvin went to a cousin, Yves Lanvin. From mid-1960's through to the 1996 takeover by L'Oreal, Lanvin was run by Bernard Lanvin; the export department was in the original factory in Nanterre where all the perfumes were made and bottled. The administrative Head Office was in Paris at Rue de Tilsitt. In 1979, Lanvin bought its independence from Squibb USA and a major PR promotional tour was arranged by Paris in the United States in the same year. Britain Midland Bank bought a stake in the company from the family in March 1989, installed Léon Bressler to revamp the firm's faded image. However, in February 1990, Midland backed out and sold Lanvin to Orcofi, a French holding company led by the Vuitton family. From Orcofi, 50% of the House of Lanvin was acquired by L'Oréal in 1994, 66% in 1995 and 100% in 1996. Under L'Oréal's diverse umbrella, an array of CEOs who circulate within the French fashion industry have directed the company.
In August 2001, Lanvin was taken private again by investor group Harmonie S. A. headed by a Taiwanese media magnate. In 2005, Joix Corporatic was the Lanvin ready-to-wear license holder in Japan with retail value of €50 million. On December 4, 2009, Lanvin opened their first US boutique in Florida. In 2011, Lanvin sales reached €203 million, not counting an estimated €4.5 million in revenues from licences. On November 20, 2013, Lanvin became the official tailor of a London-based football club. On October 28, 2015, Lanvin announced that Elbaz was no longer at the company, due to differences of opinion with the shareholders, he was replaced by Bouchra Jarrar in March 2016. Jarrar left the following year and was succeeded by Olivier Lapidus, who departed on 23 March 2018, after only two seasons. Lapidus' successor was not named upon his exit. In October 2001, Alber Elbaz was appointed the Lanvin artistic director for all activities, including interiors. In 2006, he introduced new packaging for the fashion house, featuring a forget-me-not flower color, Lanvin's favorite shade which she purportedly saw in a Fra Angelico fresco.
On September 2, 2010, it was announced by H&M that Lanvin would be their guest designer collaboration for the Winter 2010 collection. The collection would be available to view beginning November 2010 at HM.com. The collection would be available to buy in 200 stores worldwide, on November 20, with a first look sale the day before at the H&M store in Las Vegas; the main face of the collection video was supermodel Natasha Poly Lucas Ossendrijver started with Kenzo’s menswear in 1997. In 2000, he moved to Munich where fashion designer Kostas Murkudis gave him free rein over the men’s line. Back in Paris, he spent four years with Hedi Slimane at Dior Homme: his luxury fashion debut. In 2006, Lucas Ossendrijver was appointed the head of the men's line; the 2006 men's ready-to-wear collection was inspired by a Jean-Luc Godard film. He launched the first LANVIN urban sneakers, now with their patent leather toe caps, while presenting his AW 2006 collections. While enjoying a revitalized reputation in luxury, Lanvin received mainstream press in the United States in May 2009 when Michelle Obama was photographed wearing a popular line of Lanvin's sneakers made of suede with grosgrain ribbon laces and metallic pink toe caps while volunteering at a Washington, D.
C. food bank. The sneakers were retailed at $540, he designs the new Lanvin silhouette inspire
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Fashion design is the art of applying design and natural beauty to clothing and its accessories. It is influenced by cultural and social attitudes, has varied over time and place. Fashion designers work in a number of ways in designing clothing and accessories such as bracelets and necklaces; because of the time required to bring a garment onto the market, designers must at times anticipate changes to consumer tastes. Designers interpret them for their audience, their specific designs are used by manufacturers. This is the essence of a designer’s role. Fashion designers attempt to design clothes, they consider, to wear a garment and the situations in which it will be worn, they work within a wide range of materials, colors and styles. Though most clothing worn for everyday wear falls within a narrow range of conventional styles, unusual garments are sought for special occasions such as evening wear or party dresses; some clothes are made for an individual, as in the case of haute couture or bespoke tailoring.
Today, most clothing is designed for the mass market casual and every-day wear are called ready to wear. Fashion designers may work full-time for one fashion house, as'in-house designers', which owns the designs, or they work alone or as part of a team. Freelance designers work for themselves, selling their designs to fashion houses, directly to shops, or to clothing manufacturers; the garments bear the buyer's label. Some fashion designers set up their own labels; some fashion designers design for individual clients. Other high-end fashion designers cater to high-end fashion department stores; these designers create original garments, as well as those. Most fashion designers, work for apparel manufacturers, creating designs of men's, women's, children's fashions for the mass market. Large designer brands which have a'name' as their brand such as Abercrombie & Fitch, Justice, or Juicy are to be designed by a team of individual designers under the direction of a design director. Fashion designers work in different ways.
Some sketch their ideas on paper. When a designer is satisfied with the fit of the toile, he or she will consult a professional pattern maker who makes the finished, working version of the pattern out of card or via a computerized system. A sample garment is made up and tested on a model to make sure it is an operational outfit. Fashion design is considered to have started in the 19th century with Charles Frederick Worth, the first designer to have his label sewn into the garments that he created. Before the former draper set up his maison couture in Paris, clothing design and creation was handled by anonymous seamstresses, high fashion descended from that worn at royal courts. Worth's success was such that he was able to dictate to his customers what they should wear, instead of following their lead as earlier dressmakers had done; the term couturier was in fact first created in order to describe him. While all articles of clothing from any time period are studied by academics as costume design, only clothing created after 1858 is considered as fashion design.
It was during this period that many design houses began to hire artists to sketch or paint designs for garments. The images were shown to clients, much cheaper than producing an actual sample garment in the workroom. If the client liked their design, they ordered it and the resulting garment made money for the house. Thus, the tradition of designers sketching out garment designs instead of presenting completed garments on models to customers began as an economy; the garments produced by clothing manufacturers fall into three main categories, although these may be split up into additional, more specific categories Until the 1950s, fashion clothing was predominately designed and manufactured on a made-to-measure or haute couture basis, with each garment being created for a specific client. A couture garment is made to order for an individual customer, is made from high-quality, expensive fabric, sewn with extreme attention to detail and finish using time-consuming, hand-executed techniques. Look and fit take priority over the cost of materials and the time it takes to make.
Due to the high cost of each garment, haute couture makes little direct profit for the fashion houses, but is important for prestige and publicity. Ready-to-wear, or prêt-à-porter, clothes are a cross between haute mass market, they are not made for individual customers, but great care is taken in the choice and cut of the fabric. Clothes are made in small quantities to guarantee exclusivity, so they are rather expensive. Ready-to-wear collections are presented by fashion houses each season during a period known as Fashion Week; this occurs twice a year. The main seasons of Fashion Week include: spring/summer, fall/winter, resort and bridal. Half-way garments are an alternative to "off-the-peg", or prêt-à-porter fashion. Half-way garments are intentionally unfinished pieces of clothing that encourages co-design between the "primary designer" of the garment, what would be considered, the passive "cons
1980s in Western fashion
1980s fashion in Britain, America and Australia had heavy emphasis on expensive clothes and fashion accessories. Apparel tended to be bright and vivid in appearance. Women expressed an image of wealth and success through shiny costume jewelry, such as large faux-gold earrings, pearl necklaces, clothing covered with sequins and diamonds. Punk fashion began as a reaction against both the hippie movement of the past decades and the materialist values of the current decade; the first half of the decade was tame in comparison to the second half, when the iconic 1980s color scheme had come into popularity. Hair in the 1980s was big, curly and styled. Television shows such as Dynasty helped popularize the high volume bouffant and glamorous image associated with it. Women from the 1980s wore heavy makeup. Everyday fashion in the 1980s consisted of light-colored lips and thick eyelashes, pink or red rouge; some of the top fashion models of the 1980s were Brooke Shields, Christie Brinkley, Gia Carangi, Joan Severance, Kim Alexis, Carol Alt, Yasmin Le Bon, Renée Simonsen, Kelly Emberg, Ines de la Fressange, Tatjana Patitz, Elle Macpherson, Paulina Porizkova.
The early 1980s were different from the rest of the decade, with some carryovers from the late 1970s. The early 1980s saw a minimalist approach to fashion, with less emphasis on accessories, practicality considered just as much as aesthetics. Clothing colors were subdued and basic. Fashionable clothing in the early 1980s included gender-specific attire. Widespread fashions for women in the early 1980s included sweaters. Women's pants of the 1980s were, in general, worn with long inseams – a style carried over from the 1970s. Accessories for women in the 1980s were late 1970s carryovers; this included thin belts, knee-high boots with thick kitten heels, jelly shoes, round-toed shoes and boots, jelly bracelets, shoes with thick heels, thin necklaces, small watches. The fitness craze of the 1970s continued into the early 1980s. General women's street-wear worn in the early 1980s included ripped jeans, tights and tracksuits. Athletic accessories were a massive trend in the early 1980s, their popularity was boosted by the aerobics craze.
This included leg warmers, wide belts, elastic headbands, athletic shoes known as'sneakers' in the US or'trainers' in the UK. In the 1970s, more women were joining the work force, so, by the early 1980s, working women were no longer considered unusual; as a way to proclaim themselves as equals in the job market, women started to dress more at work. Popular clothes for women in the job market include knee-length skirts, wide-legged slacks, a matching blazer, a blouse of a different color. Kitten-heeled shoes were worn. Formal shoes became more comfortable during this period in time, with manufacturers adding soles that were more flexible and supportive; the shoes with moderately spiked heels and pointy toes from the late 1970s remained a fashion trend. Women's fashion in the early 1980s became more colorful around 1980; this included long wool coats, long flared skirts, slim miniskirts tapered pants and stirrup ones, designer jeans, spandex cycling shorts long and bulky sweaters, pastel colors, leather trenchcoats, fur coats large scarves, leather gloves, dresses worn with wide or thin belts.
The aerobics craze of the early 1980s continued into the mid 1980s, but the clothes became more colorful than they were before. Women's shoes of the mid 1980s included strappy sandals, kitten-heeled sandals and Keds. In the 1980s, rising pop star Madonna proved to be influential to female fashions, she first emerged on the dance music scene with her "street urchin" look consisting of short skirts worn over leggings, rubber bracelets, fishnet gloves, long layered strings of beads, untidy hair with dark roots and lace ribbons. In her "Like a Virgin" phase, millions of young girls around the world emulated her fashion example that included brassieres worn as outerwear, huge crucifix jewelry, lace gloves, tulle skirts, boytoy belts. Gloves were popularized by Madonna, as well as fishnet layers of beaded necklaces. Short, tight Lycra or leather miniskirts and tubular dresses were worn, as were cropped bolero-style jackets. Black was the preferred color. Prior to the mid-1980s, it had been taboo to show a bra strap in public.
A visible undergarment had been a sign of social ineptness. With the new fashion's most extreme forms, young women would forgo conventional outer-garments for vintage-style bustiers with lacy slips and several large crucifixes; this was both an assertion of sexual freedom and a conscious rejection of prevailing androgynous fashions. The television prime time shows Dallas and, in particular, Dynasty influenced oversized shoulder pads. Shoulder pads, popularized by
Thierry Mugler is a French fashion designer. Mugler was born in France, his passion led him to focus more on drawing than on school, at the age of 9, he began to study classical dance. By 14, he joined the ballet corps for the Rhin Opera. At the same time, Mugler began formal interior design training at the Strasbourg School of Decorative Arts. At the age of 24, Mugler moved to France, he began designing clothes for Gudule. At 26, working as a freelance designer, began to design for a variety of large ready-to-wear fashion houses in Paris, Milan and Barcelona. In 1973, Mugler created his first personal collection called "Café de Paris"; the style of the collection was both sophisticated and urban. Melka Tréanton, a powerful fashion editor, helped to launch his career. In 1976, she asked him to show his work in Tokyo for an event organized by Shiseido. In 1978, he opened his first Paris boutique at the Place des Victoires in the 1er Arrondissement). At the same time, Thierry Mugler launched a fashion collection for men.
For this collection, he reworked classical masculinity. A clean, structured cut which outlined a recognizable silhouette: prominent shoulders, both "anatomical and classic", for a dynamically slender look. During the 1980s and 1990s, Thierry Mugler became an internationally recognized designer, his collections garnered much commercial success. At the request of the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture, he completed his first haute couture collection in 1992, he created the famous black dress worn by Demi Moore in Indecent Proposal. His clothes are identified by their structure. Mugler, over the next two decades created a style, much of its time: it was strong and sometimes cruel. Shoulders were padded. Prints were banished: Mugler’s clothes came in solid, dominating colors. Collars had flame-like cutouts; the insect kingdom was a constant influence, as were the gentlemen of film noir. PVC was used as his material for his runway pieces, used to create space and robot themes. Mugler published his first photography book in Thierry Mugler, Photographe.
This was followed by a monograph in 1999 entitled, Fashion Fetish Fantasy which assembles photos of his creations. Mugler directs short films, advertising films and video clips, he designs costumes for musical comedies, concerts and the theatre. He has worked with George Michael, he directed the first advertising film for one of his fragrances, Alien. In 2002 Mugler collaborated with the Cirque du Soleil, he directed "Extravaganza", one of the scenes of Zumanity, created all of the costumes and the identity of the characters in the show. In 2009, Mugler worked as artistic advisor to singer Beyoncé, he created the costumes for her "I Am... World Tour". In 2016, Mugler created and directed the music video and staging for San Marino's Eurovision Song Contest entry I Didn't Know performed by Turkish singer Serhat. In 2008 the Mugler's brand launched a high-end line of cosmetics. In September 2010 Nicola Formichetti was announced to be the Creative Director of the Thierry Mugler brand, he changed the brand name to MUGLER, removing the first name, in January 2011 he launched the revival of the brand's menswear collection in collaboration with Romain Kremer.
An April 2010 New York Times story discussed Mugler's cosmetic transformation. " taken to calling himself Manfred and transformed his body...into what is a 240-pound spectacle of muscle and nipple and tattoo..."With over two years of being the creative director of MUGLER, Formichetti announced in April 2013 that he and the fashion house will be parting ways. Formichetti left MUGLER in to work for the Italian brand Diesel. In December 2013, House of Mugler announced David Koma as the artistic director. Mugler's first perfume was called Angel. "Angel" contains a combination of chocolate mixed with a strong accord of patchouli. It would be a part of a new fragrance type called gourmand; the Angel bottle, a design in the shape of a faceted star, was created by the Brosse Master Glassmakers. Fans of the fragrance include Diana Ross, Barbara Walters, Eva Mendes, Hillary Clinton. In 1996 Mugler followed up Angel with a male version named A * Men; this fragrance includes notes of caramel, vanilla and honey.
In 2005, Alien was created, the second major Thierry Mugler fragrance. In 2005, Thierry Mugler launched the Thierry Mugler Perfume Workshops", which are open to the general public and led by specialists of the perfumery and oenology world. Angel and Alien together produce about $280 million in sales annually. In 2010, the fragrance Womanity was released by the house of Mugler. Mugler's newest fragrance, Angel Muse, was released in 2015. In 2006, Thierry Mugler completed a project for the launch of Tom Tykwer's film "Perfume". In collaboration with the IFF company, Thierry Mugler created a box set of fifteen compositions. During 2007, still following the metamorphosis theme, Mugler launched Mirror, Mirror, a collection of five fragrances, created as "perfume-trickery" to "enhance one’s presence". Mugler is gay, is a longtime bodybuilder. Official Thierry Mugler website
National Gallery of Victoria
The National Gallery of Victoria, popularly known as the NGV, is an art museum in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1861, it is Australia's oldest and most visited art museum; the NGV houses an encyclopedic art collection across two sites: NGV International, located on St Kilda Road in the Melbourne Arts Precinct of Southbank, the Ian Potter Centre: NGV Australia, located nearby at Federation Square. The NGV International building, designed by Sir Roy Grounds, opened in 1968, was redeveloped by Mario Bellini before reopening in 2003, it is on the Victorian Heritage Register. Designed by Lab Architecture Studio, the Ian Potter Centre opened in 2002 and houses the gallery's Australian art collection. Victoria was granted separation from New South Wales in 1850, becoming effective on 1 July 1851. In the wake of the Victorian gold rush that began in August 1851, the new colony became Australia's richest, Melbourne, its capital, the largest and wealthiest city in Australia. With Melbourne's rapid growth came calls for the establishment of a public art gallery, in 1859, the Government of Victoria pledged £2000 for the acquisition of plaster casts of sculpture.
These works were displayed in the Museum of Art, opened by Governor Sir Henry Barkly in May 1861 on the lower floor of the south wing of the Public Library on Swanston Street. Further money was set aside in the early 1860s for the purchase of original paintings by British and Victorian artists; these works were first displayed in December 1864 in the newly opened Picture Gallery, which remained under the curatorial administration of the Public Library until 1882. Grand designs for a building fronting Lonsdale and Swanston streets were drawn by Nicholas Chevalier in 1860 and Frederick Grosse in 1865, featuring an enormous and elaborate library and gallery, but the visions were never realised. On 24 May 1874, the first purpose built gallery, known as the McArthur Gallery, opened in the McArthur room of the State Library, the following year, the Museum of Art was renamed the National Gallery of Victoria; the McArthur Gallery was only intended as a temporary home until the much grander vision was to be realised.
However such an edifice did not eventuate and the complex was instead developed incrementally over several decades. The National Gallery of Victoria Art School, associated with the gallery, was founded in 1867 and remained the leading centre for academic art training in Australia until about 1910; the School's graduates went on to become some of Australia's most significant artists. In 1887, the Buvelot Gallery was opened, along with the Painting School studios. In 1892, two more galleries were added: Stawell and La Trobe; the gallery's collection was built from both gifts of works of art and monetary donations. The most significant, the Felton Bequest, was established by the will of Alfred Felton and from 1904, has been used to purchase over 15,000 works of art. Since the Felton Bequest, the gallery had long held plans to build a permanent facility, however it was not until 1943 that the State Government chose a site, Wirth's Park, just south of the Yarra River. £3 million was put forward in February 1960 and Roy Grounds was announced as the architect.
In 1959, the commission to design a new gallery was awarded to the architectural firm Grounds Romberg Boyd. In 1962, Roy Grounds split from his partners Frederick Romberg and Robin Boyd, retained the commission, designed the gallery at 180 St Kilda Road; the new bluestone clad building was completed in December 1967 and Victorian premier Henry Bolte opened it on 20 August 1968. One of the features of the building is the Leonard French stained glass ceiling, one of the world's largest pieces of suspended stained glass, which casts colourful light on the floor below; the water-wall entrance is another well-known feature of the building. In 1999, redevelopment of the building was proposed, with Mario Bellini chosen as architect and an estimated project cost of $161.9 million. The proposal was to leave the original architectural fabric intact including the exterior facade and Leonard French stained glass ceiling, but to modernise the interior. During the redevelopment, many works were moved to a temporary external annex known as NGV on Russell, at the State Library with its entrance on Russell Street.
A major fundraising drive was launched on 10 October 2000 to redevelop the ageing facility and although the state government committed the majority of the funds, private donations were sought in addition to federal funding. The drive achieved its aim and secured $15 million from the Ian Potter Foundation on 11 July 2000, $3 million from Lotti Smorgon, $2 million from the Clemenger Foundation, $1 million each from James Fairfax and the Pratt Foundation. NGV on Russell closed on 30 June 2002 to make way for the staged opening of the new St Kilda Road gallery, it was opened by premier Steve Bracks on 4 December 2003. The Ian Potter Centre: NGV Australia in Federation Square was designed by Lab Architecture Studio to house the NGV's Australian art collection, it opened in 2002. As such, the NGV's collection is now housed in two separate buildings, with Grounds' building renamed NGV International; the NGV's Asian art collection began in 1862, one year after the gallery's founding, when Frederick Dalgety donated two Chinese plates.
The Asian collection has since grown to include significant works from across the continent. The NGV's Australian art collection encompasses Indigenous art and artefacts, Australian colonial art, Australian Impressionist art, 20th century and contemporary art; the 1880s saw the birth and development of
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website