Neuilly-sur-Seine is a French commune just west of Paris, in the department of Hauts-de-Seine. A suburb of Paris, Neuilly is adjacent to the city and directly extends it; the area is composed of wealthy, select residential neighbourhoods, many corporate headquarters are located there. It is most expensive suburb of Paris, it is often recognised as one of the safest and most child-friendly Parisian suburbs. Neuilly was a small hamlet under the jurisdiction of Villiers, a larger settlement mentioned in medieval sources as early as 832 and now absorbed by the commune of Levallois-Perret, it was not until 1222 that the little settlement of Neuilly, established on the banks of the Seine, was mentioned for the first time in a charter of the Abbey of Saint-Denis: the name was recorded in Medieval Latin as Portus de Lulliaco, meaning "Port of Lulliacum". In 1224 another charter of Saint-Denis recorded the name as Lugniacum. In a sales contract dated 1266, the name was recorded as Luingni. In 1316, however, in a ruling of the parlement of Paris, the name was recorded as Nully, a different name from those recorded before.
In a document dated 1376 the name was again recorded as Nulliacum. In the following centuries the name recorded alternated between Luny and Nully, it is only after 1648 that the name was set as Nully; the name spelt Neuilly after the French Academy standard of pronunciation of the ill as a y. Various explanations and etymologies have been proposed to explain these discrepancies in the names of Neuilly recorded over the centuries; the original name of Neuilly may have been Lulliacum or Lugniacum, that it was only corrupted into Nulliacum / Nully. Some interpret Lulliacum or Lugniacum as meaning "estate of Lullius" a Gallo-Roman landowner; this interpretation is based on the many placenames of France made up of the names of Gallo-Roman landowners and suffixed with the traditional placename suffix "-acum". However, other researchers object that it is unlikely that Neuilly owes its name to a Gallo-Roman patronym, because during the Roman occupation of Gaul the area of Neuilly was inside the large Forest of Rouvray, of which the Bois de Boulogne is all that remains today, was not a settlement.
These researchers contend that it is only after the fall of the Roman Empire and the Germanic invasions that the area of Neuilly was deforested and settled. Thus, they think that the name Lulliacum or Lugniacum comes from the ancient Germanic word lund meaning "forest", akin to Old Norse lundr meaning "grove", to which the placename suffix "-acum" was added; the Old Norse word lundr has indeed left many placenames across Europe, such as the city of Lund in Sweden, the Forest of the Londe in Normandy, or the many English placenames containing "lound", "lownde", or "lund" in their name, or ending in "-land". However, this interesting theory fails to explain why the "d" of lund is missing in Lulliacum or Lugniacum. Concerning the discrepancy in names over the centuries, the most probable explanation is that the original name Lulliacum or Lugniacum was corrupted into Nulliacum / Nully by inversion of the consonants under the influence of an old Celtic word meaning "swampy land, boggy land", found in the name of many French places anciently covered with water, such as Noue, Noë, Nohant, etc.
Or the consonants were inverted under the influence of the many settlements of France called Neuilly. Until the French Revolution, the settlement was referred to as Port-Neuilly, but at the creation of French communes in 1790 the "Port" was dropped and the newly born commune was named Neuilly. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighbouring communes. On that occasion, a part of the territory of Neuilly-sur-Seine was annexed by the city of Paris, forms now the neighbourhood of Ternes, in the 17th arrondissement of Paris. On 11 January 1867, part of the territory of Neuilly-sur-Seine was detached and merged with a part of the territory of Clichy to create the commune of Levallois-Perret. On 2 May 1897, the commune name became Neuilly-sur-Seine, in order to distinguish it from the many communes of France called Neuilly. However, most people continue to refer to Neuilly-sur-Seine as "Neuilly". During the 1900 Summer Olympics, it hosted the basque pelota events; the American Hospital of Paris was founded in 1906.
In 1919, the Treaty of Neuilly was signed with Bulgaria in Neuilly-sur-Seine to conclude its role in World War I. In 1929, the Bois de Boulogne, hitherto divided between the communes of Neuilly-sur-Seine and Boulogne-Billancourt, was annexed in its entirety by the city of Paris, it was the site of an important royal residence during the July Monarchy. Neuilly-sur-Seine is served by three stations on Paris Métro Line 1: Porte Maillot, Les Sablons and Pont de Neuilly. RATP Bus service includes the lines 43, 73, 82, 93, 157, 158, 163, 164, 174 Night Bus lines include N11 and N24. Located near France's main business district La Défense, Neuilly-sur-Seine hosts several corporate headquarters: Bureau Veritas, Marathon Media, JCDecaux, Thales Group, M6 Group, PricewaterhouseCoopers France, Parfums Christian Dior, Orangina France, Grant Thornton International France. Public schools in Neuilly: Eight écoles maternelles: Achille Peretti, Dulud, Gorce-Franklin, Miche
Roger Taillibert is a French architect, active as a designer from about 1963 to 1987. Taillibert is notable for designing the Parc des Princes in Paris and the Olympic Stadium in Montreal, Canada. Taillibert was born in Châtres-sur-Cher, he has been honored by the French government as commander of the Légion d'Honneur, commander of the Ordre National du Mérite, commander of the Ordre des Palmes Académiques and commander of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres. Sports facilities in Chamonix France Parc des Princes in Paris Stadium Lille-Metropole in Lille Olympic Stadium in Montreal, Canada Olympic Velodrome, Montreal Olympic Pool ASPIRE Academy, Qatar Officer's Club - Abu Dhabi, UAE Luxembourg's National Sports and Culture Centre d'Coque, better known as d'Coque Taillibert International website Académie des Beaux-Arts Structurae: Roger Taillibert CBC Archives A clip from 1975 where Roger Taillibert talks about his designs for the Montreal Olympic stadium. CBC Archives - A look back on legacy of the problem plagued Montreal Olympic Stadium.
CBC Archives Roger showing his tower to reporters
Jean Nouvel is a French architect. Nouvel studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris and was a founding member of Mars 1976 and Syndicat de l'Architecture, he has obtained a number of prestigious distinctions over the course of his career, including the Aga Khan Award for Architecture, the Wolf Prize in Arts in 2005 and the Pritzker Prize in 2008. A number of museums and architectural centres have presented retrospectives of his work. Nouvel was born on 12 August 1945 in France, he is the son of Roger Nouvel who were teachers. His family moved when his father became the county's chief school superintendent, his parents encouraged Nouvel to study mathematics and language, but when he was 16 years old he was captivated by art when a teacher taught him drawing. Although he said he thought that his parents were guiding him to pursue a career in education or engineering, the family reached a compromise that he could study architecture which they thought was less risky than art; when Nouvel failed an entrance examination at the École des Beaux-Arts of Bordeaux, he moved to Paris where he won first prize in a national competition to attend the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts.
From 1967 to 1970, Nouvel earned his income as an assistant to architects Claude Parent and Paul Virilio, who after only one year, made him a project manager in charge of building a large apartment complex. Nouvel and filmmaker Odile Fillion married and have two sons, a post-doctorate computer scientist working at Mindstorm Multitouch in London, Pierre, a theater producer and designer at his company, Factoid. With his second wife Catherine Richard, Nouvel has Sarah, he lives now with Mia Hägg, a Swedish architect working at her practice Habiter Autrement in Paris. By age 25, Nouvel entered into his own partnership with François Seigneur. Parents sent them work, gave Nouvel a valuable recommendation to the chairperson of the seventh edition of the Biennale de Paris where for fifteen years, Nouvel designed exhibits and made contacts in the arts and theater. Early on in his career, Nouvel became a key participant in intellectual debates about architecture in France: he co-founded the Mars 1976 movement in 1976 and, a year the Syndicat de l'Architecture.
Nouvel was one of the organizers of the competition for the rejuvenation of the Les Halles district and he founded the first Paris architecture biennale in 1980. In 1981, together with Architecture-Studio, won the design competition for the Institut du Monde Arabe building in Paris, whose construction was completed in 1987 and brought Nouvel international fame. Mechanical lenses reminiscent of Arabic latticework in its south wall open and shut automatically, controlling interior lighting as the lenses' photoelectric cells respond to exterior light levels. Nouvel had three different partners between 1972 and 1984: Gilbert Lezenes, Jean-François Guyot, Pierre Soria. In 1985, with his junior architects Emmanuel Blamont, Jean-Marc Ibos and Mirto Vitart, he founded Jean Nouvel et Associés. With Emmanuel Gattani, he formed JNEC in 1988. Ateliers Jean Nouvel, his present practice, was formed in 1994 with Michel Pélissié and is one of the largest in France, with 140 people in the main office in Paris.
Ateliers Jean Nouvel site offices are Rome, Geneva and Barcelona. They are working on 30 active projects in 13 countries. Nouvel designed a flacon for L'Homme, an Yves Saint Laurent fragrance, in a limited edition launched in 2008. Nouvel was awarded the Pritzker Prize, architecture's highest honour, in 2008, for his work on more than 200 projects, among them, in the words of The New York Times, the "exotically louvered" Arab World Institute, the bullet-shaped and "candy-colored" Torre Agbar in Barcelona, the "muscular" Guthrie Theater with its cantilevered bridge in Minneapolis, in Paris, the "defiant and wildly eccentric" Musée du quai Branly and the Philharmonie de Paris. Pritzker points to several more major works: in Europe, the Cartier Foundation for Contemporary Art, the Culture and Convention Center in Lucerne, the Opéra Nouvel in Lyon, Expo 2002 in Switzerland and, under construction, the Copenhagen Concert Hall and the courthouse in Nantes; the jury acknowledged the'persistence, exuberance, above all, an insatiable urge for creative experimentation' as qualities abundant in Nouvel's work.
Nouvel has designed a number of notable buildings across the world, the most significant of which are listed below. As part of the announcement of Nouvel's Pritzker Prize, the Hyatt Foundation, which awards the prize, published a full illustrated list of Nouvel's architectural work, including projects which were never built, projects in construction and designs for which construction has yet to start. In 2001 director Beat Kuert filmed a documentary about five of Nouvel's projects titled Jean Nouvel. 1987 – Nemausus 1, Nîmes, France 1987 – Arab World Institute, France 1994 – Fondation Cartier pour l'Art Contemporain, France 1995 – Euralille, (Retail / Office
Heydar Gholi Khan Ghiaï-Chamlou was an Iranian architect. He graduated from the École des Beaux-Arts in 1952, was known as a pioneer of modern architecture in Iran, he designed the Senate House, the Royal Tehran Hilton Hotel, several train stations, various civic and government buildings and the first series of state of the art hospitals. In France, he designed the Cité Universitaire aka Avicenne Foundation, amongst others. In 1968, he was nominated architect to the imperial court of Iran and commissioned the vast project of a complex of imperial palaces situated in Farah Abad; as a Professor of Architecture at the University of Tehran, he taught several generations of architects. Heydar Ghiaï-Chamlou was born in Tehran in 23 October 1922, decisively settled in France where he died in 6 September 1985 in Cap d'Antibes; the firm of Heydar Ghiaï & Associates has now been renamed Ghiaï Architects, based in San Francisco headed by his son Yves Ghiaï and his grand daughter Anahita Ghiaï. " Proportion is not a principle of architecture, but a principle of Life ".
" Man has a basic need for certain shapes, imparted to him by his civilization and corresponding to his immediate needs. In them he discovers himself. ". " I know a place where glass and concrete brush against the light, sparkling with delight ". Tehran Senate House Mashhad railway station Tabriz Rail Station Avicenne Foundation Tehran Pars Drive-In Cinema Cinema Radio City Cinema Moulin Rouge Royal Tehran Hilton Hotel Farah Abad Palaces Mashhad Hospital Lavizan Hospital Ghiai Palace Various Private Villas J. I Cohen, M. Eleb & A. Martinelli, "The 20th century Architecture & Urbanism". Draeger Paris, 1976 ISBN 2-85119-008-3 Architecture d'aujourd'hui, No.78, 1958, "Exposition et Hotel à Teheran", pp. 96–101 Architecture d'aujourd'hui, No.84, 1959, Paris, "Palais des Arts à Teheran", pp. 16–17 Architecture d'aujourd'hui, No.93, 1960, Paris, "Cinema en plein air à Teheran", pp. 20–21 Architecture d'aujourd'hui, No.98, 1963, Paris, "Hôpital a Machad", pp. 33–34 F. Bemont, "Teheran Contemporain", Art&Architecture, Teheran, No.17, 1973, pp. 85–88 B.
Oudin, Dictionnaire des Architectes, Paris, 1982, p. 187 ISBN 2-221-01090-6 H. Stierlin, Iran des Batisseurs, "2500 ans d'Architecture", Geneva, 1971, p. 102 Michel Ragon Histoire de l'architecture et de l'urbanisme modernes, éd. Casterman,Paris, 1986 ISBN 2-02-013290-7 E. Yarshater, Encyclopædia Iranica, Volume X, New-York, 2001, p. 591-92 R. Beny, "Iran elements of destiny", London, 1978, pp. 233, 265 J. P. Roux, "Histoire des Turcs", Paris, 1984, pp. 253–54 M. Akri, "Iran during the Pahlavi Era, Major political players", London, 1989, p. 392 R. Ghirshman, Persia El reino immortal, London, 1971, p. 141 Paris Match, "La Grandeur d'un Regne.
Legion of Honour
The Legion of Honour is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoleon Bonaparte and retained by all French governments and régimes. The order's motto is Honneur et Patrie, its seat is the Palais de la Légion d'Honneur next to the Musée d'Orsay, on the left bank of the Seine in Paris; the order is divided into five degrees of increasing distinction: Chevalier, Commandeur, Grand officier, Grand-croix. During the French Revolution, all of the French orders of chivalry were abolished, replaced with Weapons of Honour, it was the wish of Napoleon Bonaparte, the First Consul, to create a reward to commend civilians and soldiers. From this wish was instituted a Légion d'honneur, a body of men, not an order of chivalry, for Napoleon believed that France wanted a recognition of merit rather than a new system of nobility. However, the Légion d'honneur did use the organization of the old French orders of chivalry, for example the Ordre de Saint-Louis; the insignia of the Légion d'honneur bear a resemblance to those of the Ordre de Saint-Louis, which used a red ribbon.
Napoleon created this award to ensure political loyalty. The organization would be used as a façade to give political favours and concessions; the Légion d'honneur was loosely patterned after a Roman legion, with legionaries, commanders, regional "cohorts" and a grand council. The highest rank was not a Grand Cross but a Grand aigle, a rank that wore the insignia common to a Grand Cross; the members were paid, the highest of them generously: 5,000 francs to a grand officier, 2,000 francs to a commandeur, 1,000 francs to an officier, 250 francs to a légionnaire. Napoleon famously declared, "You call these baubles, well, it is with baubles that men are led... Do you think that you would be able to make men fight by reasoning? Never; that is good only for the scholar in his study. The soldier needs glory, rewards." This has been quoted as "It is with such baubles that men are led." The order was the first modern order of merit. Under the monarchy, such orders were limited to Roman Catholics, all knights had to be noblemen.
The military decorations were the perks of the officers. The Légion d'honneur, was open to men of all ranks and professions—only merit or bravery counted; the new legionnaire had to be sworn into the Légion d'honneur. It is noteworthy that all previous orders were crosses or shared a clear Christian background, whereas the Légion d'honneur is a secular institution; the badge of the Légion d'honneur has five arms. In a decree issued on the 10 Pluviôse XIII, a grand decoration was instituted; this decoration, a cross on a large sash and a silver star with an eagle, symbol of the Napoleonic Empire, became known as the Grand aigle, in 1814 as the Grand cordon. After Napoleon crowned himself Emperor of the French in 1804 and established the Napoleonic nobility in 1808, award of the Légion d'honneur gave right to the title of "Knight of the Empire"; the title was made hereditary after three generations of grantees. Napoleon had dispensed 15 golden collars of the Légion d'honneur among his family and his senior ministers.
This collar was abolished in 1815. Although research is made difficult by the loss of the archives, it is known that three women who fought with the army were decorated with the order: Virginie Ghesquière, Marie-Jeanne Schelling and a nun, Sister Anne Biget; the Légion d'honneur was visible in the French Empire. The Emperor always wore it and the fashion of the time allowed for decorations to be worn most of the time; the king of Sweden therefore declined the order. Napoleon's own decorations were captured by the Prussians and were displayed in the Zeughaus in Berlin until 1945. Today, they are in Moscow. Louis XVIII changed the appearance of the order. To have done so would have angered the 35,000 to 38,000 members; the images of Napoleon and his eagle were removed and replaced by the image of King Henry IV, the popular first king of the Bourbon line. Three Bourbon fleurs-de-lys replaced the eagle on the reverse of the order. A king's crown replaced the imperial crown. In 1816, the grand cordons were renamed grand crosses and the legionnaires became knights.
The king decreed. The Légion d'honneur became the second-ranking order of knighthood of the French monarchy, after the Order of the Holy Spirit. Following the overthrow of the Bourbons in favour of King Louis Philippe I of the House of Orléans, the Bourbon monarchy's orders were once again abolished and the Légion d'honneur was restored in 1830 as the paramount decoration of the French nation; the insignia were drastically altered. In 1847, there were 47,000 members, yet another revolution in Paris brought a new design to the Légion d'honneur. A nephew of the founder, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was elected president and he restored the image of his uncle on the crosses of the order. In 1852, the first recorded woman, Angélique Duchemin, an old revolutionary of the 1789 uprising against the absolute monarchy, was admitted into the order. On 2 December 1851, President Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte staged a coup d'état with the help of the armed forces, he made himself Emperor of the French one year on 2 December 1852, after a successful plebiscite.
An Imperial crown was added. During Napoleon III's reign, the first American was admitted
Thom Mayne is an American architect. He is based in Los Angeles. In 1972, Mayne helped found the Southern California Institute of Architecture, where he is a trustee. Since he has held teaching positions at SCI-Arc, the California State Polytechnic University and the University of California, Los Angeles, he is principal of an architectural firm in Culver City, California. Mayne received the Pritzker Architecture Prize in March 2005. Mayne was born in Connecticut, he studied architecture at the University of Southern California and studied at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design in 1978, with a social agenda and urban planning focus, receiving his bachelor's degree, he began working as an urban planner under Korean-born architect Ki Suh Park. During that time he recalls that "policy and planning were not going to work for me" and that he "needed a more tangible resolution." Mayne found himself living on a commune with the grass-roots group Campaign for Economic Democracy, many of whom became his earliest clients.
In 1972, Mayne abruptly left Cal Poly Pomona and collaborated with five other students and educators whom he met at while at USC, to create the Southern California Institute of Architecture, or SCI-Arc. The rift was due to differences between the dean at Cal Poly at the time and Ray Kappe, who headed the school's architecture department; the goal of the new institute was to reinvigorate formal architectural education with a keener sense of social conscience. SCI-Arc was "to bring to Los Angeles the critical attitude toward the profession, being practiced at Cooper Union in New York and the Architectural Association in London." Mayne and some others founded Morphosis in 1972. The firm's design philosophy arises from an interest in producing work with a meaning that can be understood by absorbing the culture for which it was made, their goal was to develop an architecture that would eschew the normal bounds of traditional forms. Beginning as an informal collaboration of designers that survived on non-architectural projects, its first official commission was a school in Pasadena, attended by Mayne's son.
Publicity from this project led to a number of residential commissions, including the Lawrence Residence. Mayne describes the early days of the group as more of a "garage band" than a practice, they spent their free time experimenting with new inventions for their clients, whom consisted of friends and parents of students. When work was at a standstill, Mayne took a year off to earn his Master of Architecture degree from Harvard University, he graduated in 1978 and returned to work for Morphosis where he became the principal architect, lead designer and principal in charge for all of Morphosis' projects. The firm has grown with completed projects worldwide. Under the Design Excellence program of the United States government's General Service Administration, Thom Mayne has become a primary architect for federal projects. Recent commissions include: graduate housing at the University of Toronto; the work of Morphosis has a layered quality. Visually, the firm's architecture includes sculptural forms.
In recent years, such visual effect has been made possible through computer design techniques, which simplify the construction of complex forms. Mayne remains a presence in the academic world, he teaches at the University of Pennsylvania and has held teaching positions at many institutions including Columbia University, Harvard University, Yale University, the Berlage Institute in the Netherlands and the Bartlett School of Architecture in London. He is a tenured faculty member at the UCLA School of Arts and Architecture. In 2013, he contributed a foreword to the book "Never Built Los Angeles" by Sam Lubell and Greg Goldin. Kate Mantilini / Beverly Hills, CA, 1986 6th Street Residence, Santa Monica, CA, 1988 Cedar Sinai Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA, 1988 Crawford Residence, Montecito, CA, 1990 Salick Healthcare Office Building, Los Angeles, CA, 1991 Blades Residence, Santa Barbara, California, 1995 Sun Tower in Seoul, Korea 1997 Diamond Ranch High School, California, 1999 University of Toronto Graduate House, Ontario, Canada, 2000 Hypo Alpe-Adria Center, Austria, 2002 Caltrans District 7 Headquarters, Los Angeles, California, 2004 Science Center School, Los Angeles, California, 2004 University of Cincinnati Student Recreation Center, Ohio, 2006 Public housing in Madrid, Spain, 2006 Wayne L. Morse United States Courthouse, Oregon, 2006 San Francisco Federal Building, San Francisco, California, 2006 Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the California Institute of Technology, California, 2009 National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Satellite Operation Facility, Maryland, 2007 New Academic Building at 41 Cooper Square, The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, New York, New York, 2009 Perot Museum of Nature & Science, Victory Park, Texas, 2012 Bill and Melinda Gates Hall, Cornell University, New York, 2013 Emerson College Los Angeles Center, Los Angeles, California, 2014 Vialia Vigo, Galicia, Spain, 2016 Phare Tower known as "Le Phare" and "The Lighthouse", "green" wind-powered office building, La Défense, France, 2017 Cornell NYC Tech, Roosevelt Island, New York, 2017 A. Alfred Taubman Engineering and Life Sciences Complex, Lawrenc
Lillebonne is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France. It lies 24 miles east of Le Havre. Before the Roman conquest of Gaul Iuliobona was the capital of the Caletes, or inhabitants of the Pays de Caux, it was afterwards rebuilt by Augustus. Before it was again ruined by the barbarian invasions, it had become an important centre whence Roman roads branched out in all directions, it was an administrative and commercial city located close to the Seine. This made it the remainder of the Roman Empire, it was a crossroads of communication in order to bring Roman ways to Harfleur, Étretat, Dieppe, Évreux and Rouen. The remains of Roman baths and of a theater capable of holding 3,000 persons have been brought to light. Many Roman and Gallic relics, notably a bronze statue of Apollo, two fine mosaics exposed to the museum at Rouen, have been found. In the Middle Ages the fortifications of the town were constructed out of materials supplied by the Roman theater.
The town recovered some of its old importance under William the Conqueror. Lillebonne lies in the valley of the Bolbec River at the foot of wooded hills at the junction of the D982, D29 and the D81 roads; the church of Notre Dame modern, preserves a Gothic portal of the 16th century and a graceful tower of the same period. The park contains a fine cylindrical keep and other remains of a castle founded by William the Conqueror and rebuilt in the 13th century; the Gallo-Roman amphitheater of Lillebonne was built in the first century and was altered in the second century so that it could be used as both an amphitheater and a theater. Part of its remains are still visible today from Félix Faur Square, the foundations of some of its remnants remain under the square; the principal industries were the manufacture of calico and candles. There was a prosperous manufacture of starch belonging to the Legrain family. Petrochemistry is now the main industry in the area, with a part of the nearby Notre-Dame-de-Gravenchon refining and petrochemical complex extending over the Lillebonne commune.
Wellington, United Kingdom Immenstadt, Germany. Communes of the Seine-Maritime department INSEE This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Lillebonne". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. P. 686. Tourism office of Lillebonne