Christiansborg Palace is a palace and government building on the islet of Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is the seat of the Danish Parliament, the Danish Prime Ministers Office, several parts of the palace are used by the Danish monarch, including the Royal Reception Rooms, the Palace Chapel and the Royal Stables. The palace is home to the three supreme powers, the executive power, the legislative power, and the judicial power. It is the building in the world that houses all three of a countrys branches of government. The name Christiansborg is thus used as a metonym for the Danish political system. The present building, the third with this name, is the last in a series of castles and palaces constructed on the same site since the erection of the first castle in 1167. The palace today bears witness to three eras of Danish architecture, as the result of two serious fires, the first fire occurred in 1794 and the second in 1884. The main part of the current palace, finished in 1928, is in the historicist Neo-baroque style, the chapel dates to 1826 and is in a neoclassical style.
The showgrounds were built 1738-46, in a baroque style, Christiansborg Palace is owned by the Danish state, and is run by the Palaces and Properties Agency. Several parts of the palace are open to the public, the first castle on the site was Absalons Castle. According to the Danish chronicler Saxo Grammaticus, Bishop Absalon of Roskilde built a castle in 1167 on an island outside Copenhagen Harbour. The castle was made up by a wall, encircling an enclosed courtyard with several buildings, such as the bishops palace. At the death of Absalon in 1201, possession of the castle, a few decades later, however, a bitter feud erupted between crown and church, and for almost two centuries the ownership of the castle and city was contested between kings and bishops. Furthermore, the castle was frequently under attack, for example by Wend pirates and the Hanseatic cities, in 1369, following a conflict with king Valdemar IV of Denmark, the Hanseatic League sent 40 stonemasons to demolish the castle stone by stone.
The castle had long been a nuisance to the Hanseatic cities trade in the Sound. The castle had a wall and was surrounded by a moat and with a large. The castle was still the property of the Bishop of Roskilde until King Eric VII usurped the rights to the castle in 1417, from on the castle in Copenhagen was occupied by the king. In the middle of the 15th century, the became the principal residence of the Danish kings
Holsteinborg Castle is a manor house located 12 kilometres southeast of Skælskør, Slagelse Municipality, Denmark. It was built in the first half of the 17th century by members of the Trolle family, who gave it the name Trolholm, hans Christian Andersen was a frequent visitor to the estate in the middle of the 19th century. A fortification was in about 1200 built approximately at the site of the current castle to guard Bisserup Harbour, the estate is referred to as Bråde in 1357 when it is owned by Roskilde bishopric. The property was confiscated by the Crown 1536 in connection with the Reformation, in 1562, King Frederick II ceded the estate to Niels Trolle, a younger brother of Herluf Trolle, in exchange for his holdings in northern Zealand. Niels Trolle was killed in the Action of 7 July 1565 on Bornholm in 1565 and his son, Børge Nielsen Trolle, changed its name to Trolholm in 1682. Børge Trolle commanded a flotilla attending Christian IV on his Arctic exploration in 1599, the voyage is described by the author Thorkild Hansen in Jens Munk.
Børge Trolles son, Niels Trolle, who owned Trolborg from 1615–1667, the estate was owned by members of the Trolle family until 1707. Ulrik Adolf Holstein acquired the Barony of Fuirendal in 1700, in 1707, he acquired Trolholm and Snedinge. Holstein was created Count of Holsteinborg in 1708 and he built 10 village churches on his estate and expanded Holsteinborg Church in 1728. He served as Grand Chancellor during the last 10 years of Frederick IVs reign, frederik Adolph Holsteinm 6th Count of Holsteinborg, belonged to the circle around Reventlow and Bernstorff. He brought the Christmas tree tradition to Denmark when the first Danish Christmas tree was lit on Christmas Eve 1808 at Holsteinborg, ludvig Holstein-Holsteinborg, 7th Count of Holstein, who served as Council President in the early 1870s, owned Holsteinborg from 1836 to 1892. Hans Christian Andersen was a frequent visitor to his homes, both in Copenhagen and at Holsteinborg, the building was restored in 1949-50 under the supervision of H. H.
Engqvist. The oldest part of the manor house is the west wing which was built by Børge Trolle in 1598. The three other wings were built between 1538 and 1546, the building was adapted in 1777-81 by G. E. Rosenberg and again in 1848-50 bu Gustav Friedrich Hetsch. The original Renaissance castle now combines Gothic, Baroque, the main gate is located in the north wing which is flanked by corner towers with spires from 1642 and 1649. The two headless shieldbearers that flank the gate represent the headless troll in the Trolle familys coat of arms, the moat is only preserved on the north side and around the farm buildings, some of which date from the middle of the 17th century. A chapel was installed on 9 August 1728 in the west wing, one of only two privately owned parish churches, it serves as church for the Parish of Holsteinborg. The ceiling is decorated with the coat of arms and monogram of the founder, the altarpiece was painted by Hendrik Krock in 1725 and depicts Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane
Kronborg is a castle and stronghold in the town of Helsingør, Denmark. Immortalized as Elsinore in William Shakespeares play Hamlet, Kronborg is one of the most important Renaissance castles in Northern Europe and has added to UNESCOs World Heritage Sites list. The castle is situated on the northeastern tip of the island of Zealand at the narrowest point of the Øresund. In this part, the sound is only 4 kilometres wide, the castles story dates back to a stronghold, built by King Eric VII in the 1420s. Along with the fortress Kärnan, Helsingborg on the opposite coast of Øresund, from 1574 to 1585 King Frederick II had the medieval fortress radically transformed into a magnificent Renaissance castle. The main architects were the Flemings Hans Hendrik van Paesschen and Anthonis van Obbergen, in 1629 a fire destroyed much of the castle, but King Christian IV subsequently had it rebuilt. The castle has a church within its walls, in 1658 Kronborg was besieged and captured by the Swedes who took many of its valuable art treasures as war booty.
In 1785 the castle ceased to be a residence and was converted into barracks for the army. The army left the castle in 1923, and after a renovation it was opened to the public. The castles story dates back to a fortress, built in the 1420s by the Danish king, Eric of Pomerania. At the time, the Kingdom of Denmark extended across both sides of the Sound, and on the shore the Helsingborg Castle had been in existence since the Middle Ages. With the two castles and guard ships it was possible to all navigation through the Sound. The castle was built on Ørekrog, a tongue of land stretching into the sea from the coast of Zealand towards the coast of Scania. The castle consisted of a curtain wall with a number of stone buildings inside. The stone building in the northeastern corner contained the kings residence, the building in the southwestern corner contained a large arched banquet hall. The building in the southeastern corner possibly served as the chapel, large portions of the walls of Krogen are contained within the present-day Kronborg Castle.
King Christian III had the corners of the curtain wall supplemented with bastions in 1558-59, from 1574 to 1585 Frederick II had the medieval fortress rebuilt into a magnificent Renaissance castle, unique in its appearance and size throughout Europe. After the conclusion of the Northern Seven Years War in 1570, the main architect was the Flemish architect Hans Hendrik van Paesschen and the fortification works were completed in 1577
Klintholm is an estate near Mons Klint on the Danish island of Møn. Originally owned by the Crown, since 1798 the estate has belonged to the Scavenius family, in 1838, a three-winged stone complex was built by G. F. Hetsch in the Neoclassical style and in 1875, a new house designed by August Klein in the Renaissance style was completed. Until 1769, the area was part of the Crown estate of Højemøn, as far as can be seen from surviving records, a merchant from Stubbekøbing by the name of Ditlev Staal bought the estate in 1774 and constructed the first buildings between 1778 and 1780. They included a dairy,48 m long and 13 m wide and it was around this period that the name Klintholm appeared for the first time. Until then, the estate had been known as Klintegodset, Staal maintained ownership for only 10 years until his death in 1797. In June 1798, Jacob Brønnum Scavenius bought the property, Jacob Scavenius purchased numerous properties in the surroundings, extending the estate to an area of some 3,000 ha.
In 1819, all the Klintholm buildings were destroyed by fire but were reconstructed in 1820. The new complex included a factory and a limestone plant. The estate was run for several generations. Carl Sophus Scavenius who found the building too small for his wife and 10 children. He developed the village of Klintholm Havn which served to transport the estates products. In 1945, the estate came into the hands of Carl Christian Scavenius and he managed it with great enthusiasm, acquiring Denmarks first herd of Hereford cattle. He encouraged tourism by setting up the Møns Klint Camping and the Ålekroen, the manor house built in 1873 was known as Kammerherreboligen. It was designed by August Klein in the so-called Rosenborg style, the main entrance below the tower led into a large vaulted hall with rich stucco decorations, similar those in the other ground floor rooms with their fine parquet floors. The library was particularly impressive with its carved shelving, the decorations were the work of Adolph Hellesen.
Dry rot first began to appear in the building in the 1940s, after the family moved out in 1964, it spread more quickly. In 1983, many of the furnishings and artefacts were auctioned off, judged unsafe by the authorities, the building was demolished in the spring of 2000
Corselitze, or Korselitse, is a manor house on the island of Falster in the south-east of Denmark. The Neoclassical house was built in 1777 by Johan Frederik Classen who at the time of his death founded Det Classenske Fideicommis which owns the estate today, Corselitze derives from Wendish and means settlement of Chotels heirs. The estate shares much of its history with the island of Falster. Like most of the island, it belonged to the Crown in the 13th century and is mentioned in King Valdemar IIs Danish Census Book which dates from about 1231. In 1354 Corselitze was acquired by Jens Falster, a member of the local nobility, a few years later, in 1603, it was reacquired by the Crown in exchange for Eskebjerg on Funen. Between 1560 and 1650 the entire island of Falster once again came under the Crown through such transactions. Initially it was used as livgeding, a Danish term for land put at the disposal of the queen for her support. The cavalry district was dissolved in 1766 and split up into 10 manors which were sold by auction, Classen was a wealthy industrialist with close ties to the king and the political elite.
He had just reacquired Frederiksværk, a foundry in the north of Zealand, after Classens death in 1792 the property, along with the rest of his estate, was passed on to the Classenske Fideikommis, a philanthropic trust which he created and still owns today. In 1947 the trust acquired Fuglsang and Priorskov on the island of Lolland. The Corselitze seen today was built by Classen from 1775 to 1777 to the design of the architect Andreas Kirkerup and it is an adaption of the old house which dated from the 17th century. Built in the Neoclassical style, it consists of two floors under a tile roof. The front is nine bays long and decorated with pilasters, the fine interiors with decorations by the sculptor Johannes Wiedewelt have partly been preserved. Classen founded an English-style landscape garden with orchards, a nursery, at the edge of Corselitze Forest towards the sea, Classen built the Generals summerhouse, a thatched cottage which is a miniature version of Liselund on the island of Møn. The site includes a farm which was designed by Vilhelm Tvede, near the mansion lies the small fishing village of Hesnæs.
It is notable for its characteristic reed-clad houses which were built after the 1872 Baltic Sea flood, the harbour is home to a small fleet of fishing vessels and is popular with leisure boats throughout the summer. The estate covers 2,792 hectares with Næsgård, Bjerregård, Bellinge, of these 645 hectares are farm land. With Fuglsang and Priorskov on Lolland, its holdings in the amount to 2,600 hectares of forest and 1,700 hectares of farmland
For its Antillian namesake, see Charlotte Amalie, U. S. Virgin Islands Amalienborg is the home of the Danish royal family, and is located in Copenhagen, Denmark. Amalienborg was originally built for four families, when Christiansborg Palace burned on 26 February 1794. Over the years various kings and their families have resided in the four different palaces, the Frederiksstaden district was built on the former grounds of two other palaces. The first palace was called Sophie Amalienborg, other parts of the land were used for Rosenborg Castle and the new Eastern fortified wall around the old city. Work on the began in 1664, and the castle was built 1669-1673. The King died in 1670, and the Queen Dowager lived there until her death on 20 February 1685, the presentation was a great success, and it was repeated a few days on 19 April. However, immediately after the start of the performance a stage decoration caught fire, causing the theatre and the palace to burn to the ground. The King planned to rebuild the palace, whose church, Royal Household, ole Rømer headed the preparatory work for the rebuilding of Amalienborg in the early 1690s.
In 1694, the King negotiated a deal with the Swedish building master Nicodemus Tessin the Younger and his drawing and model were completed in 1697. The King, found the plans too ambitious, and instead began tearing down the buildings that same year. The second Amalienborg was built by Frederick IV at the beginning of his reign, the second Amalienborg consisted of a summerhouse, a central pavilion with orangeries, and arcades on both side of the pavilion. On one side of the buildings was a French-style garden, the pavilion had a dining room on the groundfloor. On the upper floor was a salon with an out to the harbour, the garden. This development is thought to have been the brainchild of Danish Ambassador Plenipotentiary in Paris. Heading the project was Lord High Steward Adam Gottlob Moltke, one of the most powerful and influential men in the land, with Nicolai Eigtved as royal architect and supervisor. The project consisted of four identical mansions, built to house four distinguished families of nobility from the royal circles and these mansions form the modern palace of Amalienborg, albeit much modified over the years.
The noblemen who owned them were willing to part with their mansions for promotion and money, and the Moltke and Schack Palaces were acquired in the course of a few days. A colonnade, designed by royal architect Caspar Frederik Harsdorff, was added 1794-1795 to connect the recently occupied King’s palace, Moltke Palace, with that of the Crown Prince, Schack’s Palace
It was characterized by new explorations of form and shadow, and dramatic intensity. Baroque architecture and its embellishments were on the one hand more accessible to the emotions and on the other hand, the new style manifested itself in particular in the context of the new religious orders, like the Theatines and the Jesuits who aimed to improve popular piety. The architecture of the High Roman Baroque can be assigned to the reigns of Urban VIII, Innocent X and Alexander VII. Dissemination of Baroque architecture to the south of Italy resulted in variations such as Sicilian Baroque architecture or that of Naples. To the north, the Theatine architect Camillo-Guarino Guarini, Bernardo Vittone and Sicilian born Filippo Juvarra contributed Baroque buildings to the city of Turin and the Piedmont region. A synthesis of Bernini and Cortona’s architecture can be seen in the late Baroque architecture of northern Europe which paved the way for the more decorative Rococo style. During the 17th century, Baroque architecture spread through Europe and Latin America, michelangelos late Roman buildings, particularly St.
Peters Basilica, may be considered precursors to Baroque architecture. Colonialism required the development of centralized and powerful governments with Spain and France, the initial mismanagement of colonial wealth by the Spaniards bankrupted them in the 16th century, recovering only slowly in the following century. While this was good for the industries and the arts, the new wealth created an inflation. Rome was known just as much for its new sumptuous churches as for its vagabonds, one of the first Roman structures to break with the Mannerist conventions exemplified in the Gesù, was the church of Santa Susanna, designed by Carlo Maderno. The dynamic rhythm of columns and pilasters, central massing, there is an incipient playfulness with the rules of classic design, but it still maintains rigor. These concerns are more evident in his reworking of Santa Maria della Pace. Probably the most well known example of such an approach is Saint Peters Square, the piazza, designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, is formed principally by two colonnades of free standing columns centred on an Egyptian obelisk.
Berninis own favourite design was his church of SantAndrea al Quirinale decorated with polychome marbles. His secular architecture included the Palazzo Barberini based on plans by Maderno, Berninis rival, the architect Francesco Borromini, produced designs that deviated dramatically from the regular compositions of the ancient world and Renaissance. His building plans were based on geometric figures, his architectural forms were unusual and inventive. Borrominis architectural spaces seem to expand and contract when needed, showing some affinity with the style of Michelangelo. A work, the church of SantIvo alla Sapienza, displays the same playful inventiveness and antipathy to the flat surface, following the death of Bernini in 1680, Carlo Fontana emerged as the most influential architect working in Rome
Knuthenborg is a manor house located 6 km north of Maribo on the Danish island of Lolland. Originally known as Årsmarke, it was first mentioned in 1372, todays building was completed in 1866 to a design by Henrik Steffens Sibbern. The medieval manor of Årsmarke, with its more than 300 years of history, was once Denmarks largest private estate, the exotic shrubs and trees planted during the era of the Counts of Knuthenborg are situated on the grounds. The 2,000 acre estate is surrounded by beech forests, since 1969, Knuthenborg Safari Park has attracted large numbers of visitors who come to see some 40 species of exotic animals and birds as well as special attractions for children. First mentioned in 1372, Aarsmarke was owned by the Urne family from 1527, under King Frederick III, Cornelius Pederson Lerche was granted ownership of the estate in 1667. In 1677, his daughter Sister Lerche married the Mecklenberg nobleman Christoffer von Knuth who, on inheriting Aarsmarke, did much to improve it through extensions and increased prosperity.
In 1714, their son Adam Christoffer von Knuth was elevated to the status of a count under Frederick IV which resulted in the change of name of the estate to Knuthenborg, an older residence was still standing when the current structure was under construction. Todays manor house, known as Enkesædet, was built by the architect Henrik Steffens Sibbern in 1866 in the Victorian style and was extended in 1886, a tower of French design with a pointed spire crowns one of its corners. Several other interesting buildings on the estate were built by Sibbern in the 1860s and 1870s, egehuset in the Swiss style looks a little like a Tyrolean chalet. Flinterhuset, built literally in flint, is the most elaborate building with many fireplaces, the imposing Godsforvalterboligen is accessed through the corner tower. Sibbern built Maglemerporten, the main gatehouse and porters residence while Vilhelm Tvede added the gatehouses at Snapind. It was Eggert Knuth who called upon the English landscape architect Edward Milner to lay out the park in the late 1860s, during his travels to England, Knuth visited nurseries where he purchased rare trees and seeds which he sent back to his estate.
Nils Stenson was working as the Chief Landscape Gardener to the Count of Kunthenborg. His son, Herman Stenson, who was assisting his father as a boy and grew up in the estates Hunting pavilion, had made very lovely drawings of the Kunthenborg palace. Eggert Knuth died in 1870 at the age of 36. Many of the details from Milners original design were missing. Adam V. Knuth who succeeded Eggert added the fanciful ruin near the main entrance, in 1926, the park was the first of its kind to be listed. As a result it was opened to visitors and further developed, especially, in addition to beech, there are oak and coniferous trees, and a Sequoia gigantea
Bregentved is a manor house located 3 km east of Haslev on the Danish island of Zealand. It has been owned by the Moltke family since the middle of the 18th century, the first known reference to Bregentved is from 1319 when King Eric VI of Denmark passed the estate to Roskilde Abbey. From the end of the 14th century the property was owned by a succession of families, including that of Krognos in the 16th century. In the eighteenth century Bregentved was in consecutive Birks, so had separate legal jurisdiction from Haslev Sogn, the north wing still extant in the early 21st century was built 1731-36 by architect Lauritz de Thurah and has a black-tiled, hipped roof. It contains a chapel on the first floor, in 1746, King Frederick V granted the Bregentved estate to Adam Gottlob Moltke, one of his closest companions who was at the same time made lord chamberlain and a count. Over the next few years, Moltke adapted the two remaining wings with the assistance of the architects G. D. Anthon and Nicolai Eigtved.
Moltke commissioned Eigtved to build him a mansion in Copenhagen, the south-western of the four Amalienborg Palaces. At Bregentved, Moltke introduced several reforms to the management of the estate with inspiration from Holstein. As a replacement, Adam Wilhelm Moltke, who had just left office as the first Prime Minister under Denmarks new constitutional monarchy, after the harvests at Bregentved Manor and other family holdings, he would move his entire household to Copenhagen. In the 1880s, Count Frederik Christian Moltke decided to modernize the house and he demolished the two Eigtved wings and replaced them with two new wings which were completed in 1891 to the design of the architect Axel Berg. The main east wing and the wing of the present three-winged building date from Axel Bergs 1891 rebuilding. They are designed in the Neo-Rococo style and are topped by a Mansard roof in copper, the east wing has a three-bay risalit with pilasters and a triangular pediment, and a two-bay corner risilit at each end with segmental pediments.
The entrance tower dates from Bergs expansion, the north wing was built 1731-36 by Lauritz de Thurah and has a black-tiled, hipped roof. It contains a chapel on the first floor which has sculptor Johann Friedrich Hännel, in the 1760s, A. G. Moltke commissioned Nicolas-Henri Jardin to create a garden in the French formal garden style but it was adapted into a landscape garden in 1835. Some features have retained from Jardins garden, including avenues, and traces of a parterre surrounded by canals and a system of fountains. Some vases and Frederik Vs Obelisk by Johannes Wiedewelt date from this garden as does a copy of a statue by Giambologna, the garden features a statue of A. W. Moltke by Herman Wilhelm Bissen in 1858-59. Bregentved-Turebyholm covers 6,338 hectares of which just over half consist of agricultural land, a total of 163 houses belongs to the estate, including Turebylille, Holtegård, Eskilstrup, Rødehus, Sprettingegård, Storelinde Overdrevsgård, Ulsegård and Statafgård. The estate maintains a staff of 40 and has a turnover of approximately DKK60 million
Frederiksberg Palace is a Baroque residence, located in Frederiksberg, adjacent to the Copenhagen Zoo. It commands a view over Frederiksberg Gardens, originally designed as a palace garden in the Baroque style. Constructed and extended from 1699 to 1735, the served as the royal family’s summer residence until the mid-19th century. Since 1869, it has housed the Royal Danish Military Academy, as crown prince, Frederick IV had broadened his education by travelling in Europe. The original building, probably designed by Ernst Brandenburger, was completed in 1703 for Frederick IV as a small, one-storey summer residence. The first major extension, when it was converted into a three-storey H-shaped building, was completed in 1709 by Johan Conrad Ernst, giving the palace an Italian Baroque appearance. It was Lauritz de Thurah who executed the third and final extension from 1733 to 1738 when the palace received extensions to the lateral wings encircling the courtyard, Frederick IV spent many happy years at the palace.
Christian VII who was married to the English princess Caroline Matilda spent some time in the palace and their son, who was to become Frederick VI, loved the palace and lived there both as crown prince and as king. After Frederick VIs dowager wife Queen Marie died at the palace in March 1852, in 1868, it was transferred to the War Ministry and the following year it became the Officers Academy. The building has undergone significant restoration work, first from 1927 to 1932. During the construction of the palace building, it was decided that there should be a chapel in the east wing. This probably explains why there is no indication of the chapel from the outside and it actually covers the space behind the six central windows on the ground floor. Wilhelm Friedrich von Platen and Ernst Brandenburger designed the chapel in the Baroque style and it was inaugurated on 31 March 1710. When the palace was taken over by the Officers Academy, the chapels furnishings, they were returned in the 1930s and can still be seen there today.
The palace and the chapel can be visited and they contain imposing stucco work, ceiling paintings, an elegant marble bathroom with a secret access staircase, and the Princesses pancake kitchen. In 1854, British MP S. M. Peto gave a window to the King of Demark for the chapel. Since 1932, the chapel has been used as the parish church. The palace overlooks Frederiksberg Gardens which dates back to the first palace in 1703, from 1795 to 1804, it was redesigned by Peter Pedersen as an English landscape garden with the winding paths, lakes and canals which can be seen today