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Claustrophobia is the fear of confined spaces. It can be triggered by many situations or stimuli, including elevators crowded to capacity, windowless rooms, hotel rooms with closed doors and sealed windows. Bedrooms with a lock on the outside, small cars, tight-necked clothing can induce a response in those with claustrophobia, it is classified as an anxiety disorder, which results in panic attacks. The onset of claustrophobia has been attributed to many factors, including a reduction in the size of the amygdala, classical conditioning, or a genetic predisposition to fear small spaces. One study indicates that anywhere from 5-10% of the world population is affected by severe claustrophobia, but only a small percentage of these people receive some kind of treatment for the disorder; the term claustrophobia comes from Latin claustrum "a shut in place" and Greek φόβος, phóbos, "fear". Claustrophobia is classified as an anxiety disorder. Symptoms develop during childhood or adolescence. Claustrophobia is thought to have two key symptoms: fear of restriction and fear of suffocation.

A typical claustrophobe will fear restriction in at least one, if not several, of the following areas: small rooms, locked rooms, MRI or CAT scan apparatus, buses, trains, underwater caves, cellars and caves. Additionally, the fear of restriction can cause some claustrophobes to fear trivial matters such as sitting in a barber's chair or waiting in a queue at a shop out of a fear of confinement to a single space. Another possible site for claustrophobic attacks is a dentist's chair during dental surgery. Being enclosed or thinking about being enclosed a confined space can trigger fears of not being able to breathe properly, running out of oxygen, anxiety of being restricted, it is not always the small space that triggers these emotions, but it's moreso the fear of the possibilities of what could happen while confined to that area. When anxiety levels start to reach a certain level, the person may start to experience: sweating and/or chills accelerated heart rate and a rise in blood pressure dizziness, fainting spells and frozen in fear dry mouth hyperventilation hot flashes shaking or trembling and a sense of "butterflies" in the stomach nausea headache numbness a choking sensation tightness in the chest/chest pain and difficulty breathing an urge to use the bathroom confusion or disorientation fear of harm or illness The fears of enclosed spaces is an irrational fear.

Most claustrophobic people who find themselves in a room without windows consciously know that they aren't in danger, yet these same people will be afraid terrified to the point of incapacitation, many do not know why. The amygdala is one of the smallest structures in the brain, but one of the most powerful; the amygdala is needed for the creation of a fight-or-flight response. A fight-or-flight response is created. Cheng believes. In generating a fight-or-flight response, the amygdala acts in the following way: The amygdala's anterior nuclei associated with fear each other. Nuclei send out impulses to other nuclei, which influence respiratory rate, physical arousal, the release of adrenaline, blood pressure, heart rate, behavioral fear response, defensive responses, which may include freezing up; these reactions constitute an'autonomic failure' in a panic attack. A study done by Fumi Hayano found that the right amygdala was smaller in patients who suffered from panic disorders; the reduction of size occurred in a structure known as the corticomedial nuclear group which the CE nucleus belongs to.

This causes interference, which in turn causes abnormal reactions to aversive stimuli in those with panic disorders. In claustrophobic people, this translates as panicking or overreacting to a situation in which the person finds themselves physically confined. Claustrophobia results, it comes as a consequence of a traumatic childhood experience, although the onset can come at any point in an individual's life. Such an experience can occur multiple times, or only once, to make a permanent impression on the mind; the majority of claustrophobic participants in an experiment done by Lars-Göran Öst reported that their phobia had been "acquired as a result of a conditioning experience." In most cases, claustrophobia seems to be the result of past experiences. A few examples of common experiences that could result in the onset of claustrophobia in children are as follows: A child is shut into a pitch-black room and cannot find the door or the light-switch. A child gets shut into a box. A child is locked in a closet.

A child can not swim. A child gets lost. A child sticks their head between the bars of a fence and cannot get back out. A child gets stuck, or can not find their way back. A child is left in truck, or van. A child is in a crowded area with no windows and has run-ins with other people, or is put there as a means of punishment; the term'past experiences', according to one author, can extend to the moment of birth. In John A. Speyrer's "Claustrophobia and the Fear of Death and Dying", the reader is brought to the conclusion that claustrophobia's high frequency is due to birth trauma, about which he says is "one of the most horrendous experiences we can have during our lifetime," and it is in this helpless moment that the infant develops

2015 Chempaka by-election

A by-election was held for the Kelantan State Assembly seat of Chempaka on 22 March 2015 following the nomination day on 10 March 2015. The seat fell vacant after the death of the incumbent five-term assemblyman and former Menteri Besar of Kelantan, Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat from prostate cancer in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan on 12 February 2015. Niz Aziz was a member of part of the Pakatan Rakyat coalition. Nik Abdul Aziz had retained the seat in the 13th General Election in 2013 by beating Wan Razman Wan Abd Razak of the Barisan Nasional with a majority of 6,500 votes; the Chempaka by-election saw a five-way battle between PAS's Ahmad Fathan Mahmood and independent candidates Izat Bukhary Ismail Bukhary, Fadzillah Hussin, Aslah Mamat and Sharif Mahmood. Sharif Mahmood is the vice-president of Malay rights group Perkasa and a member of the United Malays National Organisation, he and Fadzillah Hussin were sacked by UMNO for contesting in the Chempaka by-election. UMNO had resolved not to contest the election, ostensibly to focus on flood relief efforts in Kelantan.

PAS candidate Ahmad Fathan Mahmood won the election with a landslide garnering 96.4% of the votes. All four independent candidates lost their election deposits for failing to garner 10% of the votes

Neptune's Navy

Neptune's Navy is the name that the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society uses to refer to the ships it operates. Most of these vessels are used to disrupt or hinder fishing, whaling or sealing operations that the group considers illegal; the group has operated a number of vessels. The Ocean Warrior renamed the RV Farley Mowat was purchased in 1996 but seized by the Canadian government in April 2008. Due to the age of the vessel, the Society has decided not to pursue any avenue of reacquiring it. Paul Watson in fact stated that they had intentionally utilised a vessel that had become too old for Sea Shepherd to keep in action further. In June 2009 Sea Shepherd announced that the trimaran Earthrace renamed Ady Gil, would accompany its 2009–10 operations against Japanese whaling in the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary. Pete Bethune, the operator of the vessel, said that an agreement was reached with Sea Shepherd for the boat to adopt a support role. On October 17, 2009, the Earthrace was presented to the media with a new black paint job, renamed Ady Gil, after the name of a major sponsor.

On January 6, 2010 the vessel was badly damaged in a collision at sea with the Japanese vessel Shōnan Maru 2. The Ady Gil sank on January 8 while she was being towed towards the French Dumont d'Urville Station in Antarctica after it filled with water and became too heavy to tow; the financial loss was estimated at about $1.5 million. The Steve Irwin was obtained in 2006 and called the Robert Hunter, it was renamed in honor of Australian Steve Irwin. Terri Irwin, his widow, gave her support to Sea Shepherd, saying, "Whales have always been in Steve's heart and in 2006 he was investigating the possibility of joining the Sea Shepherd on part of its journey to defend these beautiful animals." Sea Shepherd operated the MY Steve Irwin until December 2018. Because of high maintenance cost and the ship's age the vessel was decommissioned and retired from the Sea Shepherd Fleet, it will be stripped for parts with most being transferred to the MY Ocean Warrior. As of 2018, the conservation society operates twelve ships, the MV Brigitte Bardot, the MY Bob Barker, the MY Sam Simon, the RV Martin Sheen, the MY Jairo Mora Sandoval, a new MY Farley Mowat, the MV John Paul DeJoria, the MY Ocean Warrior, the MV Sharpie, the MV Emanuel Bronner, MY Alchemy, the MV White Holly.

The 1200-tonne Bob Barker, was named after famous television game-show host and animal activist Bob Barker, who made the purchase of the retired Norwegian whaling vessel possible with a donation of US$5 million. This ship and the Irwin were both given new dazzle paint jobs in 2011, they are easier to tell apart now since the Irwin has a 77 painted on its bow while the Bob Barker has a sharks mouth design on its bow. Sea Shepherd acquired the Ocean 7 Adventurer for its 2011 campaign against Japanese whaling in the Antarctic, renaming it MV Gojira. After a legal claim, Sea Shepherd have renamed the MV Gojira and the vessel is now known as MV Brigitte Bardot. On December 29, 2011 the vessel was damaged by a 6 m rogue wave whilst pursuing the Japanese whaling fleet during Operation Divine Wind off the western coast of Australia; the main hull was cracked and the port side pontoon needed to be held together by straps. In response to this incident and new tactics employed by the Japanese whaling fleet, Paul Watson has stated that he intends to procure more vessels to prevent themselves being outnumbered and shorthanded in future engagements.

To this end, Sea Shepherd acquired the 56 m long MY Sam Simon in June 2012, the vessel being named after the co-creator of The Simpsons who made a sizable donation to finance the vessel's purchase. Sam Simon was operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency at the Maizuru Marine Laboratory under the name Seifu Maru. In January 2015, Sea Shepherd USA purchased two decommissioned U. S. Coast Guard patrol vessels, they are faster than the other ships, with a top speed of 30 knots. These two ships are both 110-foot Island-class patrol boats and are named MY John Paul DeJoria, MY Farley Mowat. In December 2017, Sea Shepherd unveiled a third U. S. Coast Guard patrol vessel, the MV Sharpie; this vessel is identical to the John Paul DeJoria. On January 26, 2015, at the annual Goed Geld Gala in Amsterdam, Sea Shepherd received a donation of €8.3 million to purchase a new vessel for Sea Shepherd's submitted dream project "Stop Illegal Fishing in the Southern Ocean". The vessel was built with a final cost of $12 million.

This custom-built ship is a Damen Stan patrol vessel 9 m wide. It was christened MY Ocean Warrior and it was launched in September 2016; the Ocean Warrior is the current flagship, it has four engines capable of a maximum speed of 30 knots, so it can outrun any ship in Japan's whaling fleet. Its maiden voyage was to be part of the 2016-2017 Operation Nemesis in the Southern Ocean; the group has operated smaller boats in its campaigns including jet skis, Delta RHIB and Zodiac inflatables deployed off of the larger vessels. In 1999 Sea Shepherd obtained a small personal submarine in hopes of using it against tribal whalers; the sub was never functional and Sea Shepherd decided to sell it instead for an undisclosed price. In addition to their maritime assets, Sea Shepherd operates several types of aircraft from their ships; the aircraft are used to conduct fo

Tumbuka language

The Tumbuka language is a Bantu language, spoken in the Northern Region of Malawi and in the Lundazi district of Zambia. It is known as Chitumbuka or Citumbuka — the chi- prefix in front of Tumbuka means "the language of the", is understood in this case to mean "the language of". Tumbuka belongs to the same language group as Sena; the World Almanac estimates that there are 2,000,000 Tumbuka speakers, though other sources estimate a much smaller number. The majority of Tumbuka speakers are said to live in Malawi. Tumbuka is the most spoken of the languages of Northern Malawi in the Rumphi and Mzimba districts. There are substantial differences between the form of Tumbuka spoken in urban areas of Malawi and the "village" or "deep" Tumbuka spoken in villages; the Rumphi variant is regarded as the most "linguistically pure", is sometimes called "real Tumbuka". The Mzimba dialect has been influenced by Zulu so far as to have clicks in words like chitha "urinate", which do not occur in other dialects.

The Tumbuka language suffered during the rule of President Hastings Kamuzu Banda, since in 1968 as a result of his one-nation, one-language policy it lost its status as an official language in Malawi. As a result, Tumbuka was removed from the school curriculum, the national radio, the print media. With the advent of multi-party democracy in 1994, Tumbuka programmes were started again on the radio, but the number of books and other publications in Tumbuka remains low. Two systems of writing Tumbuka are in use: the traditional spelling, in which words such as banthu'people' and chaka'year' are written with'b' and'ch', the new official spelling, in which the same words are written with'ŵ' and'c', e.g. ŵanthu and caka. There is some uncertainty over where to write'r' and where'l', e.g. cakulya or cakurya'food'. There is hesitation between the spellings'sk' and'sy'; the same vowels /a/, /ɛ/, /i/, /ɔ/, /u/ and syllabic /m̩/ are found in Tumbuka as in the neighbouring language Chewa. Tumbuka consonants are similar to those of the neighbouring Chewa, but with certain differences.

The continuant sounds /ɣ/, /β/ and /h/, which are absent or marginal in Chewa, are common in Tumbuka. Common are the palatalised sounds /vʲ/, /fʲ/, /bʲ/, /pʲ/, /skʲ/, /zgʲ/, /ɽʲ/. In Tumbuka there are no affricates such as Chichewa /psʲ/, /bzʲ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/; the sounds /s/ and /z/ are never nasalised in Tumbuka, so that Chewa nsómba = Tumbuka somba. The sound / ʃ / is found only in foreign words such as shuga. Tumbuka /ɽ/ sometimes corresponds to Chewa /d/, for example Chewa kudwala'to be ill' = Tumbuka kulwala, Chewa kudya'to eat' = Tumbuka kulya; the pronunciation of "sk" and "zg" varies according to dialect. Tumbuka consonants are either palatalised or rounded Some of them can be preceded by a homorganic nasal; the possible consonant combinations are shown in the table below: One of the main differences between Chewa and Tumbuka is that Chewa is a tonal language, whereas in Tumbuka there are no distinctions of tone between one word and another. Tumbuka has a tonal accent but in a limited way, in that every word, spoken in isolation, has the same falling tone on the penultimate syllable.

It is therefore not possible in Tumbuka to contrast two different words or two different tenses tonally, as it is in Chichewa and other Bantu languages. However, this penultimate falling tone occurs not on every word, but only on the last word of a phonological phrase. Intonational tones are used in Tumbuka; as is usual with Bantu languages, Tumbuka nouns are grouped into different noun classes according to their singular and plural prefixes. Each class of noun has its own adjective and verb agreements, known as'concords'. Where the agreements disagree with the prefix, the agreements take precedence in deciding the class of noun. For example, the noun katundu'possessions', despite having the prefix ka-, is placed in class 1, since one says katundu uyu'these possessions' using the class 1 demonstrative uyu. Malawians themselves refer to the noun classes by traditional names such as "Mu-Ŵa-". Nouns do not correspond to the classes below, e.g. fumu'chief' irregularly has a plural mafumu in class 6.

Class 1/2

Dan Smoot

Howard Smoot, known as Dan Smoot, was a Federal Bureau of Investigation agent and a conservative political activist. From 1957 to 1971, he published The Dan Smoot Report, which chronicled alleged communist infiltration in various sectors of American government and society. Smoot was born into poverty in a log cabin in Mississippi County in southeastern Missouri, to Bernie Smoot, a sharecropper, Dora Smoot, née Allbright; as a six-year-old, he hoed cotton. He cultivated corn with a one-mule plow at the age of eight, he had a sister, Virginia Ruth, a brother, who predeceased him. Despite the lack of material resources, Bernie Smoot taught young Dan; when he was orphaned at eleven, Dan was sent to live with an uncle. He ran away from the uncle's home at the age of fourteen with a dime in his pocket but determined to make a life of his own. At the age of twenty, Smoot married Betty Evans, his 16-year-old childhood sweetheart, who became the mother of his two sons and Larry. Divorced, he married his secretary, Virginia McKnight who preceded him in death by some seven years.

Relocated to Dallas, Smoot graduated from high school and attended Southern Methodist University and Harvard University in Cambridge, from which he dropped out prior to receiving a PhD in American Civilization to enter the United States Army after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. However, the Army rejected Smoot for flat feet. Smoot instead became an FBI agent, a position he held until 1951, when he resigned for what he cited as professional reasons: namely, the desire to go into the field of political pamphleteering and commentary. Rather than accept assignment to the Savannah, Georgia office, Smoot resigned because he wanted to rear his family in the Dallas area. Smoot said that several fellow agents had complained to him about the supervisor's management decisions. Smoot said. According to Smoot, the colleagues would not back up what they had told Smoot; the supervisor hence believed. After Smoot left the FBI, he became a commentator and began producing Facts Forum newsletters in conjunction with Dallas oil billionaire H. L. Hunt.

His salary doubled with his new assignment. From 1953 to 1954, Facts Forum was the source for the ABC public affairs television series, Answers for Americans. In 1954, Medford Evans, a conservative critic of American Cold War policies and a college professor, dismissed in 1959 amid a controversy at Northwestern State University in Natchitoches, was described as "News Editor" and "Editor" of Facts Forum News. Mary Helen Brengel was identified as an "Associate Editor", she worked for the Independent American, the conservative newspaper of Kent Courtney, his wife, Phoebe Courtney. Smoot dismissed Evans from Facts Forum for "financial irregularities". On November 15, 1956, Hunt withdrew his subsidy to the monthly Facts Forum News because the publication was not financially self-sustaining. Thereafter, Smoot published his weekly syndicated The Dan Smoot Report, he carried his conservative message via weekly reports over radio. The Dan Smoot Report started with 3,000 paid subscribers; each newsletter focused on one major story.

One issue, for instance, was devoted to the Alaska Mental Health Bill of 1956, which Smoot claimed was a communist conspiracy to establish concentration camps on American soil. Another issue lionized Douglas MacArthur after his death in the spring of 1964. A subsequent 1964 issue opposed a proposal by U. S. President Lyndon B. Johnson to transfer sovereignty of the Panama Canal to the Republic of Panama. Johnson failed in his attempt, but President Jimmy Carter in 1978, with bipartisan U. S. Senate support led by Moderate Republican Howard Baker of Tennessee, prevailed by a one-vote margin to extend control of the Canal Zone to Panama, it was Moderate Republican support for many Democratic proposals that angered Smoot, who gave up on the national Republican Party as a viable alternative to the majority Democrats of his day. In 1962, Smoot wrote The Invisible Government concerning early members of the Council on Foreign Relations. Other books include The Hope of the World. Additionally he was associated with Robert W. Welch, Jr.'s John Birch Society and wrote for the society's American Opinion bi-monthly magazine.

In 2000, Conservative activist Peter Gemma wrote a biographical sketch of Smoot in The New American. Gemma recounts that Smoot, among his other aberrant positions, challenged Barry Goldwater during the 1964 presidential campaign for the nominee's embrace of NATO, which Smoot called a globalist organization of questionable value. In 1970, Smoot opposed the selection of a future U. S. President, George Herbert Walker Bush, as the Republican nominee for the United States Senate from Texas, he claimed that Bush's political philosophy was little different from the Democrats that he sought to oppose. Bush lost the Senate election that year to Lloyd M. Bentsen of McAllen. Oddly, eighteen years Bush would head the Republican presidential ticket, Bentsen would be the unsuccessful Democratic nominee for vice president. Smoot was a victim of the Federal Communications Commission's Fairness Doctrine which prior to 1987 mandated "equal time" for opposing sides in political debate; as Smoot's critics demanded equal time to reply to his broadcasts, station after station dropped The Dan Smoot Report.

His last broadcast was issued on Mar

Punctuated snake-eel

The Punctuated snake-eel is an eel in the family Ophichthidae. It was described by Achille Valenciennes in 1837 under the genus Ophisurus, it is a marine, subtropical eel, known from the eastern central and southeastern Pacific Ocean, including Nicaragua, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador and Panama. It dwells at a depth range of 15 to 277 metres, inhabits sand and mud sediments. Males can reach a maximum total length of 85 centimetres, but more reach a TL of 60 centimetres; the species epithet "remniger" refers to Port Rame, in Chile. The Punctuated snake-eel's diet consists of fish and invertebrates, it is of commercial interest to Peruvian fisheries. Due to its wide distribution, lack of known major threats, lack of observed population decline, the IUCN redlist lists the Punctuated snake-eel as Least Concern