Elective Affinities translated under the title Kindred by Choice, is the third novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, published in 1809. The title is taken from a scientific term once used to describe the tendency of chemical species to combine with certain substances or species in preference to others; the novel is based on the metaphor of human passions being governed or regulated by the laws of chemical affinity, examines whether or not the science and laws of chemistry undermine or uphold the institution of marriage, as well as other human social relations. The book is situated around the city of Weimar. Goethe's main characters are Eduard and Charlotte, an aristocratic couple both in their second marriage, enjoying an idyllic but semi-dull life on the grounds of their rural estate, they invite the Captain, Eduard's childhood friend, Ottilie, the beautiful, coming-of-age niece of Charlotte, to live with them. The decision to invite Ottilie and the Captain is described as an "experiment" and this is what it is.
The house and its surrounding gardens are described as "a chemical retort in which the human elements are brought together for the reader to observe the resulting reaction." Elective Affinities is supposed to be the first work to model human relationships as chemical reactions or chemical processes since the aphorism of the classical Greek philosopher Empedocles: "people who love each other mix like water and wine. In the late 19th century, German sociologist Max Weber, who had read the works of Goethe at the age of 14, used Goethe's conception of human "elective affinities" to formulate a large part of sociology. In early nineteenth century chemistry, the phrase "elective affinities" or chemical affinities was used to describe compounds that only interacted with each other under select circumstances. Goethe used this as an organizing metaphor for marriage, for the conflict between responsibility and passion. In the book, people are described as chemical species whose amorous affairs and relationships were pre-determined via chemical affinities similar to the pairings of alchemical species.
Goethe outlined the view that passion, marriage and free will are all subject to the laws of chemistry and in which the lives of human species are regulated no differently from the lives of chemical species. Opinions over the years have been split as to. In the novella, the central chemical reaction that takes place is a double displacement reaction, between a married couple Eduard and Charlotte, at the end of their first year of marriage, their two good friends the Captain and Ottilie, respectively; the first marriages, for both Eduard and Charlotte, are described as having been marriages of financial convenience arranged marriages. When they were younger, Eduard was married off to a rich older woman through the workings and insatiable greed of his father. In the fourth chapter, the characters detail the world's first verbally-depicted human double displacement chemical reaction; the chapter begins with description of ` topographical chart' as Goethe calls it. On this reaction map, we are told that on it'the features of the estate and its surroundings were depicted, on quite a large scale, in pen and in different colors, to which the Captain had give a firm basis by taking trigonometrical measurements'.
Next, to explain the reaction, we are told:'provided it does not seem pedantic,' the Captain said,'I think I can sum up in the language of signs. Imagine an A intimately united with a B, so that no force is able to sunder them; this is shown below:AB + CD → AD + BC'Now then!' Eduard interposed:'until we see all this with our own eyes, let us look on this formula as a metaphor from which we may extract a lesson we can apply to ourselves. You, represent the A, I represent your B; the C is quite the Captain, who for the moment is to some extent drawing me away from you. Now it is only fair that, if you are not to vanish into the limitless air, you must be provided with a D, this D is unquestionably the charming little lady Ottilie, whose approaching presence you may no longer resist.' In her 2001 book Goethe's Elective Affinities and the Critics, she writes: This essay by Walter Benjamin, written around 1920-21, was described by Austrian critic Hugo von Hoffmannsthal, as "absolutely incomparable".
It is renowned as an exemplary instance of Benjamin subjecting his literary subject matter to a process of intensive dialectical mediation. In the essay, which attacks Goethe's prose style and intentions, Benjamin argues for the possibility of the transcendence of mythic thinking in favour of the possibility of an as yet unencountered "freedom". Benjamin locates this experience in art, which is, according to him, alone able, through mediation, to transcend the powers of myth. A 1974 East German film with the same title was directed by Siegfried Kühn for the DEFA film studio. Francis Ford Coppola, in the grip of clinica
The Goethe-Institut is a non-profit German cultural association operational worldwide with 159 institutes, promoting the study of the German language abroad and encouraging international cultural exchange and relations. Around 246,000 people take part in these German courses per year; the Goethe-Institut fosters knowledge about Germany by providing information on German culture and politics. This includes the exchange of films, music and literature. Goethe cultural societies, reading rooms, exam and language centers have played a role in the cultural and educational policies of Germany for more than 60 years, it is named after statesman Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. The Goethe-Institut e. V. is autonomous and politically independent. Partners of the institute and its centers are public and private cultural institutions, the federal states, local authorities and the world of commerce. Much of the Goethe-Institut's overall budget consists of yearly grants from the German Foreign Office and the German Press Office.
The relationship with the Foreign Office is governed by general agreement. Self-generated income and contributions from sponsors and patrons and friends broaden the scope of the work of the Goethe-Institut. 1951: The Goethe-Institut was founded as successor to the German Academy, founded in 1925. Its first task was to provide further training for foreign German teachers in Germany. 1952: The first Goethe-Institut opens in Athens. 1953: The first language courses run by the Goethe-Institut began in Bad Reichenhall. Due to growing demand, new centres of learning were opened in Murnau and Kochel, the focus of selection being on towns which were small and idyllic and which showed post-war Germany at its best. Lessons were taught from the first textbook developed by the Goethe-Institut, the now legendary "Schulz-Griesbach". 1953–55: The first foreign lectureships of what was the German Academy were taken on by the Goethe-Institut. Responsibilities include German tuition, teacher training and providing a program of cultural events to accompany courses.
1959–60: On the initiative of the head of the arts sector of the Foreign Office, Dieter Sattler, the Goethe-Institut took over all of the German cultural institutes abroad. 1968: Influenced by the student revolts of the late 1960s the Goethe-Institut readjusted its program of cultural events to include socio-political topics and avant-garde art. 1970: Acting on behalf of the Foreign Office, Ralf Dahrendorf developed his "guiding principles for foreign cultural policy". Cultural work involving dialog and partnership was declared the third pillar of German foreign policy. During the Willy Brandt era, the concept of "extended culture" formed the basis of activities at the Goethe-Institut. 1976: The Foreign Office and the Goethe-Institut signed a general agreement governing the status of the Goethe-Institut, henceforth an independent cultural organization. 1980: A new concept regarding the location of institutes within Germany was drawn up. Places of instruction in small towns in Bavaria, were replaced by institutes in cities and university towns.
1989/90: The fall of the Berlin Wall marked a turning point for the Goethe-Institut. Its activities in the 1990s were centred on Eastern Europe. Numerous new institutes were set up as a result. 2001: The Goethe-Institut merges with Inter Nationes. 2004: The Goethe-Institut established the first Western information centre in Pyongyang, North Korea. The Goethe-Institut Inter Nationes reverted to its original and official name, Goethe-Institut. 2005: The Goethe-Institut was honored with the Prince-of-Asturias Prize of Spain. 2007: For the first time in more than ten years, the German parliament increased the funds of the Goethe-Institut. 2010: Bruno Bozzetto created a new Goethe-Institut film named "Va Bene". 2014: A Myanmar Goethe-Institut opens The Goethe-Institut is financed by the national government of Germany, has around 1,000 employees and an overall budget of 366 million euros at its disposal, more than half of, generated from language course tuition and examination fees. The Goethe-Institut offers scholarships, including tuition waiver, to students from foreign countries, who want to become teachers of German.
One of the selection criteria for these scholarships is financial need. The Goethe-Institut has its headquarters in Munich, its president is the General Secretary Johannes Ebert. In Ghana and Cameroon, the Goethe-Institut opens its first African branches in 1961. In Bangladesh, the Goethe-Institut opened at Gladstone House, 80 Motijheel Commercial Area in Dhaka in 1961; the Goethe-Institut Dhaka was relocated into its present premises in Dhanmondi in 1967. In Lebanon, the Goethe-Institut operates in Rue Gemmayze, facing Collège du Sacré Cœur, with a remarkable number of students. In Iran, the Goethe-Institut opened in Tehran in 1958, but was forced to close in 1981 in a diplomatic row between the host country and Germany. In Pakistan, Goethe-Institut has two branches; the Goethe-Institut Karachi is located at Brunton Road, Civil Lines, near the Chief Minister's Residence. It is located in an old bungalow; the Lahore chapter of the Goethe-Institut is named "Annemarie Schimmel Haus", in honour of the well-known German Orientalist and scholar, who wrote extensively on Islam and Sufism.
The Instituts in India are calle
Canary Islanders, or Canarians, are the inhabitants and/or ethnic group originating in the Canary Islands, an autonomous community of Spain near the coast of northwest Africa. The distinctive variety of the Spanish language spoken in the region is known as habla canaria or the canario; the Canarians, their descendants, played a major role during the conquest and eventual independence movements of various countries in Latin America. Their racial and cultural presence is most palpable in the countries of Uruguay, Cuba, Dominican Republic, United States territory of Puerto Rico; the original inhabitants of the Canary Islands are known as Guanches. They are believed to be either Berbers in origin or a related group; the islands were conquered by Normans and Castilians at the beginning of the 15th century. In 1402, they began to suppress the native Guanche population; the Guanches were enslaved and absorbed by the Spanish colonizers. After subsequent settlement by Spaniards and other European peoples Portuguese, the remaining Guanches were diluted by the settlers and their culture vanished.
Alonso Fernández de Lugo, conqueror of Tenerife and La Palma, oversaw extensive immigration to these islands during a short period from the late 1490s to the 1520s from mainland Europe, immigrants included Galicians, Portuguese, Catalans and Flemings. At subsequent judicial enquiries, Fernández de Lugo was accused of favoring Genoese and Portuguese immigrants over Castilians. Modern-day Canarian culture is Spanish with some Portugueses roots; some of the Canarian traditional sports such as lucha canaria, juego del palo or salto del pastor, among others, have their roots in Guanche culture. Additionally, other traditions include Canarian pottery, words of Guanche origin in the Canarian speech and the rural consumption of guarapo gomero and gofio; the portuguese heritage is noteworthy, in family names and in the Canarian dialect, a phenomenon again, more pronounced and frequent on certain islands. Moreover, many elements in traditional architecture and folklore show clear links to the Portuguese and other Macaronesian islanders.
The strong influence of Latin America in Canarian culture is due to the constant emigration and return over the centuries of Canarians to that continent, chiefly to Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, coastal Venezuela and Colombia. To a lesser extent, they went to the US states of Louisiana and Texas, some areas in eastern Mexico including Nuevo León and Veracruz; the inhabitants of the Canary Islands hold a gene pool, of predominant Iberian ancestry, with some Berber extract. Guanche genetic markers have been found in Puerto Rico and, at low frequencies, in peninsular Spain after emigration from the Canary Islands; the most frequent mtDNA haplogroup in Canary Islands is H, followed by U6, T, not-U6 U and J. Two haplogroups, H and U6, alone account for more than 50% of the individuals. Significant frequencies of sub-Saharan L haplogroups is consistent with the historical records on introduction of sub-Saharan slave labour in Canary Islands. However, some Sub-Saharan lineages are found in North African populations, as a result, some of these L lineages could have been introduced to the Islands from North Africa.
A 2009 study of DNA extracted from the remains of aboriginal inhabitants found that 7% of lineages were haplogroup L, which leaves open the possibility that these L lineages were part of the founding population of the Canary Islands.. A 2003 genetics research article by Nicole Maca-Meyer et al. published in the European Journal of Human Genetics compared aboriginal Guanche mtDNA to that of today's Canarians and concluded that "despite the continuous changes suffered by the population, aboriginal mtDNA lineages constitute a considerable proportion of the Canarian gene pool". According to this article, both porcentages are obteined using two different estimation methods. Although the Berbers are the most probable ancestors of the Guanches, it is deduced that important human movements have reshaped Northwest Africa after the migratory wave to the Canary Islands and the "results support, from a maternal perspective, the supposition that since the end of the 16th century, at least, two-thirds of the Canarian population had an indigenous substrate, as was inferred from historical and anthropological data."
MtDNA haplogroup U subclade U6b1 is Canarian-specific and is the most common mtDNA haplogroup found in aboriginal Guanche archaeological burial sites. Y-DNA, or Y-chromosomal, lineages were not analysed in this study. Regardless
Dichtung und Wahrheit
Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit is an autobiography by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe that comprises the time from the poet's childhood to the days in 1775, when he was about to leave for Weimar. The book is divided into four parts, the first three of which were written and published between 1811–14, while the fourth was written in 1830-31 and published in 1833; each part contains five books. The whole covers the first 26 years of its author's life. Goethe held that “the most important period of an individual is that of his development.” Goethe dictated schemes and drafts for Dichtung und Wahrheit, after he had finished his Theory of Colours, in summer 1810 in Carlsbad. He first worked on the autobiography in parallel to his work on Wilhelm Meister's Journeyman Years. Goethe asked Bettina von Arnim to send him the notes that she had written down about his youth on the basis of meetings she had had with his mother out of a related interest; when Bettina had complied with this wish, the poet used her notes for a depiction of his mother, Aristeia der Mutter, which he did not include in the autobiography.
He asked Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich von Trebra, Karl Ludwig von Knebel, Johann Friedrich Heinrich Schlosser for help. Goethe wrote Dichtung und Wahrheit from the point of view of the scientist, the historian and the artist; as a scientist, he wished to picture his life as developing stage by stage “according to those laws which we observe in the metamorphosis of the plants.” As a historian, he portrayed the general conditions of the times and revealed the relations between them and the individual. As an artist, he did not feel bound to facts for their own sake, but selected those that were of significance and moulded them so that they might become parts of a work of art; as far as art is concerned, the word Dichtung is deliberately ambiguous, indicating that the author has systematically selected those events which he considered it desirable to mention. Goethe created a fictitional image of some figures and events, including Friederike Brion for example, which are more vivid than any attempt at faithful description could have been.
Germanists have doubted that the figure of Gretchen, who first appears as a barmaid existed at all, although she reappears as Margarete called Gretchen, the central female character in Goethe's drama Faust. The material in the first three parts is distributed in such a way that Goethe's childhood is narrated from book one to the middle of book six, the account of his student days begins with the latter half of the sixth book and continues through the 11th book, books 12-15 are given to the consideration of his early manhood, when his first great successes as an author were realized. In spite of important experiences, part four does not open a new phase in Goethe's development, but it does bring the outer course of his life to its most decisive turning point — his departure from Weimar. Goethe depicts his happy childhood in Frankfurt, his relationship with his sister Cornelia, his infatuation with Gretchen. Gretchen is described as "unbelievably beautiful", but Goethe mentions that she had appeared superficial to him, when he heard she had referred to him as to a child, in the course of criminal investigations.
Goethe moreover depicts his love-affairs with Anna Katharina Schönkopf during his time as a student in Leipzig, with Friederike Brion during his time in Strasburg, with the Frankfurt banker's daughter Lili Schönemann. Dichtung und Wahrheit mirrors Goethe's development as a poet and expounds the changes in the author's thinking that were brought about by the Seven Years' War and the French occupation, while other experiences throughout are presented and colored. Not least, this autobiography contains the coinage of the Latin expression nemo contra Deum nisi Deus ipse, that had so much resonance in theology and philosophy, atheistic but not only. Autobiography: Truth and Fiction Relating to My Life at Project Gutenberg, books 1–9 The Autobiography of Johann Goethe: Truth and Poetry from my own Life archive.org, books 1–13 The Autobiography of Johann Goethe: Truth and Poetry from my own Life archive.org, books 10–20 Memoirs of Goethe: written by himself Printed for Henry Colburn 1824 The Autobiography of Johann Goethe: Truth and Poetry from my own Life Librivox free audio, books 1–9 The Autobiography of Johann Goethe: Truth and Poetry from my own Life Librivox free audio, books 10–13 First printing
Theory of Colours
Theory of Colours is a book by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe about the poet's views on the nature of colours and how these are perceived by humans. It was published in German in 1810 and in English in 1840; the book contains detailed descriptions of phenomena such as coloured shadows and chromatic aberration. The work originated in Goethe's occupation with painting and exerted an influence on the arts; the book is a successor to two short essays entitled "Contributions to Optics". Although Goethe's work was rejected by physicists, a number of philosophers and physicists have concerned themselves with it, including Thomas Johann Seebeck, Arthur Schopenhauer, Hermann von Helmholtz, Rudolf Steiner, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Werner Heisenberg, Kurt Gödel, Mitchell Feigenbaum. Goethe's book provides a catalogue of how colour is perceived in a wide variety of circumstances, considers Isaac Newton's observations to be special cases. Unlike Newton, Goethe's concern was not so much with the analytic treatment of colour, as with the qualities of how phenomena are perceived.
Philosophers have come to understand the distinction between the optical spectrum, as observed by Newton, the phenomenon of human colour perception as presented by Goethe—a subject analyzed at length by Wittgenstein in his comments on Goethe's theory in Remarks on Colour. At Goethe's time, it was acknowledged that, as Isaac Newton had shown in his Opticks in 1704, colourless light is split up into its component colours when directed through a prism. Along with the rest of the world I was convinced, but how I was astonished, as I looked at a white wall through the prism, that it stayed white! That only where it came upon some darkened area, it showed some colour at last, around the window sill all the colours shone... It didn't take long before I knew here was something significant about colour to be brought forth, I spoke as through an instinct out loud, that the Newtonian teachings were false. Goethe's starting point was the supposed discovery of how Newton erred in the prismatic experiment, by 1793 Goethe had formulated his arguments against Newton in the essay "Über Newtons Hypothese der diversen Refrangibilität".
Yet, by 1794, Goethe had begun to note the importance of the physiological aspect of colours. As Goethe notes in the historical section, Louis Bertrand Castel had published a criticism of Newton's spectral description of prismatic colour in 1740 in which he observed that the sequence of colours split by a prism depended on the distance from the prism—and that Newton was looking at a special case."Whereas Newton observed the colour spectrum cast on a wall at a fixed distance away from the prism, Goethe observed the cast spectrum on a white card, progressively moved away from the prism... As the card was moved away, the projected image elongated assuming an elliptical shape, the coloured images became larger merging at the centre to produce green. Moving the card farther led to the increase in the size of the image, until the spectrum described by Newton in the Opticks was produced... The image cast by the refracted beam was not fixed, but rather developed with increasing distance from the prism.
Goethe saw the particular distance chosen by Newton to prove the second proposition of the Opticks as capriciously imposed." The theory we set up against this begins with colourless light, avails itself of outward conditions, to produce coloured phenomena. It does not arrogate to itself developing colours from the light, but rather seeks to prove by numberless cases that colour is produced by light as well as by what stands against it. In the preface to the Theory of Colours, Goethe explained that he tried to apply the principle of polarity, in the work—a proposition that belonged to his earliest convictions and was constitutive of his entire study of nature. Goethe's theory of the constitution of colours of the spectrum has not proved to be an unsatisfactory theory, rather it isn't a theory at all. Nothing can be predicted with it, it is, rather a vague schematic outline of the sort. Nor is there any experimentum crucis which could decide for or against the theory, it is hard to present Goethe's "theory".
Instead of setting up models and explanations, Goethe collected specimens—he was responsible for the meteorological collections of Jena University. By the time of his death, he had amassed over 17,800 minerals in his personal collection—the largest in all of Europe, he took the same approach to colour—instead of narrowing and isolating things to a single'experimentum crucis', he sought to gain as much breadth for his understanding as possible by developing a wide-ranging exposition through, revealed the essential character of colour—without having to resort to explanations and theories about perceived phenomena such as'wavelengths' or'particles'. "The crux of his color theory is its experiential source: rather than impose theoretical statements, Goethe sought to allow light and color to be displayed in an ordered series of experiments that readers could experience for themselves." (Sea
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Johann Wolfgang Goethe was a German writer and statesman. His works include four novels. In addition, there are numerous literary and scientific fragments, more than 10,000 letters, nearly 3,000 drawings by him extant. A literary celebrity by the age of 25, Goethe was ennobled by the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, Karl August, in 1782 after taking up residence there in November 1775 following the success of his first novel, The Sorrows of Young Werther, he was an early participant in the Sturm und Drang literary movement. During his first ten years in Weimar, Goethe was a member of the Duke's privy council, sat on the war and highway commissions, oversaw the reopening of silver mines in nearby Ilmenau, implemented a series of administrative reforms at the University of Jena, he contributed to the planning of Weimar's botanical park and the rebuilding of its Ducal Palace. In 1998 both these sites together with nine others were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site under the name Classical Weimar. Goethe's first major scientific work, the Metamorphosis of Plants, was published after he returned from a 1788 tour of Italy.
In 1791, he was made managing director of the theatre at Weimar, in 1794 he began a friendship with the dramatist and philosopher Friedrich Schiller, whose plays he premiered until Schiller's death in 1805. During this period, Goethe published Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship, his conversations and various common undertakings throughout the 1790s with Schiller, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Johann Gottfried Herder, Alexander von Humboldt, Wilhelm von Humboldt, August and Friedrich Schlegel have come to be collectively termed Weimar Classicism. The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer named Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship one of the four greatest novels written, while the American philosopher and essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson selected Goethe as one of six "representative men" in his work of the same name. Goethe's comments and observations form the basis of several biographical works, notably Johann Peter Eckermann's Conversations with Goethe. Goethe's father, Johann Caspar Goethe, lived with his family in a large house in Frankfurt an Imperial Free City of the Holy Roman Empire.
Though he had studied law in Leipzig and had been appointed Imperial Councillor, he was not involved in the city's official affairs. Johann Caspar married Goethe's mother, Catharina Elizabeth Textor at Frankfurt on 20 August 1748, when he was 38 and she was 17. All their children, with the exception of Johann Wolfgang and his sister, Cornelia Friederica Christiana, born in 1750, died at early ages, his father and private tutors gave Goethe lessons in all the common subjects of their time languages. Goethe received lessons in dancing and fencing. Johann Caspar, feeling frustrated in his own ambitions, was determined that his children should have all those advantages that he had not. Although Goethe's great passion was drawing, he became interested in literature, he had a lively devotion to theater as well and was fascinated by puppet shows that were annually arranged in his home. He took great pleasure in reading works on history and religion, he writes about this period: I had from childhood the singular habit of always learning by heart the beginnings of books, the divisions of a work, first of the five books of Moses, of the'Aeneid' and Ovid's'Metamorphoses'....
If an busy imagination, of which that tale may bear witness, led me hither and thither, if the medley of fable and history and religion, threatened to bewilder me, I fled to those oriental regions, plunged into the first books of Moses, there, amid the scattered shepherd tribes, found myself at once in the greatest solitude and the greatest society. Goethe became acquainted with Frankfurt actors. Among early literary attempts, he was infatuated with Gretchen, who would reappear in his Faust and the adventures with whom he would concisely describe in Dichtung und Wahrheit, he adored Caritas Meixner, a wealthy Worms trader's daughter and friend of his sister, who would marry the merchant G. F. Schuler. Goethe studied law at Leipzig University from 1765 to 1768, he detested learning age-old judicial rules by heart, preferring instead to attend the poetry lessons of Christian Fürchtegott Gellert. In Leipzig, Goethe fell in love with Anna Katharina Schönkopf and wrote cheerful verses about her in the Rococo genre.
In 1770, he anonymously released his first collection of poems. His uncritical admiration for many contemporary poets vanished as he became interested in Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and Christoph Martin Wieland. At this time, Goethe wrote a good deal, but he threw away nearly all of these works, except for the comedy Die Mitschuldigen; the restaurant Auerbachs Keller and its legend of Faust's 1525 barrel ride impressed him so much that Auerbachs Keller became the only real place in his closet drama Faust Part One. As his studies did not progress, Goethe was forced to return to Frankfurt at the close of August 1768. Goethe became ill in Frankfurt. Durin
"Erlkönig" is a poem by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. It depicts the death of a child assailed by a supernatural being, the Erlkönig half-translated as "Erlking", though the eponymous character is some kind of demon or'fairy king', it was composed by Goethe as part of a 1782 Singspiel entitled Die Fischerin. "Erlkönig" has been called Goethe's "most famous ballad". The poem has been set to music by several composers, most notably by Franz Schubert. An anxious young boy is being carried at night by his father on horseback. To where is not spelled out; the lack of specificity of the father's social position, beyond owning a horse, allows the reader to imagine the details. The opening line tells that the time is unusually late and the weather unusually inclement for travel; as it becomes apparent that the boy is delirious, a possibility is that the father is rushing him to medical aid. As the poem unfolds, the son seems to hear beings his father does not; the child shrieks that he has been attacked. The father rides faster to the Hof.
There, he recognizes. The story of the Erlkönig derives from the traditional Danish ballad Elveskud: Goethe's poem was inspired by Johann Gottfried Herder's translation of a variant of the ballad into German as Erlkönigs Tochter in his collection of folk songs, Stimmen der Völker in Liedern. Goethe's poem took on a life of its own, inspiring the Romantic concept of the Erlking. Niels Gade's cantata Elverskud, Op. 30 was published in translation as Erlkönigs Tochter. The Erlkönig's nature has been the subject of some debate; the name translates from the German as "Alder King" rather than its common English translation, "Elf King". It has been suggested that Erlkönig is a mistranslation from the original Danish elverkonge, which does mean "king of the elves." In the original Scandinavian version of the tale, the antagonist was the Erlkönig's daughter rather than the Erlkönig himself. The poem has been set to music with Franz Schubert's rendition, his Opus 1, being the best known; the next best known is that of Carl Loewe.
Other notable settings are by members of Goethe's circle, including the actress Corona Schröter, Andreas Romberg, Johann Friedrich Reichardt and Carl Friedrich Zelter. Ludwig van Beethoven abandoned the effort. A few other nineteenth-century versions are those by Václav Tomášek and Louis Spohr and Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst. 21st century examples are pianist Marc-André Hamelin's "Etude No. 8" for solo piano, based on "Erlkönig". Franz Schubert composed his Lied "Erlkönig" for solo voice and piano at the age of 17 or 18 in 1815, setting text from Goethe's poem. Schubert revised the song three times before publishing his fourth version in 1821 as his Opus 1; the song was first performed in concert on 1 December 1820 at a private gathering in Vienna and received its public premiere on 7 March 1821 at Vienna's Theater am Kärntnertor. The four characters in the song – narrator, father and the Erlking – are all sung by a single vocalist. Schubert placed each character in a different vocal range, each has his own rhythmic nuances.
The Narrator begins in the minor mode. The Father sings in both minor and major mode; the Son lies in a higher range in the minor mode. The Erlking's vocal line, in the major mode, provides the only break from the ostinato bass triplets in the accompaniment until the boy's death. A fifth character, the horse, is implied in rapid triplet figures played by the pianist throughout the work, mimicking hoof beats."Erlkönig" starts with the piano playing rapid triplets to create a sense of urgency and simulate the horse's galloping. The left hand of the piano part introduces a low-register leitmotif composed of rising scale in triplets and a falling arpeggio; the moto perpetuo triplets continue throughout the entire song except for the final three bars, comprise the uninterrupted repeated chords or octaves in the right hand, established at the opening. The Erlkönig's verses differ in their accompanying figurations but are still based on triplets; each of the Son's pleas becomes higher in pitch. Near the end of the piece, the music quickens and slows as the Father spurs his horse to go faster and arrives at his destination.
The absence of the piano creates multiple effects on the music. The silence draws attention to the dramatic text and amplifies the immense loss and sorrow caused by the Son's death; the song has a tonal scheme based on rising semitones which portrays the desperate situation: The'Mein Vater, mein Vater' music appears three times on a prolonged dominant 7th chord that slips chromatical