2001: A Space Odyssey (film)
2001: A Space Odyssey is a 1968 epic science fiction film produced and directed by Stanley Kubrick. The screenplay was written by Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke, was inspired by Clarke's short story "The Sentinel". A novel called 2001: A Space Odyssey, written concurrently with the screenplay, was published soon after the film was released; the film, which follows a voyage to Jupiter with the sentient computer HAL after the discovery of a mysterious black monolith affecting human evolution, deals with themes of existentialism, human evolution, artificial intelligence, the possibility of extraterrestrial life. The film is noted for its scientifically accurate depiction of spaceflight, pioneering special effects, ambiguous imagery. Sound and dialogue are used sparingly and in place of traditional cinematic and narrative techniques; the soundtrack incorporates a number of pieces of classical music, among them Also sprach Zarathustra by Richard Strauss, "The Blue Danube" by Johann Strauss II, works by Aram Khachaturian and György Ligeti.
2001: A Space Odyssey was financed and distributed by American studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, but filmed and edited entirely in England, where Kubrick lived, using the facilities of MGM-British Studios and Shepperton Studios. MGM subcontracted the film to Kubrick's production company in order to qualify for the Eady Levy, a UK tax on box-office receipts used to fund the production of films in Britain at the time; the film received mixed reactions from critics and audiences upon its release, but garnered a cult following and became the highest-grossing North American film of 1968. It was nominated for four Academy Awards. A sequel, 2010: The Year We Make Contact, directed by Peter Hyams, was released in 1984. 2001: A Space Odyssey is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential films made. In 1991, it was deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry. Sight & Sound magazine ranked 2001: A Space Odyssey sixth in the top ten films of all time in its 2002 and 2012 critics' polls editions.
In 2010, it was named the greatest film of all time by The Moving Arts Film Journal. In an African desert millions of years ago, a tribe of hominids is driven away from its water hole by a rival tribe, they awaken to find a featureless black monolith. Influenced by the monolith, they discover how to use a bone as a weapon and drive their rivals away from the water hole. Millions of years a Pan Am spaceplane carries Dr. Heywood Floyd to the huge Space Station V orbiting Earth for a layover on his trip to Clavius Base, a United States outpost on the Moon. After Floyd has a videophone call with his daughter, he deflects questions from his Soviet scientist friend and her colleague about rumors of a mysterious epidemic at Clavius. Floyd speaks to a meeting of Clavius personnel, apologizing for the epidemic cover story but stressing secrecy, his mission is to investigate a found artifact buried four million years ago near the crater Tycho. Floyd and others ride in a Moonbus to the artifact, a monolith identical to the one encountered by the ape-men.
Sunlight strikes a loud high-pitched radio signal is heard. Eighteen months the United States spacecraft Discovery One is bound for Jupiter. On board are mission pilots and scientists Dr. David Bowman and Dr. Frank Poole, along with three other scientists in suspended animation. Most of Discovery's operations are controlled by the ship's computer, a HAL 9000 with a human personality that the crew calls "Hal". Hal says he is "foolproof and incapable of error". Hal raises concerns about the nature of the mission to Bowman, but their conversation is interrupted when Hal reports the imminent failure of an antenna control device; the astronauts find nothing wrong. Hal suggests letting it fail so the problem can be found. Mission Control advises the astronauts that results from their twin HAL 9000 indicate that Hal is in error about the device's imminent failure. Hal says. Concerned about Hal's behavior and Poole enter an EVA pod to talk without Hal overhearing, agree to disconnect Hal if he is proven wrong.
Hal secretly follows their conversation by lip reading. While Poole is on a space walk outside his EVA pod attempting to replace the unit, Hal takes control of the pod, severs his oxygen hose and sets him adrift. Bowman takes another pod to rescue Poole. Meanwhile, Hal turns off the life support functions of the crewmen in suspended animation; when Bowman returns to the ship with Poole's body, Hal refuses to let him in, stating that the astronauts' plan to deactivate him jeopardizes the mission. Bowman opens the ship's emergency airlock manually, enters the ship, proceeds to Hal's processor core. Hal tries to reassure Bowman pleads with him to stop, expresses fear; as Bowman deactivates the circuits controlling Hal's higher intellectual functions, Hal regresses to his earliest programmed memory, the song "Daisy Bell", which he sings for Bowman. When Bowman disconnects Hal, a prerecorded video message from Floyd plays, revealing that the mission's true objective is to investigate a radio signal, sent from a lunar artifact to Jupiter.
Only Hal and the hibernating crew had been told this. At Jupiter, Bowman leaves Discovery One in an EVA pod to investigate another monolith orbiting the planet; the pod is pulled into a vortex of colored light, the Star Gate, Bowman races across vas
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter
The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter is a NASA robotic spacecraft orbiting the Moon in an eccentric polar mapping orbit. Data collected by LRO has been described as essential for planning NASA's future human and robotic missions to the Moon, its detailed mapping program is identifying safe landing sites, locating potential resources on the Moon, characterizing the radiation environment, demonstrating new technologies. Launched on June 18, 2009, in conjunction with the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite, as the vanguard of NASA's Lunar Precursor Robotic Program, LRO was the first United States mission to the Moon in over ten years. LRO and LCROSS were launched as part of the United States's Vision for Space Exploration program; the probe has made a 3-D map of the Moon's surface at 100-meter resolution and 98.2% coverage, including 0.5-meter resolution images of Apollo landing sites. The first images from LRO were published on July 2, 2009, showing a region in the lunar highlands south of Mare Nubium.
The total cost of the mission is reported as US$583 million, of which $504 million pertains to the main LRO probe and $79 million to the LCROSS satellite. Developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, LRO is a sophisticated spacecraft, its mission duration was planned for one year, but has since been extended numerous times after review by NASA. After completing a preliminary design review in February 2006 and a critical design review in November 2006, the LRO was shipped from Goddard to Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on February 11, 2009. Launch was planned for October 2008, but this slid to April as the spacecraft underwent testing in a thermal vacuum chamber. Launch was rescheduled for June 17, 2009, because of the delay in a priority military launch, happened one day on June 18; the one-day delay was to allow the Space Shuttle Endeavour a chance to lift off for mission STS-127 following a hydrogen fuel leak that canceled an earlier planned launch. Areas of investigation include selenodetic global topography.
In addition, LRO has provided images and precise locations of landers and equipment from previous American and Russian lunar missions, including the Apollo sites. The orbiter carries a complement of six instruments and one technology demonstration: Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation The primary goal of the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation is to characterize the global lunar radiation environment and its biological impacts. Diviner The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment measures lunar surface thermal emission to provide information for future surface operations and exploration. Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project The Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project peers into permanently shadowed craters in search of water ice, using ultraviolet light generated by stars as well as the hydrogen atoms that are thinly spread throughout the Solar System. Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector The Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector provides measurements, creates maps, detects possible near-surface water ice deposits.
Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation provides a precise global lunar topographic model and geodetic grid. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera addresses the measurement requirements of landing site certification and polar illumination. LROC comprises a pair of a single wide-angle camera. LROC has flown several times over the historic Apollo lunar landing sites at 50 km altitude; the mission is returning 70–100 terabytes of image data. It is expected that this photography will boost public acknowledgement of the validity of the landings, further discredit Apollo conspiracy theories. Mini-RF The Miniature Radio Frequency radar demonstrated new lightweight SAR and communications technologies and located potential water-ice. Prior to the LRO's launch, NASA gave members of the public the opportunity to have their names placed in a microchip on the LRO; the deadline for this opportunity was July 31, 2008. About 1.6 million names were submitted.
On June 23, 2009, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter entered into orbit around the Moon after a four-and-a-half-day journey from the Earth. When launched, the spacecraft was aimed at a point ahead of the Moon's position. A mid-course correction was required during the trip in order for the spacecraft to enter Lunar orbit. Once the spacecraft reached the far side of the Moon, its rocket motor was fired in order for it to be captured by the Moon's gravity into an elliptical lunar orbit. A series of four rocket burns over the next four days put the satellite into its commissioning phase orbit where each instrument was brought online and tested. On September 15, 2009, the spacecraft started its primary mission by orbiting the Moon at about 50 km for one year. After completing its one-year exploration phase, in September 2010, LRO was handed over to NASA's Science Mission Directorate to continue the science phase of the mission, it will continue in its 50 km circular orbit, but will be transitioned into a fuel-conserving elliptical orbit for the remainder of the mission.
NASA's LCROSS mis
Lunar Orbiter 4
Lunar Orbiter 4 was an unmanned U. S. spacecraft, part of the Lunar Orbiter Program, designed to orbit the Moon, after the three previous orbiters had completed the required needs for Apollo mapping and site selection. It was given a more general objective, to "perform a broad systematic photographic survey of lunar surface features in order to increase the scientific knowledge of their nature and processes, to serve as a basis for selecting sites for more detailed scientific study by subsequent orbital and landing missions", it was equipped to collect selenodetic, radiation intensity, micrometeoroid impact data. The spacecraft was placed in a cislunar trajectory and injected into an elliptical near polar high lunar orbit for data acquisition; the orbit was 2,706 by 6,111 kilometres with an inclination of 85.5 degrees and a period of 12 hours. After initial photography on May 11, 1967 problems started occurring with the camera's thermal door, not responding well to commands to open and close.
Fear that the door could become stuck in the closed position covering the camera lenses led to a decision to leave the door open. This required extra attitude control maneuvers on each orbit to prevent light leakage into the camera which would ruin the film. On May 13 it was discovered that light leakage was damaging some of the film, the door was tested and closed; some fogging of the lens was suspected due to condensation resulting from the lower temperatures. Changes in the attitude raised the temperature of the camera and eliminated the fogging. Continuing problems with the readout drive mechanism starting and stopping beginning on May 20 resulted in a decision to terminate the photographic portion of the mission on May 26. Despite problems with the readout drive the entire film was transmitted; the spacecraft acquired photographic data from May 11 to 26, 1967, readout occurred through June 1, 1967. The orbit was lowered to gather orbital data for the upcoming Lunar Orbiter 5 mission. A total of 419 high-resolution and 127 medium-resolution frames were acquired, covering 99% of the Moon's near side at resolutions from 58 to 134 metres.
Accurate data was acquired from all other experiments throughout the mission. Radiation data showed increased dosages due to solar particle events producing low energy protons; the spacecraft was used for tracking until it struck the lunar surface due to the natural decay of the orbit no than October 31, 1967, between 22–30 degrees W longitude. Lunar Orbiter Image Recovery Project Exploration of the Moon Lunar Orbiter 1 Lunar Orbiter 2 Lunar Orbiter 3 Lunar Orbiter 5 DESTINATION MOON: A history of the Lunar Orbiter Program 1976 Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery - Mission 4 at the Lunar and Planetary Institute
Clavius Base is a fictional lunar settlement in the Space Odyssey literary universe created by Arthur C. Clarke; the base, located at Clavius crater, is featured in both the novel and film versions of 2001: A Space Odyssey. According to the novel, the base was finished in 1994 by United States Astronautical Engineering Corps. If necessary, the base can be self-sustaining; as depicted on screen, Clavius Base features some surface features, but the vast majority of the base is located beneath the Lunar surface to protect it from micro-meteoroid impacts and solar radiation. Incoming spacecraft set down on a landing platform beneath a dome which opens as the vessel descends; the landing platform is part of an enormous elevator, which lowers the spacecraft into a cavernous docking bay, illuminated in red. Clavius Base is the central focus of American activities on the Moon, is under the control of the United States Astronautics Agency. Clavius Base was placed under a quarantine with the cover story of an epidemic when the Tycho Magnetic Anomaly TMA-1 artifact was excavated.
Dr. Heywood R. Floyd traveled to the base to investigate the monolith about 18 months prior to the departure of the spacecraft Discovery on her mission to Jupiter. While present at the base, Dr. Floyd met with American lunar officials and notified them that the government was requiring individual security oaths to be taken from each individual on the base. Following his meeting with officials at Clavius, Floyd departed for the crater Tycho on the Moonbus. Although not a reuse of the Clavius model, the similar Moonbase Alpha from the TV series Space: 1999 is designed using the same concept as Clavius, it is located in Plato. In Larry Niven's Rainbow Mars, mention is made of a city in Clavius Crater a reference to Clavius Base from 2001. Stephen Baxter, a collaborator of Clarke's mentions a Clavius Base on the Moon in his Doctor Who novel The Wheel of Ice; the BBC Radio 4 adaptation of Clarke's Rendezvous with Rama has the ship Endeavour landing at Clavius Base following the end of its mission to Rama.
There is a Clavius Base as well as a Pico Base on the Moon in Erich Dolezal's Mond in Flammen, published in 1954. Clavius Base was the initial name of Tom Hanks's film production company; that Thing You Do! and From the Earth to the Moon were the only projects from his company under that name.
Maginus is an ancient lunar impact crater located in the southern highlands to the southeast of the prominent crater Tycho. It is a large formation three quarters the diameter of Clavius, which lies to the southwest. Just to the north of Maginus is the smaller crater Proctor, to the southeast is Deluc; the rim of Maginus is eroded, with impact-formed incisions, multiple overlapping craters across the eastern side. The wall is broken through in the southeast by a worn crater. Little remains of the original features that formed the rim of Maginus, it no longer possesses an outer rampart; the floor is flat, with a pair of low central peaks. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint, closest to Maginus. Wood, Chuck. "A Little Clavius". Lunar Photo of the Day. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-04
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite. It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System, the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits; the Moon is after Jupiter's satellite Io the second-densest satellite in the Solar System among those whose densities are known. The Moon is thought to have formed not long after Earth; the most accepted explanation is that the Moon formed from the debris left over after a giant impact between Earth and a Mars-sized body called Theia. The Moon is in synchronous rotation with Earth, thus always shows the same side to Earth, the near side; the near side is marked by dark volcanic maria that fill the spaces between the bright ancient crustal highlands and the prominent impact craters. After the Sun, the Moon is the second-brightest visible celestial object in Earth's sky, its surface is dark, although compared to the night sky it appears bright, with a reflectance just higher than that of worn asphalt.
Its gravitational influence produces the ocean tides, body tides, the slight lengthening of the day. The Moon's average orbital distance is 1.28 light-seconds. This is about thirty times the diameter of Earth; the Moon's apparent size in the sky is the same as that of the Sun, since the star is about 400 times the lunar distance and diameter. Therefore, the Moon covers the Sun nearly during a total solar eclipse; this matching of apparent visual size will not continue in the far future because the Moon's distance from Earth is increasing. The Moon was first reached in September 1959 by an unmanned spacecraft; the United States' NASA Apollo program achieved the only manned lunar missions to date, beginning with the first manned orbital mission by Apollo 8 in 1968, six manned landings between 1969 and 1972, with the first being Apollo 11. These missions returned lunar rocks which have been used to develop a geological understanding of the Moon's origin, internal structure, the Moon's history. Since the Apollo 17 mission in 1972, the Moon has been visited only by unmanned spacecraft.
Both the Moon's natural prominence in the earthly sky and its regular cycle of phases as seen from Earth have provided cultural references and influences for human societies and cultures since time immemorial. Such cultural influences can be found in language, lunar calendar systems and mythology; the usual English proper name for Earth's natural satellite is "the Moon", which in nonscientific texts is not capitalized. The noun moon is derived from Old English mōna, which stems from Proto-Germanic *mēnô, which comes from Proto-Indo-European *mḗh₁n̥s "moon", "month", which comes from the Proto-Indo-European root *meh₁- "to measure", the month being the ancient unit of time measured by the Moon; the name "Luna" is used. In literature science fiction, "Luna" is used to distinguish it from other moons, while in poetry, the name has been used to denote personification of Earth's moon; the modern English adjective pertaining to the Moon is lunar, derived from the Latin word for the Moon, luna. The adjective selenic is so used to refer to the Moon that this meaning is not recorded in most major dictionaries.
It is derived from the Ancient Greek word for the Moon, σελήνη, from, however derived the prefix "seleno-", as in selenography, the study of the physical features of the Moon, as well as the element name selenium. Both the Greek goddess Selene and the Roman goddess Diana were alternatively called Cynthia; the names Luna and Selene are reflected in terminology for lunar orbits in words such as apolune and selenocentric. The name Diana comes from the Proto-Indo-European *diw-yo, "heavenly", which comes from the PIE root *dyeu- "to shine," which in many derivatives means "sky and god" and is the origin of Latin dies, "day"; the Moon formed 4.51 billion years ago, some 60 million years after the origin of the Solar System. Several forming mechanisms have been proposed, including the fission of the Moon from Earth's crust through centrifugal force, the gravitational capture of a pre-formed Moon, the co-formation of Earth and the Moon together in the primordial accretion disk; these hypotheses cannot account for the high angular momentum of the Earth–Moon system.
The prevailing hypothesis is that the Earth–Moon system formed after an impact of a Mars-sized body with the proto-Earth. The impact blasted material into Earth's orbit and the material accreted and formed the Moon; the Moon's far side has a crust, 30 mi thicker than that of the near side. This is thought to be; this hypothesis, although not perfect best explains the evidence. Eighteen months prior to an October 1984 conference on lunar origins, Bill Hartmann, Roger Phillips, Jeff Taylor challenged fellow lunar scientists: "You have eighteen months. Go back to your Apollo data, go back to your computer, do whatever you have to, but make up your mind. Don't come to our conference unless you have something to say about the Moon's birth." At the 1984 conference at Kona, the giant impact hypothesis emerged as the most consensual theory. Before the conference, there were parti
A telescope is an optical instrument that makes distant objects appear magnified by using an arrangement of lenses or curved mirrors and lenses, or various devices used to observe distant objects by their emission, absorption, or reflection of electromagnetic radiation. The first known practical telescopes were refracting telescopes invented in the Netherlands at the beginning of the 17th century, by using glass lenses, they were used for both terrestrial applications and astronomy. The reflecting telescope, which uses mirrors to collect and focus light, was invented within a few decades of the first refracting telescope. In the 20th century, many new types of telescopes were invented, including radio telescopes in the 1930s and infrared telescopes in the 1960s; the word telescope now refers to a wide range of instruments capable of detecting different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, in some cases other types of detectors. The word telescope was coined in 1611 by the Greek mathematician Giovanni Demisiani for one of Galileo Galilei's instruments presented at a banquet at the Accademia dei Lincei.
In the Starry Messenger, Galileo had used the term perspicillum. The earliest existing record of a telescope was a 1608 patent submitted to the government in the Netherlands by Middelburg spectacle maker Hans Lippershey for a refracting telescope; the actual inventor is unknown but word of it spread through Europe. Galileo heard about it and, in 1609, built his own version, made his telescopic observations of celestial objects; the idea that the objective, or light-gathering element, could be a mirror instead of a lens was being investigated soon after the invention of the refracting telescope. The potential advantages of using parabolic mirrors—reduction of spherical aberration and no chromatic aberration—led to many proposed designs and several attempts to build reflecting telescopes. In 1668, Isaac Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope, of a design which now bears his name, the Newtonian reflector; the invention of the achromatic lens in 1733 corrected color aberrations present in the simple lens and enabled the construction of shorter, more functional refracting telescopes.
Reflecting telescopes, though not limited by the color problems seen in refractors, were hampered by the use of fast tarnishing speculum metal mirrors employed during the 18th and early 19th century—a problem alleviated by the introduction of silver coated glass mirrors in 1857, aluminized mirrors in 1932. The maximum physical size limit for refracting telescopes is about 1 meter, dictating that the vast majority of large optical researching telescopes built since the turn of the 20th century have been reflectors; the largest reflecting telescopes have objectives larger than 10 m, work is underway on several 30-40m designs. The 20th century saw the development of telescopes that worked in a wide range of wavelengths from radio to gamma-rays; the first purpose built radio telescope went into operation in 1937. Since a large variety of complex astronomical instruments have been developed; the name "telescope" covers a wide range of instruments. Most detect electromagnetic radiation, but there are major differences in how astronomers must go about collecting light in different frequency bands.
Telescopes may be classified by the wavelengths of light they detect: X-ray telescopes, using shorter wavelengths than ultraviolet light Ultraviolet telescopes, using shorter wavelengths than visible light Optical telescopes, using visible light Infrared telescopes, using longer wavelengths than visible light Submillimetre telescopes, using longer wavelengths than infrared light Fresnel Imager, an optical lens technology X-ray optics, optics for certain X-ray wavelengthsAs wavelengths become longer, it becomes easier to use antenna technology to interact with electromagnetic radiation. The near-infrared can be collected much like visible light, however in the far-infrared and submillimetre range, telescopes can operate more like a radio telescope. For example, the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope observes from wavelengths from 3 μm to 2000 μm, but uses a parabolic aluminum antenna. On the other hand, the Spitzer Space Telescope, observing from about 3 μm to 180 μm uses a mirror. Using reflecting optics, the Hubble Space Telescope with Wide Field Camera 3 can observe in the frequency range from about 0.2 μm to 1.7 μm.
With photons of the shorter wavelengths, with the higher frequencies, glancing-incident optics, rather than reflecting optics are used. Telescopes such as TRACE and SOHO use special mirrors to reflect Extreme ultraviolet, producing higher resolution and brighter images than are otherwise possible. A larger aperture does not just mean that more light is collected, it enables a finer angular resolution. Telescopes may be classified by location: ground telescope, space telescope, or flying telescope, they may be classified by whether they are operated by professional astronomers or amateur astronomers. A vehicle or permanent campus containing one or more telescopes or other instruments is called an observatory. An optical telescope gathers and focuses light from the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Optical telescopes increase the apparent angular size of distant objects as well as their apparent brightness. In order for the image to be observed, photographed and sent to a computer, telescopes work by employing one or