1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
A post office is a public department that provides a customer service to the public and handles their mail needs. Post offices offer mail-related services such as acceptance of parcels. In addition, many post offices offer additional services: providing and accepting government forms, processing government services and fees, banking services; the chief administrator of a post office is called a postmaster. Prior to the advent of postal and ZIP codes, postal systems would route items to a specific post office for receipt or delivery. During the nineteenth-century, in the United States, this led to smaller communities being renamed after their post offices; the term "Post-Office" has been in use since the 1650's, shortly after the legalization of private mail services in England in 1635. In early Modern England, post riders – mounted couriers – were placed every few hours along post roads at posting houses known as post houses, between major cities; these stables or inns permitted important correspondence to travel without delay.
In early America, post offices were known as "stations". This term and "post house" fell from use as horse and coach service was replaced by railways and automobiles. Today, the term "Post Office" refers to postal facilities providing customer service; the term "General Post Office" is sometimes used for the national headquarters of a postal service if it does not provide customer service within the building. A postal facility, used for processing mail is instead known as sorting office or delivery office, which may have a large central area known as a "sorting" or "postal hall". Integrated facilities combining mail processing with railway stations or airports are known as mail exchanges. There is evidence of corps of royal couriers disseminating the decrees of the Egyptian pharaohs as early as 2,400 BC and the service may precede that date. Organized systems of post houses providing swift mounted courier service seems quite ancient, although sources vary as to who initiated the practice. By the time of the Persian Empire, a system of Chapar-Khaneh existed along the Royal Road.
The 2nd-Century BC Mauryan and Han dynasties established similar systems in China. Suetonius credited Augustus with regularizing the Cursus Publicus. Local officials were obliged to provide couriers who would be responsible for their message's entire course. Locally maintained post houses owned rest houses were obliged or honored to care for them along their way. Diocletian established two parallel systems: one providing fresh horses or mules for urgent correspondence and another providing sturdy oxen for bulk shipments. Procopius, though not unbiased, records that this system remained intact until it was dismantled in the surviving empire by Justinian in the 6th Century; the Princely House of Thurn and Taxis family initiated regular mail service from Brussels in the 16th century, directing the Imperial Post of the Holy Roman Empire. The British Postal Museum claims that the oldest functioning post office in the world is on High Street in Sanquhar, Scotland; this post office has functioned continuously since 1712, an era in which horses and stage coaches were used to carry mail.
In parts of Europe, special postal censorship offices censor mail. In France, such offices were known as cabinets noirs. In many jurisdictions, mail boxes and post office boxes have long been in widespread use for drop-off and pickup of mail and small packages outside post offices or when offices are closed. Deutsche Post introduced the Pack-Station for package delivery in 2001. In the 2000s, the United States Postal Service began to install Automated Postal Centers in many locations both in post offices and in retail locations. APCs can accept mail and small packages. General Post Office Dublin, headquarters of the Irish post and headquarters of the 1916 Easter Uprising First Toronto Post Office General Post Office, erected on the site of the Black Hole of Calcutta General Post Office in Chennai, India General Post Office in Lahore, Pakistan General Post Office, the headquarters of the Sri Lankan Post General Post Office, headquarters of the Croatian post Istanbul Main Post Office, home of the Istanbul Postal Museum James Farley Post Office, America's largest operating post office, the main office for New York City.
It bears the famous translation of Herodotus's description of the Persian postal system along its front facade: "Neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds". General Post Office, the main post office of Mumbai and one of the world's largest Polish Post Office, the scene of intense fighting during the 1939 German invasion of Danzig General Post Office Building, former headquarters of the Chunghwa Post and present home of the Shanghai Postal Museum Manila Central Post Office Taipei Post Office, the headquarters of Taiwan Post General Post Office, the headquarters of Hongkong Post Bandinelli Palace, a former post office in Lviv in the Ukraine General Post Office, the city's first "all-marbl
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Terre Haute, Indiana
Terre Haute is a city in and the county seat of Vigo County, United States, near the state's western border with Illinois. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 60,785 and its metropolitan area had a population of 170,943. Located along the Wabash River, Terre Haute is the "capital" of the Wabash Valley; the city is home to several higher education institutions, including Indiana State University, Saint Mary-of-the-Woods College, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology and Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana. Terre Haute is located alongside the eastern bank of the Wabash River in western Indiana; the city lies about 75 miles west of Indianapolis. According to the 2010 census, Terre Haute has a total area of 35.272 square miles, of which 34.54 square miles is land and 0.732 square miles is water. The Wabash River dominates the physical geography of the city. Small bluffs on the east side of city mark the edge of the historic flood plain. Lost Creek and Honey Creek drain the southern sections of the city, respectively.
In the late 19th century, several oil and mineral wells were productive in and near the center of the city. Pioneer Oil of Lawrenceville, IL, began drilling for oil at 10th and Chestnut streets on the Indiana State University campus in late December 2013, the first oil well drilled in downtown Terre Haute since 1903; that well produced oil into the 1920s. Terre Haute is at the intersection of two major roadways: U. S. 40 from California to Maryland and US 41 from Michigan to Miami, Florida. Terre Haute is located 77 miles southwest of Indianapolis and within 185 miles of Chicago, St. Louis and Cincinnati. Climate is characterized by high summer temperatures, mean winter temperatures near freezing, evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Dfa". Terre Haute's name was derived from the French phrase terre haute, meaning "Highland." It was named by French explorers in the area in the early 18th century to describe the unique location above the Wabash River.
At the time the area was claimed by the French and British, these highlands were considered the border between Canada and Louisiana. The construction of Fort Harrison in 1811 marked the known beginning of a permanent population of European-Americans. A Wea Indian village existed near the fort, the orchards and meadows they kept a few miles south of the fort became the site of the present-day city; the village of Terre Haute a part of Knox County, was platted in 1816. Terre Haute became the county seat of newly formed Vigo County in 1818, leading to increased population growth; the village's 1,000 residents voted to incorporate in 1832, followed by elevation to city status in 1853. Early Terre Haute was a center of farming and pork processing; however the business and industrial expansion of the city prior to 1860 developed thanks to transportation. The Wabash River, the building of the National Road and the Wabash and Erie Canal linked Terre Haute to the world and broadened the city's range of influence.
The economy was based on iron and steel mills, hominy plants and, late in the 19th century, distilleries and bottle makers. Coal mines and coal operating companies developed to support the railroads, yet agriculture remained predominant due to the role of corn in making alcoholic beverages and food items. With steady growth and development in the part of the 19th Century, the vibrant neighborhoods of the city benefited from improved fire protection, the founding of two hospitals, dozens of churches and a number of outlets for amusement. Terre Haute's position as an educational hub was fostered as several institutions of higher education were established; the city developed a reputation for entertainment offerings. Grand opera houses were built that hosted hundreds of theatrical performances, it became a stop on the popular vaudeville circuit. The development of the streetcar system and the electric-powered trolleys in the 1890s made it possible for residents to travel with ease to enjoy baseball games, river excursions, amusement parks and racing.
The famous "Four-Cornered" Racetrack, now the site of Memorial Stadium, was laid out in 1886 and drew the best of the country's trotters and drivers. On the evening of Easter Sunday, March 23, 1913, a major tornado struck Terre Haute at 9:45 p.m. It demolished more than 300 homes, killed twenty-one people and injured 250. Damage to local businesses and industries was estimated at $1 million to $2 million. Up to that time it was the deadliest tornado. Heavy rains followed the tornado. By midday on Tuesday, March 25, West Terre Haute was three-quarters submerged. On Saturday June 16, 1923, through to the following dawn, the largest Ku Klux Klan rally held in Indiana took place in Forest Park, five miles north of Terre Haute. A special train of eight coaches brought Klan members from Indianapolis, another came from Evansville and Vincennes, another brought 1,000 Klansmen from Muncie, it was reported tha
Henry Clay Sr. was an American attorney and statesman who represented Kentucky in both the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives, served as 7th speaker of the U. S. House of Representatives, served as the 9th U. S. secretary of state. He received electoral votes for president in the 1824, 1832, 1844 presidential elections and helped found both the National Republican Party and the Whig Party. For his role in defusing sectional crises, he earned the appellation of the "Great Compromiser." Clay was born in Hanover County, Virginia in 1777 and launched a legal career in Lexington, Kentucky in 1797. As a member of the Democratic-Republican Party, Clay won election to the Kentucky state legislature in 1803 and to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1810, he was chosen as speaker of the House in early 1811 and, along with President James Madison, led the United States into the War of 1812 against Britain. In 1814, he helped negotiate the Treaty of Ghent, which brought an end to the War of 1812.
After the war, Clay returned to his position as speaker of the House and developed the American System, which called for federal infrastructure investments, support for the national bank, protective tariff rates. In 1820, he helped bring an end to a sectional crisis over slavery by leading the passage of the Missouri Compromise. Clay finished with the fourth-most electoral votes in the multi-candidate 1824 presidential election, he helped John Quincy Adams win the contingent election held to select the president. President Adams appointed Clay to the prestigious position of secretary of state. Despite receiving support from Clay and other National Republicans, Adams was defeated by Democrat Andrew Jackson in the 1828 presidential election. Clay won election to the Senate in 1831 and ran as the National Republican nominee in the 1832 presidential election, but he was defeated by President Jackson. After the 1832 election, Clay helped bring an end to the Nullification Crisis by leading passage of the Tariff of 1833.
During Jackson's second term, opponents of the president coalesced into the Whig Party, Clay became a leading congressional Whig. Clay sought the presidency in the 1840 election but was defeated at the Whig National Convention by William Henry Harrison, he clashed with Harrison's running mate and successor, John Tyler, who broke with Clay and other congressional Whigs after taking office in 1841. Clay resigned from the Senate in 1842 and won the 1844 Whig presidential nomination, but he was defeated in the general election by Democrat James K. Polk, who made the annexation of the Republic of Texas his key issue. Clay criticized the subsequent Mexican–American War and sought the Whig presidential nomination in 1848, but was defeated by General Zachary Taylor. After returning to the Senate in 1849, Clay played a key role in passing the Compromise of 1850, which resolved a crisis over the status of slavery in the territories. Clay is regarded as one of the most important and influential political figures of his era.
Henry Clay was born on April 1777, at the Clay homestead in Hanover County, Virginia. He was the seventh of nine children born to the Reverend John Elizabeth Clay, his father, a Baptist minister nicknamed "Sir John", died in 1781, leaving left Henry and his brothers two slaves each. Clay was of English descent and his ancestor, John Clay, settled in Virginia in 1613. Clay was a distant cousin of Cassius Clay, a prominent anti-slavery activist active in the mid-19th century; the British raided Clay's home shortly after the death of his father, leaving the family in a precarious economic position. However, the widow Elizabeth Clay married Captain Henry Watkins, an affectionate stepfather and a successful planter. Elizabeth would had seven more children with Watkins, bearing a total of sixteen children. After his mother's remarriage, the young Clay remained in Hanover County, where he learned how to read and write. In 1791, Henry Watkins moved the family to Kentucky, joining his brother in the pursuit of fertile new lands in the West.
However, Clay did not follow, as Watkins secured him temporary employment in a Richmond emporium, with the promise that Clay would receive the next available clerkship at the Virginia Court of Chancery. After Clay worked in the Richmond emporium for one year, a clerkship opened up at the Virginia Court of Chancery. Clay adapted well to his new role, his handwriting earned him the attention of William & Mary professor George Wythe, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, mentor of Thomas Jefferson, judge on Virginia's High Court of Chancery. Hampered by a crippled hand, Wythe chose Clay as his secretary and amanuensis, a role in which Clay would remain for four years. Wythe had a powerful effect on Clay's worldview, Clay embraced Wythe's belief that the example of the United States could help spread human freedom around the world. Wythe arranged for Clay a position with the Virginia attorney general, Robert Brooke, with the understanding that Brooke would finish Clay's legal studies. Under Brooke's tutelage, Clay was admitted to the Virginia Bar in 1797.
On April 11, 1799, Clay married Lucretia Hart at the Hart home in Kentucky. Her father, Colonel Thomas Hart, was early settler of a prominent businessman. Hart proved to be an important business connection for Clay, as he helped Clay gain new clients and grow in professional stature. Hart was the namesake and grand-uncle of Missouri Senator Thomas Hart Benton, was related to James Brown, a prominent Louisiana politician, Isaac Shelby, the first Governor of Kentucky. Clay and Lucretia w
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal Government of the United States. The legislature consists of two chambers: the House of the Senate; the Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 senators; the House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house and vote in congressional committees, introduce legislation; the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative.
Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators. There are 100 senators representing the 50 states; each senator is elected at-large in their state for a six-year term, with terms staggered, so every two years one-third of the Senate is up for election. To be eligible for election, a candidate must be aged at least 25 or 30, have been a citizen of the United States for seven or nine years, be an inhabitant of the state which they represent; the Congress was created by the Constitution of the United States and first met in 1789, replacing in its legislative function the Congress of the Confederation. Although not mandated, in practice since the 19th century, Congress members are affiliated with the Republican Party or with the Democratic Party and only with a third party or independents. Article One of the United States Constitution states, "All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."
The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers; the Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before an impeached person can be forcibly removed from office; the term Congress can refer to a particular meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years; the Congress ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators. Scholar and representative Lee H. Hamilton asserted that the "historic mission of Congress has been to maintain freedom" and insisted it was a "driving force in American government" and a "remarkably resilient institution". Congress is the "heart and soul of our democracy", according to this view though legislators achieve the prestige or name recognition of presidents or Supreme Court justices.
One analyst argues that it is not a reactive institution but has played an active role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress: Congress reflects us in all our strengths and all our weaknesses, it reflects our regional idiosyncrasies, our ethnic and racial diversity, our multitude of professions, our shadings of opinion on everything from the value of war to the war over values. Congress is the government's most representative body... Congress is charged with reconciling our many points of view on the great public policy issues of the day. Congress is changing and is in flux. In recent times, the American south and west have gained House seats according to demographic changes recorded by the census and includes more minorities and women although both groups are still underrepresented. While power balances among the different parts of government continue to change, the internal structure of Congress is important to understand along with its interactions with so-called intermediary institutions such as political parties, civic associations, interest groups, the mass media.
The Congress of the United States serves two distinct purposes that overlap: local representation to the federal government of a congressional district by representatives and a state's at-large representation to the federal government by senators. Most incumbents seek re-election, their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent; the historical records of the House of Representatives and the Senate are maintained by the Center for Legislative Archives, a part of the National Archives and Records Administration. Congress is directly responsible for the governing of the District of Columbia, the current seat of the federal government; the First Continental Congress was a gathering of representatives from twelve of the thirteen British Colonies in North America. On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, referring to the new nation as the "United States of America"; the Articles of Confederation in 1781 created the Congress of the Confederation, a