1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Ripley County, Missouri
Ripley County is a county located in the Ozarks in the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,100; the largest city and county seat is Doniphan. The county was organized on January 5, 1833, is named after Brigadier General Eleazer Wheelock Ripley, a soldier who served with distinction in the War of 1812; the original area included what would become Oregon, Howell and Carter counties. The historic Natchitoches Trail passes through Ripley County, it was a Native American trail to the Southwest, used by pioneers including Stephen F. Austin. During the American Civil War, Ripley county was pro-Southern and provided four colonels for the Confederate Army. Several Civil War skirmishes took place in the county. Tourist areas include the Mark Twain National Forest. Located deep in the rugged, wooded hills of Southern Missouri, the area remained sparsely settled throughout the 19th century. Although organized in 1833, the county did not assume its present size until 1872; when Congress created the Territory of Missouri in 1812, what became Ripley County was in New Madrid County.
Three years Lawrence County was established, which included all of southern Missouri west of the St. Francis River and a portion of northern Arkansas; the seat of justice for Lawrence County was at Davidsonville in present-day Arkansas. In 1818 Wayne County was formed; this massive county included nearly one-fifth of the area in the Missouri Territory, with Greenville becoming the county seat. In 1833 the General Assembly created Ripley County from part of Wayne County; the county included present-day Ripley, Shannon and Howell Counties, with Van Buren as the county seat. Over the next 26 years, Ripley County’s boundaries decreased as new counties were formed: Shannon, which included today’s Oregon and Howell Counties, Carter; the last boundary change took place in 1872. Since most of the population lived in the south, voters moved the county seat to the new Doniphan, where a wooden courthouse was built; this building served the county until it was burned by Union troops, along with entire town of Doniphan, on September 19, 1864.
William Russell, a county official, had earlier removed the county's record books and hid them in a cave south of town. They remained there; because of the chaos and destruction brought about by the Civil War, the courthouse was not replaced until 1871. A two-story brick courthouse was built, using the $10,000 bond passed by the voters, it housed the administrative offices until it was destroyed by an accidental fire in January 1898. Ripley County's current courthouse was designed by William F. Schrage of Kansas City, was built by John McDonald Anderson of Emporia, Kansas in 1898–1899. A central tower destroyed during a 1929 tornado, dominated the two-story brick structure. Federal relief workers made renovations of the courthouse during the 1930s. An extensive remodeling project in the 1970s added central heating; the century-old courthouse is now listed on the National Register of Historic Places and celebrated its centennial during the 1999 Labor Day Homecoming Festivities. According to the U.
S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 632 square miles, of which 630 square miles is land and 2.1 square miles is water. Carter County Butler County Clay County, Arkansas Randolph County, Arkansas Oregon County U. S. Route 160 Route 21 Route 142 Mark Twain National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 13,509 people, 5,416 households, 3,845 families residing in the county; the population density was 22 people per square mile. There were 6,392 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.17% White, 0.04% Black or African American, 1.33% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.05% from other races, 1.17% from two or more races. 0.98% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. The major first ancestries reported in Ripley County were 34.1% American, 14.0% Irish, 11.6% German and 10.7% English. There were 5,416 households out of which 30.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.40% were married couples living together, 9.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.00% were non-families.
25.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.95. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.80% under the age of 18, 7.90% from 18 to 24, 25.30% from 25 to 44, 24.70% from 45 to 64, 17.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 94.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,285, the median income for a family was $33,101. Males had a median income of $22,056 versus $17,823 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,251. About 16.90% of families and 22.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.00% of those under age 18 and 20.40% of those age 65 or over. At the end of 2008, the unemployment rate in Ripley County was 6.4%. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives County Membership Report, Ripley County is a part of the Bible Belt with evangelical Protestantism being the majority religion.
The most predominant denominations among residents in Ripley County who adhere to a religion are Southern Baptists, Churches of Christ, Bap
Greene County, Arkansas
Greene County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 42,090; the county seat is Paragould. Greene County comprises the Paragould, AR Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Jonesboro–Paragould, AR Combined Statistical Area; the first settler in the area was Benjamin Crowley, who arrived from Kentucky in 1821 and made his home about 12 miles west of Paragould. Greene County was formed on 5 November 1833 out of portions of Lawrence County and contained parts of present Clay and Craighead counties; the county was named for Revolutionary War hero Nathanael Greene. The first county seat was in Benjamin Crowley's home. By 1836, when Arkansas became a state, the county seat was located in a settlement called "Paris". In 1848 a national highway was made through the area, the county seat was moved to Gainesville, which had a reputation as rather lawless; the seat remained there until 1883. The peoples in Gainesville opposed the move, shots were fired, since tempers were high.
The courthouse survives in downtown Paragould. In the early 20th century, Clay and Craighead counties had sundown town policies forbidding African Americans from living in the area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 580 square miles, of which 578 square miles is land and 1.9 square miles is water. Clay County Dunklin County, Missouri Craighead County Lawrence County Randolph County As of the 2010 census, there were 42,090 people residing in the county; the racial makeup of the county was 95.4% White, 0.6% Black, 0.5% Native American, 0.3% Asian, <0.1% Pacific Islander, <0.1% from some other race and 1.1% from two or more races. 2.1 % were Latino of any race. As of the 2000 census, there were 37,331 people, 14,750 households, 10,708 families residing in the county; the population density was 65 people per square mile. There were 16,161 housing units at an average density of 28 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.45% White, 0.13% Black or African American, 0.42% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.47% from other races, 1.34% from two or more races.
1.16% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 14,750 households out of which 33.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.20% were married couples living together, 9.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.40% were non-families. 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.95. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.20% under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 28.70% from 25 to 44, 23.10% from 45 to 64, 13.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,828, the median income for a family was $37,316. Males had a median income of $27,535 versus $20,375 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,403.
About 9.90% of families and 13.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.40% of those under age 18 and 12.80% of those age 65 or over. Marmaduke Paragould Delaplaine Lafe Oak Grove Heights Beech Grove Cotton Belt Fontaine Gainesville Hopewell Light Walcott Walnut Corner Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Greene County are listed below. Lake Frierson State Park List of lakes in Greene County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Greene County, Arkansas Greene County Online Paragould Regional Chamber of Commerce
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Craighead County, Arkansas
Craighead County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 96,443; the county has two county seats -- Lake City. Craighead County is Arkansas's 58th county, formed on February 19, 1859, named for state Senator Thomas Craighead, it is one of several dry counties within the state of Arkansas, in which the sale of alcoholic beverages is prohibited. Craighead County is included in AR Metropolitan Statistical Area. Craighead County was part of the territory claimed for France on April 9, 1682 by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, who laid claim to all of the land drained by the Mississippi River and its tributaries. LaSalle's claim was named Louisiana in honor of King of France; the Treaty of Fontainebleau was signed between France and Spain and ownership of the Louisiana territory west of the Mississippi River was transferred to the Spanish crown as a result of the Seven Years' War and Craighead County became a Spanish possession. Spain controlled of the territory encompassing the county until October 1, 1800 when Napoleon Bonaparte forced Spain to return the lost territories to France under the Treaty of Ildefonso.
Napoleon maintained grandiose plans to establish a vast French Empire in Louisiana but the Royal Navy prevented him from transferring troops or settlers to the acquired territories. Fear was high in the United States that Napoleon would attempt to close the Mississippi River to American trade. President Thomas Jefferson inquired about purchasing an area near the mouth of the river to ensure that it would stay open to American goods. Napoleon, needing money, offered to sell the United States the entire territory of Louisiana for $23,213,568; the treaty was finalized in 1803 and the land that would become Craighead County became the possession of the United States. Craighead County remained in the Louisiana Territory until the State of Louisiana was admitted to the Union. At that time the territory that includes modern day Arkansas was attached to the Missouri Territory. In 1813 the area was included in a new political subdivision known as Arkansas County, a political subdivision of the Arkansas District of the Territory of Missouri.
In 1815 the county was further subdivided and Lawrence County was formed with its seat at Davidsonville. This new county included most of; the modern Craighead county lay within Arkansas County and within Lawrence County. Residents of the Missouri Territory soon began petitioning Congress for admission to the Union, their request did not include the District of Arkansas and Arkansas residents petitioned for separate territorial status for their district. In 1819 the Arkansas Territory was formed. In 1838, Poinsett County was included most of present-day Craighead County; this situation persisted until 1850 when residents of the area complained about the distance to the Poinsett County seat. In 1858 State Senator William A. Jones campaign platform included a promise to seek the formation of a new county for the area, his election helped push legislation for the formation of the new county. The new county was to be formed from lands taken from Greene and Poinsett counties, it was to be named "Crowley County" in honor of Crowley's Ridge which runs through the center of the county.
Senator Thomas Craighead represented Mississippi County, opposed the bill because the farmland it took from Mississippi County was a major source of property taxes for the county. One day while Senator Craighead was away from the floor, Senator Jones amended the bill to change the county's name to "Craighead County"; the Senate, approved the bill as amended. Craighead County was formed February 19, 1859. Lake City, just across the St. Francis River from the Buffalo Island area, was added as a second county seat in 1883. In the early 20th century, Clay and Craighead counties had sundown town policies forbidding African Americans from living in the area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 713 square miles, of which 707 square miles is land and 5.5 square miles is water. Crowley's Ridge is the county's most prominent geological feature; the region is served by the Jonesboro Municipal Airport. Scheduled commercial flights between Jonesboro and St. Louis Lambert International Airport, are offered daily by Air Choice One.
Greene County Dunklin County, Missouri Mississippi County Poinsett County Jackson County Lawrence County As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 82,148 people, 32,301 households, 22,093 families residing in the county. The population density was 116 people per square mile. There were 35,133 housing units at an average density of 49 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 89.27% White, 7.78% Black or African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.60% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.93% from other races, 1.06% from two or more races. 2.12% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 32,301 households out of which 32.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.30% were married couples living together, 11.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.60% were non-families. 25.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.10% had someone l
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol